§ 32. Major advances in science and technology. Public opinion, literature and art (textbook)


§ 32. Major advances in science and technology. Publicthought, literature and art

1.Development of fundamental and applied sciences

Huge impact onsociety at the end XIX - early XX Art. were advances in science and technology. It was a time of great scientificdiscoveries that led to the revision of the old ideas and the world aroundmade a revolution in science. The leading role played in scienceWestern Europe, especially England, Germany and France.

English physicist George Paget Thomson 1897opened the first elementary particles - electrons, which was part of the atom.It turned out that the atom, which was considered the last, an indivisible part of matteritself consists of small particles. Studying the effect of radioactivity, the FrenchPhysics Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie concluded that some elements of arbitrarilyradiate energy. It challenged the then understanding of the lawconservation of energy. In 1901 German physicist M. Planck found that energynot released a continuous stream, as previously thought, and some bundles -quanta. In 1911 English physicist E. Rutherford proposed the firstplanetary theory of atomic structure by which an atom inanalogous to the solar system: around the positivenucleus moving Electrons - negative particle. In 1913 this theoryadded Danish physicist N. Bohr, who introduced the idea of spasmodic transitionelectron from one orbit to another. This changing structure of the atom: itreceives or absorbs a quantum of energy. Planck and Bohr's ideas became the foundation forseparate section of modern physics - quantum mechanics.

Radically changed the traditional idea of space, timeAnd the movement. In 1905 the 26 year-old German physicist Einstein published work"To the electrodynamics of bodies," which was laid foundations of the theoryrelativity.

Einstein proved that light speed in vacuum is constant and independent of directionand the speed of light sources and is a limiting transfer of anyinteractions. During movement of the body at speeds close to light speed, itsweight increases, and the passage of time slows down. Absolute, independent ofobserver, space and time does not exist. Events that are simultaneous in onemeasurement system can be neodnochasnymy in another system of measurement. Thus,properties of space and time were dependent on the movement of material objects.Quantum mechanics and relativity undermined traditional views of physics.

New information about the structure of matter led to the emergence of newinterdisciplinary science. Electronic theory of atomic structure has allowed a differentangle look at the periodic law of chemical elements, who openedRussian scientist Dmitry Mendeleyev 1869 * It was found that the serial numberelement in the periodic system has not only chemical but also physical meaning becauseit corresponds to the number of electrons in the layers of a shell of the atom.

The close connection between physics and chemistry caused the formation of such discipline,as physical chemistry, exploring the physical phenomena during chemical reactions.

Rapidly evolved electro - and photochemistry, organic chemistrysubstances of natural origin (Biochemistry) and chemical pharmacology.

Building on the achievements of biology (the study of cellularstructure of organisms), Czech naturalist theory of G. Mendel factors that affect heredity, Germanscientist A. WeissMann and T. Morgan American scientist has created a basisGenetics - the science of the transmission of hereditary traits in plant and animal life.

Classic physiology studiescardiovascular system and digestive system made Russian scientist I.Pavlov. By examining the impact of higher nervous activity in the course of physiologicalprocesses, he developed a theory of conditioned reflexes.

The life sciences have becomegreat impetus to the development of medicine. Continuing the outstanding researchFrench bacteriologist Louis Pasteur, Institut Pasteur staffParis first developed a preventive vaccine against anthrax, chicken cholera andrabies. German microbiologist Robert Koch and his students discovered many pathogenstuberculosis, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis and established drugs against them.

Thanks to advances chemistry medicineadded several new drugs. In the arsenal of physicians were widely knownmedicines: aspirin, piramidon et al. Doctors around the world developed the foundationsscientific sanitation and hygiene, prevention measures and preventing epidemics.

2. Newmachinery and new technologies

Achieving scientific thought streamlineddevelopment of new techniques and new technologies. Come to the fore power,machine building, metallurgy, mining, chemical industry, transport.The biggest step in the energy supply of industrial production and transportwas receiving electricity on a larger scale with the help dynamomashyn,first samples which appeared in the 70's pp. XIX Art.

Technical event of great importanceis the emergence of new class motors, whichGerman inventors constructed N. Otto (1876) and R. Diesel (1897 p.). These compact, highly efficient engines which run onliquid fuel, quickly found applicationMG cars in the first Daimler and Karl Benz (1886 p., Germany) in the first plane the Wright brothers (1903 p., USA) and the first diesel locomotives (diesel locomotive)Company Klose-Shultser (1912 p., Germany).

