War with Napoleonic France (compendium)

Since the Revolution, Consulate and Empire, France fought against a coalition of seven European countries. Six of which was on board during Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1815), who in 1804 proclaimed himself emperor of France. Napoleonic Wars, which continued the war the French Revolution, significantly changed the political map of Europe. In addition to the outstanding military talent Napoleon helped win what before it was a huge army. In 1799, she totaled 750 thousand soldiers, and in 1803-1815 he was her pryzvalosya another two million soldiers. With this army, Napoleon attempted to carry out his plan for conquering the whole of Europe.

First of all, Napoleon sought to defeat the UK and grab its colonies. However, in a sea battle near Cape Trafalgar, Admiral Nelson defeated G. Franco-Spanish fleet and saved Britain from French conquest. Focusing forces against Austria, Napoleon returned to a military success: the French occupied Vienna, and in December 1805 in the battle of Austerlitz broke the joint Russian-Austrian army. Under the terms of peace concluded after this, Napoleon gave Austria its possessions in Italy and the Balkans, and recognized him king of Italy.

1806 Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, while the Empire became Austria. In southern and western Germany, the Rhine was established under the protection of Napoleon alliance. That same year in the battle of Jena, and Napoleon defeated Prussia Auershtadtom. In Berlin, the Emperor signed a decree on "continental blockade" of England. In 1807, after defeats in Preysish-Eylau and Fridlandom to "continental blockade" was forced to join Russia. This was confirmed by the agreement concluded by Napoleon with the Russian Emperor Alexander I in Tilzyti.

Napoleon invaded in 1807 to Spain and a year later - to Portugal. This resulted in the Iberian peninsula national liberation war against the French invaders. It killed many French soldiers, but the loss of Spain and Portugal shattered Napoleon's popularity.

To establish its supremacy in Europe, Napoleon had to conquer Russia. However, his Russian campaign in 1812 ended in utter defeat of the "great army". Established after the sixth anti-French coalition defeated Napoleon and forced him to abdicate. To power in France returned to Bourbon dynasty. France losing all conquered territories to the borders and decreased in 1792 as Napoleon was sent into exile on the island of Elba.

spring of 1815 Napoleon had left Elba and landed with a thousand guards in southern France. Bourbon restoration dissatisfaction was so great that 20 days of Napoleon, who enthusiastically welcomed the return of the French victory march passed the country, went to Paris and briefly resumed its empire. "Hundred Days", as they called this period resulted in the final defeat of Napoleon's troops seventh coalition June 18, 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon abdicated a second time and finished his days in exile on St. Helena. Thus ended the era of Napoleon, which cost France more than a million lives.

Following the collapse of Napoleon's empire began work in Vienna international congress, which assembled monarchs, ministers and diplomats of all European countries except the Ottoman Empire. Participating countries have made after the Revolution and the postwar division of Europe. They were able to reach a compromise, to define borders and divisions of the principle of legitimacy - to protect the interests and rights of "legitimate dynasties. The decision, reached at the Congress laid the foundation for a new international order, known as the "Vienna System".

accordance with decisions of the Congress of Vienna:

  • France was returned to 1792 borders;
  • instead of Napoleon liquidated the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation was founded German Confederation under Austrian Presidency;
  • restored pre-war structure of Italy and Austria as a result gained predominant influence in Italian affairs;
  • went to Russia most of Napoleon created the Duchy of Warsaw, for it was fixed and Finland;
  • Norway, which had belonged to Napoleon's ally - of Denmark, was transferred to Sweden;
  • proclaimed "perpetual neutrality" of Switzerland;
  • Belgium and Holland were united in the Kingdom of The Netherlands, which together with Prussia and Austria had become a counterweight to France.

Congress of Vienna discussed the problem of protecting Europe from the revolutions and wars in the future. To this end, in September 1815 in Paris, Russian, Austrian and Prussian monarchs declared a "Holy Alliance monarchs and peoples" and promised to protect the Vienna System "by all means - from promoting peace, to military intervention. Over time, they were joined by other European countries. Countries of the Holy Alliance were collected periodically to Congress for approval of their actions. Union existed for almost 40 years. According to the decisions by prydushuvalysya armed national liberation and revolutionary movements in various countries. However, the move to stop the progress of the state could not the Holy Alliance.