§ 28.Awakening of Asia. Revolution in Iran Turkey and China
1. Asian Awakening
In the second half XIX Art. Iran, Turkey and China are in napivkolonialnudependence of European countries. This led to the forced involvement in theirworld market and the dramatic changes in domestic life. Traditional economicsystemsubject and the political structure begandecay. The ruling upperka, seeing the backwardness of their countries comparedwith the Europeans, tried to make reforms that would have brought their country with suchsituation. They drew on technical advances, pereozbroyuvaly armychange management system, tried to fight against some traditions, which,they felt constrained development of the country, created its own industry andothers.
In the Ottoman Empire has named the following reforms Tanzimat ("Transformation", "reform")carried out during 1839 - 1870 pp. In China - the self political, Iran - ReformTahi Khan.
However, these and other reforms were notdesired outcomes: traditional structures are not managed to adapt to rapidchanges in the world and the reforms were not consistent. Finally, countries fall intocomplete dependence of European countries.
Failure rulingresist European penetration, further exacerbated by destructiontraditional economic relations led to the deployment of a new stagePU anti-colonial struggle. This time, ledstruggle began revolutionaries, who, adopting a variety of Europeanrevolutionary teachings, tried to raise the broad masses to fight againstcolonizers and other supporters in their countries.
This second phase of the struggle for a way outretardation known as the awakening of Asia. It has affected three revolutions -Iran (1905-1911 pp.) Molodoturetskoyu (1908) and Xinhayskoyu(1911-1912 pp.). Although the latter two won, andIranian was defeated, they lead to diametricallyopposite effects: spurt of retardation has not occurred, and not aroused the massesdesired changes such as the European, society has split into twoantagonistic views on camps (for supporters and opponents of change) thatled to further sharp conflicts and new revolution.
2. Background and Revolution 1905-1911 pp. Iran
In XIX Art. Iran lost its independence and the end of the centurya semi, especially England and Russia. Under the influence of the Russian Empirewas north country withthe capital Tehran. Great Britain dominated the area Gulfholding there own navy. End XIX Art. in rivalry for influence in Iran intervened andGermany, and in early XX Art. - USA.
The conversion process in Iransemi accompanied by destruction of traditional structures and increasing exploitationpopulation. Living standards declined Iranians.The fracture XIX-XX Art. in a country sharplyexacerbated the food problem. This resulted in food riots (1900, 1901,1903 pp.). In 1905 started Revolution - one of the first in Asia in the early XX Art. It causes include the rule of despotic regime Kadzharskoyi dynasty, oppressionby foreign capital - especially English and Russian. Significantwas the impact of the Russian Revolution of 1905
The revolution started in late1905 mass demonstrations in Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad and other cities.Put forward demands for radical reforms, in particular the convening of the Majlis(Parliament) and a constitution. Distinctive growth revolutionary actionsacquired in June and July, 1906 August 5, 1906 scared Shah decreedimplementation of the constitutional regime. October 7 opened the first Iranianmajlis. He received the Basic Law (the first part of the Iranian Constitution).Power limited Shah, Parliament strengthened the right to approve all lawsand Budget, concessions, foreign borrowing agreements with other states. A year later, 7October 1907 p., Shah approved the additionthe Basic Law, which declared the equality of citizens before the law,pristineing persons and property, freedomspeech, press, etc.. Saltytherefore had do with the principle of power into legislative,executive and judicial branches. Eventually, the Iranian shah remained only the headexecutive.
However, there were revolutionarychanges across the country. In Iranian cities were revolutionary organization -endzhumeus. Increased movement of the Mujahideen -fighters for the faith and justice, among which are distinguished by radicallyadjusted youth - fedayiny.
Against the deepening IranianRevolution made together RussiaEngland, who in August 1907 signed an agreement on delimitationtion spheres of influence inIran. In June 1908 p. Using a recession revolution, Mohammed Ali Shah, relying onIranian Cossacks Brigade under the command of Russian Colonel Lyakhov, donerevolution and broke up the Majlis.