R. Diesel


In metallurgyimportant technological inventions in the early XXArt. steel converter (tomasivskyy) method vyplavlyannya steel iron with large admixtures of sulfur and phosphorus, vyplavlyannya high-carbon steel and ferro-alloys in differentarc, then the induction electric furnace, and getting aluminum and copperby electrolysis. In 1891 in Germany launching of the first rollingstate, which granted the motion electric motors. In processing hardware was usedelectricity - and gas welding.

In the mining land spread boring devices andvrubovi disc machines with electric drive.

Industrial input-cracking process - decomposition of crudedifferent fractions of oil under high pressure and temperature - allowedreceive significant quantities of light oil fuel, especially gasoline, surelynecessary for the automotive industry. In Germany, where there was no personaloil, with 1913 gasoline produced from coal.

New methods for the expanded production of ammonianitric acid and other nitrogen compounds necessary for the production of artificialfertilizers, dyes and explosives.

In the industrial and transport construction usedquality steel grades. Increasingly used reinforced concrete. With steel andconcrete structures were constructed various buildings, bridges, tunnelssizes, viaducts.

Yes, 1905, under the Alps wasSimplonskyy tunnel laid about 20 miles long. The central partbridge, built in the Canadian city of Quebec in 1917 p., reached 550 m and the height of the New York skyscraper Woolworth, the consolidated1913, amounted to 242 mand almost twice higher than the pyramid of Cheops.

Opening the tunnel Simplonskoho


With the invention of high-boilerssuperheating steam, automatic brakes, etc. Transport has undergone major changesengineering. In 1904 it was first launched to train.

Accelerated introduction of new techniquesaccompanied by an increase of enterprises and their transition to mass productionstandardized products. The basic technology for this was Conveyorproduction. Its essence is that the working mechanisms and jobsaccording to the process, fragmented into a series of simple operationscarried out continuously. For the first time in full such technology wasused in automobile factories H. Ford (USA). Thanks to her early XX Art.they produced 300 thousand vehicles a year (halfworld production). The car was Normalitphenomenon. Along with him at the beginning XXArt. uzvychayivsya phone that he invented A.-H.Bell 1876 p., Phonograph (T.-A.Edison, 1877 p.) Radio(Marconi and Popov, 1895 p.) Cinema (Lumiere Brothers, 1895 p.) Electric lighting of streets, shops, apartments, etc. in 1881 istram, and subway and later.

Significant achievements were inmilitary technology. In 1883 the gun is an American engineer X. Maxim. Started the creation of aviation. Fleet receivedarmored ships with large caliber guns and submarines.

Maxim gun

3. Technical progress and public opinion

The revolution in science,becoming an industrial society, the crisis of traditional systems of beliefprompted a rethinking of the living conditions that have changed, and set questions about its meaning. In an environment of creativeintellectuals and activists Science shyrylysya pessimistic expectations, expectationsinevitable social upheavals. However, most people hoped forbetter. The source for this was relatively peaceful development Europe in 1871-1914 pp. andbelief in the boundless possibilities of human mind.

Some philosophers addressedclassical philosophical heritage of Hegel (neohehelyanstvo), another - to Kant (Neokantianstvo).In keeping with contemporary philosophy has been searching and Russian religious-philosophicalOpinion (D. Merezhkovsky, M. Berdyaev).

In philosophical debate oftenencountered opposing views of the theory.

Yes, American pragmatismproposed to resort to solving practical problems encountered in reallife of the "philosophical" life (A. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche)opposed rationalism. Nietzsche's main attention to the criticism of Christianityand rationalism, which supposedly "oppressed will to live." Heproposed to overcome the depressing effect through emancipation of human vitality,to pave the way to the superman who stands beyond good and evil. Such statementsNietzsche rightly qualify as a justification for violence, as undermining the positivemoral values of human civilization. At the same time the artistic intelligentsiabeginning XX Art. attracted in the works of Nietzsche's imagery, aforystychnist,mystery, prophecy.



A significant impact was teachingFrench philosopher A. Bergska onintuition, which he contrasted with the predictive knowledge andconsidered as a kind of instinct that allows to penetrate the essence of things.

Equally significant was the influence of the doctrine of psychoanalysis, the foundationwhich laid the Austrian scientist 3. Freud. The main thing in psychoanalysis - aopening of the unconscious. The doctrine of unconscious impulses, motivations, trains allowedFreud a psychotherapeutic treatment of neuroses, recoveryemotional balance of the patients. Over time, psychoanalysis has spread to philosophy, history,study of culture and art.

