French Revolution end of XVIII century. War between France and consulates directory (compendium)

In 80 years of the XVIII century. French population was 26 million people. The country is rapidly growing cities, there were new manufactory and trading company. With bankers manufactories owners, merchants and traders, lawyers, rich peasants formed a new social stratum - the bourgeoisie. Despite their wealth they are adherents to the unprivileged Third Estate remained aloof of political life.

dominant position in society representatives belonged to the first and second states - the nobility and clergy - who did not pay taxes, but were able to achieve King convenient laws. Indignant bourgeois expressed by a fair reform, but in terms of absolute monarchy could not even required to do so by the king.

the reign of Louis XVI (1774-1793 biennium), the situation in the country deteriorated. Public debt rose to 4.5 billion livriv. For his coverage was necessary to introduce new taxes. Louis XVI decided to convene the States General to get them to agree to it.

May 5, 1789 in Versailles Palace near Paris launched its General states. However, for the first time in the history of MPs expressed their disobedience to the king. Originally from the state General vyokremylysya National Congress, who declared themselves as representatives of all nations, and over time they declared their conversion to the Constituent Assembly to recognize the new order in the country.

Government of Louis XVI has collect troops to Paris. In response, Parisians revolted. July 14, 1789 they took by storm the Bastille fortress-prison in central Paris, which was the symbol of absolute power of the king. This was the beginning of the revolution that gradually engulfed the whole France.

accordance with the ideals of the Enlightenment, the National Assembly passed the Declaration of Human Rights and the citizen ", which proclaimed the principle of freedom and equality in the rights of all citizens (26 August 1789). Absolute monarchy that existed for centuries has given way to constitutional. However, and this form of government lasted longer, and as a result of rebellion August 10, 1792 France became a republic.

revolutionary events and the resulting internal strife weakened France. This advantage of its foreign rivals, who began fighting with the French revolutionaries under the banner of monarchical solidarity. On military assistance from abroad expected the French counter-revolutionaries. Revolutionaries answered this solution to combat all tyrants under the motto "Peace - the cottage, the war - the palace. April 20, 1792 France declared war on Austria. Revolutionary War started.

war has exacerbated economic and financial crisis in the country. As a result of the uprising in Paris in power dostupylysya supporters of radical measures - Jacobin club members. The country began terror vstanovyvsya regime of dictatorship, which lasted to the Revolution 27-28 July 1794

during the Directory, which came to power after the fall of the Jacobin dictatorship in France, there were significant changes. Power concentrated in the hands of "new rich" who went by the Revolution. Pillar Directory army has increased the influence of generals. One of these was Napoleon Bonaparte.

Revolutionary War who led France during this period, gradually became quite aggressive. General Bonaparte made several successful military campaigns, capturing the 1797 northern Italy.

obstacle was the French conquest of England. Singapore has decided not to start a fight with her in the sea and conquer Egypt, which was part of the Ottoman Empire lay in the way of India to the English.

In May 1798 Egypt began a campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte. At first he rozhortavsya successfully, but then thickened. From the distant Egypt Napoleon closely followed the developments in Paris.

Currently, among the "new rich" appeared plan a coup. They wanted to replace the Directory by a strong power. 1799 Napoleon suddenly returned to Paris. With its reputation as a brilliant military leader and strong man he has become an acceptable leader for implementation of this plan. Bryumera 1918 (9 November) 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte in France made a coup. The Directory was replaced by the Consulate, and became first consul Napoleon Bonaparte. This event ended the French Revolution.