But the revolution continued, centerrevolutionary struggle moved tonorth of the country. In 1908-1909 pp. explodedfltural in Iranian Azerbaijan(Tebrizke uprising). In 1909 flared antyshahskerebellion in Bahtiariyi and Gilan. Armed rebel groups - fedayiv supportedbahtiarskymy khans, v July 1909 came to Tehran. Shah was overthrown and announcedrestoring the constitution. New Shah Ahmed summoned the new Majlis, which continued the revolutionarytransformation. Make it was not easy. Financial system and the entire economy,during the years of the revolution collapsed. Not wanting to seek the help of Russia andEngland, Iran has invited American financial adviser M. Schuster. Successfulactivity advisor alarmed Russia and England, who feared consolidation regimeestablished by the revolution. After unsuccessful attempts to resolve the diplomatic Schustermethods of Russia and England have moved to an open armed intervention.
Effortsother states the Iranian revolution was to dwarfbut. Majlis dispersed, pens fedayiv eliminated. Iran acknowledgedAnglo-Russian agreement.
And indeed, part of the revolutionary gains preserved, includingconstitution. Iran began to turn into a constitutional monarchy. Revolutioninstrumental in raising the national Rescuefootmovement in Asia in the early XX Art. This revolution started awakening of Asia.
3. The Ottoman Empire at the beginning XX Art. Molodoturetska RevolutionLucia
Early XX Art. The Ottoman Empire was going through difficult times After repeated defeats in wars with European powerswe XIX Art. it has grown in semi-major powers.
In 1899cadet in Istanbul created secret society "Unity and Progress." Inemigration took another organization headed by Ahmed Rezo.Both interconnectionnuvaly mainlyyoung Turkish intellectuals (hence the name - molodoturky). Before athey set the goal - to restore the Constitution in 1876 and make some reformsmodernizing society is the European model. The only thing that caused the differencesamong road users - the national question. Group Ahmed defended the residents of the idea of "osmanizmu - save the Empire. Othergroup insisted on decentralization of the empire and the recognition of autonomy forneturetskymy nations.
In 1907, a congress in Parismolodoturetskyh different groups, which reached a temporary reconciliation anddecided to prepare the uprising. It began July 3, 1908performance of army units in Macedonia.
Sultan hastened to make public itsdecision to restore the constitution.
Childrenmy, - he declared - I've always been supporterscom constitution. The fact that the constitution was late, wine my stupid advisers. By the crown and sword that protects the constitution. "
The rebels joined forcesIstanbul. Molodoturky SFORmuvaly new government.Sultan left on the throne. Molodoturky that dostupylysya to power, conductedits policies inconsistently and too cautious. This enabled the Sultan, whoZarahas ended support for the clergy, April 131909 commit mutiny with the requirementsrestore the Sharia, to abolish the constitution, restore sultanate.
Meeting in Istanbul in honor of the restoration of 1876 constitutionwas
Mutiny wassuppressed, and Abdud-Hamid II lost his throne that got Mehmed II.
Molodoturky remained in power until 1918 for hisboard, they have not fulfilled promises to modernize the country andfreed from the dominance of European economic and political dependence.
Molodoturky able to eliminatemost barbaric methods of management, establish parliamentary andconstitutional norms. However, they themselves repeatedly violated them.
The desire to save the empire led toconservative reform. In domestic politics, ideology utverdzhuvalas pantyurkizmu - the creation and domination of a singleTurkish nation. It caused a new wave of anti-Turkish sentiment inoppressed peoples. Trying to impose pantyurkizm force resulted in bloodypogroms of the Armenian and Greek population, Arabs and the Balkan uprisingWar.
In the economic sphere molodoturkydecided on minor reform onlybefore World War II (restricted non-economic formsguide farmers introduced protective laws).
Thus, the revolution in 1908 failed toits main objectives: modernization of the Ottoman Empire. This isfeature of the structure of Turkish society, where the Turks were the ruling nation, andAny upgrade would result in the loss of this role and to collapseEmpire, which eventually happened.
