§ 29. India end XIX - Early XX Art.Colonization of Africa
1. India - the jewel in the crown of English
India has long attracted attentionmerchants, European monarchs, various adventurers. Portuguese, Spanish, English,French tried to gain a foothold on the peninsula Hindustan. The most successfulreached the English East - India Company, which became the supreme authority onPeninsula. All the wealth of the country were inher hands. In 1784 there were double of India, Calcutta refueledGovernor-General, who represented the Queen, and in Madras and Bombayappeared with governors by post clerks, soldiers, who weredesignees. East India Company established a system of tax preyexploitation of farmers and local landowners knyapharynx. The company itself conquered almost all principality, collected taxeskiPurchase and through intermediaries.
Robbery wealth of the country,atrocities of the colonialists were the subject of litigation in the UK.Scandalous was several years in the processcase of the former Governor-General W. Hastings, who robbedTreasury of Indian princes. This did not hrebuvala and the Queen Victoria, whichappropriated the famous diamond Koh-i-Noor, which was exported to Englandminor Maharaja (Prince) Sikhs. Repeatedly against the predatorycompany policy, which proved an Indian village to ruin and hunger, aroselocal population. Most exploded in 1857-1858 pp., Called Sypayskoho (SIPA - Indiansoldiers who served in the British colonial army).
Sepoy rebellion Prydushyvshy UnitedBritain had some reforms aimed atwas the elimination of all that cleaning theseKalo most outrage Indians. InWas eliminated in 1858 the East India Company. India came under the authority of the crown.Governor General of India began to be called vice-king. Colonial Policymanagement has conducted the Council of Ministers. In 1876 Queen Victoria wasEmpress of India.
Aftersepoy rebellion in the country of English government passed a law onpermanent lease. According to the Law peasantTenant could become the owner of leased land could bring in if court that this was destiny, he is constantly rentedover at least 13 years. This law is confusing and complicated uporyadkovuvavsystem agricultural relationscreated by colonizers on the basis of the preservation of peasant communities and traditionalState ownership of land. By lawLandowner - zamindar land handed parts for rent intermediaries. Of these (permanent tenants)undertook installation locations for rentframe established by law. In turn,permanent tenants might give land to peasants insublease, taking charge for it arbitrarily.
Indian society was divided byreligious, caste and ethnic-language signs that they were used incolonialists for their own purposes.
For example, the Anglo-IndianArmy 1 / 3 consisted of Muslim regiments, 1 / 3 - Sikhs and 1 / 3 -Hindus who enmity among themselves. Itgave the opportunity to revolt if 1 / 3 its military involvementsuppression of 2 / 3 of the armed forces.
The basiscaste system lay inherited from ancient times division of society into three "clean" castes: Brahmin (priests), Kshatriya(Warriors), vayshi (farmers, merchants, craftsmen) and one "evil" -Shudra (servants of the servants).
End XIX Art. despite all the efforts of Englishmen, caste system prevailed,although it has undergone some changes. Caste division is often not the same as the occupationpeople.
In the second half XIX - Early XX Art. economic importance of India to England started to grow. Indiabecame a place of profitable investment of capital. Here Railways (earlyXX Art. - 30 thousand km)processing establishments (tea, coffee, jute, etc...)
End XIX Art. began to form a national industry. На 1911 in India, there were 200 textile enterprises belongingnational capital. The largest Indian businessman was Tata.
Despite some successes,Industrial production was poorly developed. Workers were 1% of the population,and the local bourgeoisie was the most kompradorsky.
Agricultural production inIndia gradually pereoriyentovuvalosya к to supply industry with raw materials in English.
George V іQueen Mariaія during coronationіonnohoinіzytу in India. Redиand Fort, Delі. 12 Decemberя 1911 р.
In the first decade XX Art. number of employed persons in agriculture increased even more with66 to 72%. This was due to escape the urban population of the cities where it was destroyedtraditional way (ruin craftsmen), and the new industry could notabsorb all those who lost livelihoods. Cities have become the centershunger and poverty, while XIX Art. such centers were rural.