End XIX - Early XX Art. in Europe and the U.S. tended to be sociology - the science of developmentsociety. Some recognition received social Darwinism, according to whichsociety is determined by biological laws of naturalselection, survival of moststosovanyh.M. Weber wrote the book "The Protestant ethic and the spirit Capitalism,which convincingly argued that Protestantism playedcrucial role in the formation of capitalist relations.

Early XX Art. become a popular variety of mystical okultNo doctrine, religious philosophy and eastern religion.

4. Neoromantyzm. Nouveau

Such sentimentsreflected in the writings of many figures art and literature, looking for new ways in art. The fracture XIX-XX Art. neoromantyzm emerged that sought to synthesis andreconsideration of past cultures, mainly European.

In keepingMovement was formed literary symbolism that emerged in France. There's a 60-70pp. XIX Art. symbolism embraced and other forms of art - a theater, painting, music. The main means ofArt was considered a symbol of knowledge. The combination of real and secretsocial and individual, appeals to the myth, the search for mystical opennessnovelty and aesthetics defined symbolism. Central to it was a cult of eternal femininity,as a symbol, like the earth's highest perfection. In Russia, this artistic movementsrepresenting writers and poets Briusov W., A. Block, A. Bely, Leonid Andreev,A. Scriabin composer et al.

Interior apartments in modern style


Symbolism in artimplemented by means of plastic Nouveau, who combined different forms ofplastic arts, the universal language and the democratic ideas and the generalsynthesis - real and ideal, the nature and function.

The desire to create perfectsynthetic model evoked in architecture. The architect created the buildingfrom beginning to end - from drafting to the architectural treatment. It was providedunity of style. An example of such a synthetic work of a private home is Ryabushynskohoin Moscow, built by the architect F. Shekhtel. This extraordinary structure,ranging from subtle details of fences, facades, diversitywindow openings, painting panels on the facade and interior finishing, incenter of which are known ornamental stairs, created in the same style.Art Nouveau style in architecture combined trends dictated request Architects use the new buildingmaterials - steel, glass, concrete and simultaneously emphasize luxuryrefinement, decorative. An important feature of Art Nouveau in architecture werefocus on needs of specific social groups and the involvement of nationalelements of expression.

In theater arts, special attentionprovided the ultimate stage realization: painting scenery, uniquecostumes, choreography, stage action. They are organic,equal components in tune game actors. Theatre fullestIdeas introduced synthetic ArtsTBA.The big event in the cultural life of Europe at the beginning XXArt. were Dyahilyevski Russes in Paris, during whichophanizovuvalysya exhibitions, theatertour, meeting activists Capeof Arts. Moscow, Paris, Munich, Venicebeginning XX Art. became centersinternational exchange in art.

In the musical culture of Movementoccupied the top spot R. Wagner. Subsequentlysynthetic art searches concerned A. Scriabin (Experimentslumiere, create musical dramas - mysteries).

Early XX Art. gained great popularity of a new type of syntheticart - the cinema. Film Stars beginning century- Max Linder Charlie Chaplin - A recognition received worldwidesion. Largedumb "need special art gesture, facial expression, rhythm, combinationscenery and nature, clear characters.


5.Impressionism and the avant-gardism

Typical for the last third of Fine ArtsXIX Art. Impressionism survivedearly XX Art. deep crisis, asall other XIX Art. PrinciplesImpressionism, his method clearly defined its representatives: "See,believe, to express - that all art, I write that outfeel "- Impressionist paintings sought to paint on the decompositioncomponents, and object - a mosaic of bright spots a synthesis - the general synthetic playing their perceivedlife cycle: developmentobject. Among the most famous Impressionist - C. Monet, Renoir.

Portrait of actressи Jeanи Samarі" О.Renoir


End HYIH century. Impressionism took the new featurecurrent, whose representatives mainly relied on modern and sensual criticizedart.

French artist Paul Cezanne first vyhopyvsya beyondimpressionistic view of nature and space, initiating postimpressionism.He invented a new artistic means and in his paintings as "rozsunuv"space. In his landscapes coincide or are broken down slopes, sagvalley bend mirror water surface, etc.. If the Impressionists awakened to life and light in color imagethen went to Cezanne further. In C

V. van Gogh "Sunflower"


Postimpressionism open spacenew artistic trends, who refusedsimple reproduction of the surface seen realobjects. They soughtpenetrate into essence of the phenomenon to reveal the inner world, human nature

It's new, transitional, periodArts Development, Architectureliterature, theater. Representatives of the new trends claimed supportersavant-garde art, through which they called avant garde.

Great influence on the development of avant-gardemade cubism. The founders of this direction are considered artists P. Picasso, M.Dyusham and J. Lack.