4. China end XIX - Early XX Art. Synhayskarevolution
China, with its multi-kilkatysyacholitnoyu population and history, particularly painfully perceived distributionin their country of European domination. After all, the Chinese traditionally believed their nation center of the universeCelestial Empire vassals, and surrounded by barbarians. The stronger wasshock experienced by the Chinese military after repeated defeats, not only fromEuropeans ("Opium War") but also from Japan (Japanese - ChineseWar 1894 - 1895 pp..) The Chinese government started to crumble quickly. it was redistributed tosphere of influence between great powers. Confucian and imperial powermorality have been discredited.
In the 90 pp. XIX Art. land spread ideas about the need significant internal transformation of Chinese society, indispensablepreserve the integrity and independence of China. Advocates of these ideas were Yuvey Kahn,who tried to persuade the emperor to Huansyuya liberal reforms, andSun sen, who put forward the program of revolutionary transformations after the fallmonarchy.
Chinese thinker Kang Yuvey basedtraditional Confucian teaching, planned to introduce the country's constitutionalmonarchy, to implement reforms in public administration, economy, education and more. Later, Kang Yuvey and some of his supporters Advisers were appointed emperor. Between11 June
20 September 1898 (one hundred days of reform) Huansyuy issued over 60 decrees thatanticipated upgrade of China and its transformation into a powerful and independent country.But because of the coup
21 September Huansyuy was deprived of the thronein favor of Qi Xi. Some reformersexecuted; Kang Yuveyu lucky escape.
Meanwhile,country louder spontaneous protest against the infiltratednennya foreigners. The culmination was the revolt ledleadership Society members Ihetuan(Boxer Rebellion 1899-1900 pp.), cruellysuppressed by the forces of eight countries - UK, USA, Russia, Japan, France,Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary.
Then to lead the struggle for modernizationout force led by Sunni sen.
Sun sen formulated "three people's principles, which, in fact,defined purpose transformation in China:
· nationalism, that isoverthrow of the Manchurian dynasty and restoring purely Chinese rule;
· democracy, ieelimination of the monarchy and the establishment of the republic;
· people's welfare -holding ongradual nationalizationLand ownershipcapacity and establishing progressive land tax.
In the summer of 1905 in Tokyo (Japan) under leadership of Sunni sen took interconnectionmentvarious Chinese revolutionary groups democratic and nationalistdirection. In 1907, "Joint Unionmade several attempts to raisevstannya against the Manchurian dynastybut failed.
Finally, under threat of revolution afterQi Xi peratrytsya of some agreed tos reforms planned yet Huansyuyem emperor. It was proclaimedfollowing major reforms: the abolition of slavery; liquidationtsiyu differences formed the recovery of noble privileges, createdingArmy on the European model; abolition of torture, the creation of advisory bodies inprovinces; Europeanization of education of the monetary and financial reforms;smoking opium; ban barbaric customs, creating a politicalparties, reform the education system.
All these reforms showed that China began to modernize. But the resistance was too traditional societystrong. Besides mysterious death of the Empress Qi Xi reformceased.
The failure of reform testified thatchange Chinese society can only be a revolutionary way. In the countrygrowing national liberation struggle. Increasingly flashed peasantuprising. Manchu government, imperialcourt in vain tried to quell popular revolts.
The revolution began in Wuhan (totalName three cities - Uchan, Hankou, Hanyan). Random grenade exploded in Hankowrevolutionaries found illegal apartment, where weapons were found and listmembers of revolutionary organizations. Arrests began. Conspirators decided not to wastetime. October 10, 1911 in Uchan soldiers revolted. The military garrison Uchanjoined the rebels. They went to students, workers.
Following the Wuhan Uprisingerupted in other cities. the participants declared their independence fromBeijing and tsinskoho court.
Manchu government in search ofRescue appealed to Yuan Shykaya - General, whose views on reformwas sent into exile, asking to take over command of allarmed forces. He agreed and soon became the head of the Imperial Council andPrime Minister, the sovereign dictator of Northern China. In addition,published a draft constitution that he recognized the monarchy.
However, the revolt spread.Declared themselves independent Hangzhou, Shanghai, Shandong Province, itsOuter Mongolia declared autonomy. December 2 revolutionary troops toNanjing. Manchu empire began to collapsefind out more.