2. National Liberation Movement. Indian Activitiesnanal Congress
BecomingIndian nation is the very foundation on which there was very strongliberation movement. In 70 to 80 pp. among Indian intellectuals spread patrioticmood. She began to join in cultural and educational organizations, theirParticipants called for a return to ancient beliefs ("back toLeading "), rejected caste division of Indian society, proclaimingequality of men and nations to put the revival of Indian culture.At the same time demands put forward by creating a European educational system, conductingSocial reforms, accelerating developmentIndian industry. In 1885 conscious leaders unitedIndian National Congress (INC.). His first was a founding congresssymbol of the unity of India, delegates from various nations of India becausecommunicate in English.
The British reacted favorably до INC., but later attitude to it changed.
In advanced INC. was moderate liberal wing, whichestablished the following objectives:
• protection of national industries;
• tax cuts;
• creation of bank credit;
• extension of self and an elected representative.
Left wing inINC. headed by Mr Tilak (1856-1920), who corpusclesee the family of Brahman. He graduated from the LawUniversity, spoke the total elimination of Englishcolonial domination, but by peaceful means, was strongly objectsSocial reforms, called back tonational sources - Hinduism.
Tilak strictly adhered castelaws, organized religious holidays. Byits activities in 1897 was sentenced Englandprone to hard labor.Worldwide protests and forced the colonial Indian public releaseTilak.
Beginning XX Art. marked the rise of national liberationmovement. This was caused by a number of factors: organizational design movement, strengtheningnational capital; performances workingclass as an independent force, strengthening farmers speeches against feudalorders; colonial policy, including the viceroy Curzon.
Early XX Art. Curzon took a number of laws that became the impetus formass public appearances: dissolved the elected municipality in Calcutta;doubled the fees in highereducational institutions; passed a law on the division of Bengal into two administrativeunit. This was the last straw that can washpovnylathe cup and stirred the people of Indian society.
The maincenters of mass movements were Bengal, Punjab and Bombay. At the suggestion INC. October 16, 1905 in Bengal was conducted and supported by the whole country nationalmourning (the factychno - a nationwide strike) in protest againstthe division of Bengal.
Started the movement "Swadeshi" -boycott of British goods.
In a nationwide rise 1NK advancedslogan "Swaraj" - of Indian self-government within the BritishEmpire such as Canada and Australia.
In 1907 the movement of "Swadeshi" movement began to grow into"Swaraj".
The culmination of national liberationmovement was a political strike in Bombay in July 1908
To suppress the mass population of the colonial appearances government resorted to repressive measures. Even in 1907adopted the law of the rebels, who banned rallies anddemonstrations, and 1908 - the law under which closed newspapers"Incited the rebellion. "TheBased on this law Tilak was arrested and over which was arrangedpolitical process, which attracted attention throughout the country.
PartialityBritish judges and jurors outraged landwell. In Bombay, he began a general political strike: stop workbusinesses, shops, schools. Demonstrations and rallies expandsin clashes with police.
Bombay strike, raisingnational liberation movement in the countryforced the colonial government to make concessions: increaseopen porosity decreased numberelected officials in the council of the viceroy, the lawtedprovincial assembly was established electoral majority. Watera colonialsought to bring religious and national divisions in Indian society.Yes, elections were held in Curia, formed by religious and nationalsign.
In 1911 the viceroy abolished the lawpart of Bengal and moved his capital from Calcutta to Delhi.
The rise of national liberationmovement set the agenda for the elaboration of a program of movement.
In the city of Lana1916 were the two major national conventionstheir political organizations (and the Muslim League INC.)where program has produced national requirements- Liberation movement, including the following: immediate provision of a wide Indiagovernments, withvalueIndians in command positions in the army, expanding customs autonomy, control over the establishment of the Indian capital.
During the First World War in the Indiannationalliberation movement visiblefigure was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi(1869-1948). People called him Mahatmoyu - large soul. He arrivedto India from South Africa where they gained experience in a specific form ofnational liberation with the postwould -"Nonviolent nespivrobitnytstva" with the authorities. This form of struggle -"Satyahraha (stubbornness in truth) was tested Gandhi in South Africa during the struggle againstRacial discriminationnomination of Indian immigrants.