Representatives of cubism created newform a multidimensional perspective: an object laying on the geometrical shapeartists portrayed him from all sides, showing and invisible edge. The paintingsintersected different planes and geometric shapes. Representatives of Cubismtried to find the energy center of the object, its inner meaning. Spanishand French artist Pablo Picasso worked in painting, drawing,sculpture, ceramics, set design, a lot of experimenting. Realism in itscreativity combined with the deformation and fracture of the composition.

P. Picasso "A woman who cries"


Further development of Cubism led tocreation of Russian expertsdent artist Kazimir Malevichnew direction in Avantian wide art - suprematism (from Lat. supremus - The highest). The world of his paintings - out ofbeyond the earthly dimension. On a white background like a fly geometric shapes,deprived zmistovnyh elements. The most famouswork of Kazimir Malevich - Black Square on a white background. Another founderirrelevant painting - Kandinsky worked on their abstractionbased on the characters.

Abstract and bezpredmetnist -The highest achievement of avant-garde. Representatives of the avant-garde art tried pofilosofskomujustify their work. In the philosophical writings of Malevich, Kandinsky,Skryabin stressed the play is notity embodimenttheir views in life, including their philosophy art.

K. Malevich "Black Pyatna"

K. Malevich "Black Square"

K. Malevich Self Portrait "



Still, over time, their creativeopening find embodiment in constructivism, functionalism (architecture)design.

Meanwhile, other artists, includingFrench painter A. Matis, based on the idea of modern, sought in itscreativity of nature, man. In his painting "The Dance" is shownthe harmony of heaven, earth and man; colors - blue, green, orange, state -statics, dynamics and a combination of the rapid dance.

A. Matis "Dance"


So, clearly avant-gardetraces the two main directions: one facing the future, the other returnedto human nature.


6. Literature. Ideashumanism in the works of writers

Brilliant penetration into the world of human creativity markedchist Russian writer Л. Tolstoy(1828-1910), In90 pp. XIX Art. he worked on novel"Resurrection", which intensified the social criticism of the writer,his disagreement with the ruling morality.In art і journalistic writings top XXArt. (Haji-Murat, After the Ball, "" Why? "Etc.).were displayeding events that most alarmedRussian society. The ideas of humanism, not only permeated the work of L.Tolstoy but also motivated him to charitable activities.

L. Tolstoy


English writer Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) wrote several works,critical practices which reproduced the contemporary world. Sometimes socialorientation of inferior form of sophistication, but well writtencharacters of heroes, persuasiveness, a high level of aesthetic works providedthem a long life. Still at the theater put Ukraine plays Oscar Wilde"An Ideal Husband, The Importance of Being serious, and others. Lives of ordinary people were on the novels of French writer Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893). Hisnovelistyka had a great influence on the genre. Humanistic Ideas received a clear implementation works Maupassantfor premium by skill, knowledge of the humanpsyche, the ability to capture and comprehensively potsinuvaty complex phenomena of social life.Unusual human destiny, its dependence on the prevailing morality in societyMaupassant revealed in the novels of "Life," "Dear friend,"Pierre and Jean.

Guy de Maupassant


Early works of French writerEmile Zola (1840-1902) markedromanticism. In time of social search - biological patterns inthe life of people he came to create broad canvas of the brightestevents in the history of France. Through the prism of vision of individual states and specificheroes E. Zola described the contradictions of contemporary society, opened the spiritualPoverty and moneymaking one, spiritual greatness and generosity of others.

Artists and literaturelimits XIX-XX Art. alarmed not only the purely artistic problems, but alsosocial injustice colonialism, militarismand war - all the complexities and contradictions of life. Anxiety evesocial change, foreboding thunderstorms seemed vypovnyuvaly atmosphere of the time. Inmany writers these feelings generated mood of pessimism, melancholy. It found reflection in their work, wheredistinctly felt tendency to lawless public criticismsystem, human relations, the fate of the creative person in society.

Emile Zola


Questions and Tasks

1.      The meaningscientific discoveries in the field of basic sciences?

2.      Describe the most importantadvances in science and technology, show their practical value.

3.      What is the impact on the spirituallife of various strata of the population rendered the formation of the Industrialsociety?

4.      Express your attitudeto the various currents of public opinion end XIX - beginning XX cm.

5.      In the examples of writers,Artists, composers, architects show that moral values werethe basis of culture.

6.              What new trends inliterature and art have appeared at the turn of XIX-XX cm. ? What was their nature?

7.              On the basis of additionalsources, prepare a story about the life and work of one of the world figuresculture of the late XIX - beginning XX cm.