After learning about the beginning of the revolutionSun sen returned from exile and 24 December arrived in Shanghai. This further inspired the revolutiontem. 29December conference delegates revolutionary provinces gathered in Nanjing,announced the formation of the Republic of China. Sun sen, was unanimously electedits interim president. The new capital of Nanjing met President gunssalute him and general inspiration. And in January 1912sen, the Sun took the oath.
But the ruling did not leavehopes to retain power. It bet on YuanShykaya. He was supported by the great powers. February 12 1912 Yuan Shykay forced motherEmperor Pu six years and on his behalf to sign a statement of denial from throne. Under such conditions of his sen Sunprogram of national prosperity "has become an unnecessary ruling.It is zrozuatoms and the day after the abdication of the emperor refusedpresidency in favor of Yuan Shykaya. Nankinski national assembly elected YuanShykaya president.
Yuan Shykay after the appointment of interim president of China
China has experienced rapid year, which forLunar synhayem called. Synhayska revolution in China was over.In March 1912 in Nanjing was adopted and the Constitution of the Republic of Chinadecided to move the capital to Beijing.
After the proclamation of the republicstruggle for power continued. Yuan Shykay to strengthen their position beganattack on the newspaper and democratic gains.
It became ever more sinceredesire to restore the monarchy. Simultaneously hurtuvalas and democratic opposition.
In August 1912, "JointUnion, established sen Sun, and several other organizations have formedHomindan (national party). In the newly elected parliament, which startedin April 1913 based on a new constitution, received a significant Homindanrepresentation. Its members were in opposition to Yuan Shykaya.
Tensions increased afterbecame known to participate in the preparation Yuan Shykaya murder homindanivskohocandidate for prime minister.
The country has renewed insurgency. Sevensouthern provinces, where Homindan had strong positions, declared the separationfrom Beijing. There was a civil war between South and North. In November1913 Yuan Shykay Homindan declared outside the law, and its members removedparliamentary seats. Troops of the South was defeated, went Homindanunderground, and Sun sen again went to emigrate.
Rozihnavshy parliament and becomingsovereign dictator Yuan Shykay created conditions for the restoration of the monarchy.Constitution was revised, removed from her article on democratic freedoms. AHowever, shortly before his death in June 1916 dictator abandoned his intention. Republic was saved.
Although the revolution unleashedmajor problems of China, it has removed a major obstacle tomodernization - Manchu dynasty.
Documents. Facts. Comments
Since the program document "JointUnion "
"The current revolution is aimed at developingrepublican government. All citizens of the republic must be equal, allcitizens should participate in political power. PresiDente elect all citizens. Parliament is a national body thatconsists of deputies elected by all citizens of republicmedications.The Constitution of the Republic of China introduced, all its citizens mustobserve. "
What are the ideals espoused "Joint Union and why?
Questions and Tasks
1. What was the situationIran at the turn XIX-XX cm. ?
2. What caused the revolutionin Iran?
3. Tellabout the events of the Iranian revolution and its consequences.
4. What role in suppressingRevolution played Russia and England?
5. Describepolitical and socio-economic situation of Turkey at the end XIX cm.
6. Tell us about molodoturetskuRevolution 1908 and its consequences.
7. Why not Turkeytake the path of modernization?
8. What reforms have mademolodoturky?
9. Describe the developmentChina end XIX - Early XX cm.
10. Can I see China as a semi-westerncountries?
11. What was the essence of reform Kang Yuveya? What are itsoutcome?
12. Spread the rebellionIhetuan. Why they were defeated?
13. Who is Sun sen? InWhat was the essence of his "Three People's Principles"?
14. Why all the attempts to reformChina ended in failure?
15. Spread the Revolution1911-1913 pp. in China and its outcome.
Note the date!
1905-1911 pp. - Revolution in Iran. Adoption of the first constitution and a parliament (Majlis).
1908 p. - Molodoturetska revolution.Restoration of the constitution in Turkey.
1911-1913 pp. - SynhayskaRevolution in China.