The basis for teaching the theory of non-violence Gandhi was Leo Tolstoy, ideaspeaceful mass action. Thought was opposed to violence and armed struggle.He realized that India, with its caste, linguistic, ethnic, religiousdivision should avoid extremes. The theory of "nonviolent resistance" (orcivil disobedience), her experience of further spread of acquiredworld.
National Liberation Movement in Indiaearly XX Art. not achieved its goal.For the success of the fight is not yet mature necessary conditions: not formed socialforce that would lead by a all socialsegments of Indian society. There was not provided withbut sufficientsupport from the population.
Despite the defeat, the national liberation movement was enrichedthe experience of struggle.
3.Colonization of Africa
Until the establishment of the Europeandomination in Africa, it consisted of two historical and geographical regions.
The first, located north ofSahara and the Red Sea, was the spread of civilization in the Mediterranean area- Egyptian, Phoenician, Greek and Roman. After Arabsing gains of Islam became established here, and aftercollapse of the caliphate formed several Arab states. Subsequently, theseState except in Morocco, entered the Ottoman Empire.
In Ethiopia, Christianity survived, andinside XIX Art. here there was stateheaded by the emperor (Negus). In general, the region with long traditionsstate, a relatively developed economy was a center of Islamicculture.
South of the Sahara have lived manyNegroid peoples race, which werestage pervisnohromadskoho order or rego to the first state formations. Household way these people was varied: from nomadic cattle andFarming in the fielding and gathering. Most of the peoplepracticed tribal cults. Being drawn in trade with more developed imbaLadies, tropical Africa has supplied only"Goods" - slaves. Worktrade in Africa has flourished sinceEgyptian pharaohs.
SetEuropean domination in Africa servedXia differently. Attempts to consolidate the Europeans in North Africa beganend XVIII Art. First realachievement was the seizure in 1830French Algeria. Early XX Art.the entire territory of North Africa wasredistributed between the Europeanwestates. Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco belonged to France, Libya - Italy, Egypt and Sudan - England, part of Morocco - Spain.
Fighting forMorocco has led to two critical international crisis (1905-1906 pp., 1911 p.), that could erupt into world war.
Penetration in tropical and SouthAfrica has been slowShim, although it beganstill XV-XVI Art. At first European State sought control of the slave trade. They createdcontrol points on the coast and not try to penetrate deep into the continent. Undercontrol of the Europeans found 11% of Africa.
Before 1807 p., when the British banned the slave trade and they interfere with Africa wasexported 12 million slaves.
Already the first experience of colonization showed that in Africaplantations can be developed economy, but restrained infiltration ofGiven the bad ways and pockets of serious diseases thatEuropeans had no medication.
However, late XIX Art. situation has changed. European states,for which the presence of colonies was a symbol of great power status, startedactively divide and conquer the African continent. Early XX Art. in Africa there are only two independentState: Ethiopia, which is protectiveernment protected theirindependence in the struggle against Italy, Liberia, basedbath XIX Art. Negroes of the United States who wanted to return to their historicalHome.
The largest colonies were England (30%) and France(34%). Besides, the colony on the African continent were Germany (Togo,Cameroon, Tanganyika, Namibia), Portugal (Angola,Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau), Spain (Western Sahara, Ekvatorialna Guinea), Belgium (Congo), Italy (Libya,Somalia, Eritrea).
As part tropical andSouth Africa took place the absencerelatively stable state structures in continentcontinent, he was madeEuropean powers arbitrarily; colonial boundaries did not coincide with any ethnicborders, not geographical, which led to the division of many nations.
Differencenature of colonization led to differences in characterTerry liberation movement.
In North Africa he acquired formrestoration of independence states that previously existed there. In XX Art. These requirements are usually combined with programsmodernization of these countries the European model.
Yes, there were large uprising inAlgeria (1871-1872 pp.), Tunisia, Egypt (1881 p.), Sudan (mahdystsku state was established, headed by Mohamed-Ahmed, which lasted to 1898 p.).
In sub-Saharan Africa had the character of resistance to colonizersperiodic armed appearances led local leaders. Givensuperiority of Europeans armed andhostility between different tribes, theynot accounted forThunderstorms colonizers. The most significant was the uprising:tuarehiv in West Africa under the direction of CaSeaAgainst the French Tour Co.lonizatoriv that lasted 18 years; Zuluagainst England (1879 p.) Herero (1904), seeking to eitherburgcolonizers. All of them were severelysuppressed, and the populationtion almost completely exterminated.
Quite different developing South Africa. In the extreme south of continentXVII Art. Dutch foundedCape Colony. Colonists cultivated land. They called himself beaten (storms onllandskoyu language - farmer peasant), AllBy the confession they were very devout Calvinists. Prolongedliving among Africans - pagan generated in drills understand ourselves asbohoobranyh about, but the Africans - as its servicing. I thought that stormslavery as not contrary to Christian morals.
У XIX Art. Cape Colonycaptured by the British, who abolished slavery andsought to enter the government, based on racial equality. Then part of the Boers decided to relocate to the East andNorth East. Having entered the war with Zulu tribes, they founded colony "Natal, Orange and republicTransvaal. On the territory of these colonies were found significant deposits of gold,diamonds and more. Englandthese, seekingacquire these resources, launched a war against the Boers. After the Boer War (1899-1902 pp.)these territories captured Englishmen. And resistance drills wereso significant that the British to maintain stability concessions. In1910 these territory was united inUnion of South Africa (PASS) who received status. Dominion.English and Afrikaans (DialectDutch) became official, and in the Boer provinces kept order as excluded from non-whitepolitical life. Create Dominion made drills ownersposition, as they constituted the majority white population. their influenceparticularly increased after the First World War, when they showed the fullloyalty to England was the result of the consolidation regime in PASS racediscrimination.
A detachment of Boers during the Boer War
Africanswas removed almost all the land. They were live only on designated lands and receive specialresidence on land and in white designated areas.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. From the English newspaperThe Daily Mail. The battle against the British during mahdystiv Omdurmanom 03.02September 1898
"It was the biggest, best and nayhorobrisha armyhas ever beat mahdyzm against us, and she died with decent shoo ... theirarchers ... zmordovani and ... tired, zimknulysya around black and greenflag. spysnyky their moment were in hopeless attack ... Dark linesoldier rose and rushed to storm. And here it vyhnulas, cracking,dissolved and disappeared. Before the smoke cleared, another line was Crashed. "
2. Evidence of a з participants rebellion, stripSch
On 22 August at 5:00 am, we caught up with rebels near Chyvata,It was at that moment when they were going to cross a river. There was a long narrowcities, which they had to go, so we could completelypidstrilyuvaty them quietly. So, we killed 76 people, not counting thosewounded fell into a river. Many people would cross the river and swallowedcrocodiles, which many found in these places: the middle of the river sand wasshelf. There are a lot trying to break the persecuted, and their and therenastyhaly our world. This show was / I was standing by the river behind the fallen treeissued and 120 bullets. All the prisoners we captured were hanged. "
1. What can explain such acruelty the colonialists with the local population?
2. On that rebellionreferred 1.3 in the documents? Why are theyfailed?
Questions and Tasks
1. Describe the political andsocio-economic situation of India at the end XIX - Early XX cm.
2. What was the INC.?
3. Spread the wordnational liberation movement in India in early XX cm. Identify its main driving forces.
4. What do you know about M.Gandhi and Mr Tilak?
5. Asdeveloping the national liberation struggle of peoples AfghaRica?
6. What features shouldnational liberation struggle in the north of Africa?
7. What were the historicalconditions set in the South African apartheid regime?
Note the date!
1885 - Establishment of Indian National Congress party.
Years 1899-1902, - Lyahloburska war.
1906-1908pp. - The rise of national liberation movement in India.
1910. - A Union of South Africa - United DominionKingdom.