§ 26.Japan in the second half XIX - Early XX Art.
1. Revolution Meiji
In the second half XIX Art. began mass colonization Pacific region. After the Opium Wars was forcednytskeopening of China to European colonization. Powerful competitor in the Europeanthis region became the United States. their cheap and quality goods squeezed European.
In 1853 off the coast of Japanis an American fleet and threatfighting the Japanese authorities forced to open its ports to trade. Simultaneouslywith such demands were made by England and Russia.
Penetration Europeans andJapanese Americans to undermine the authority of traditional power Shogun, whichrelied on the Princes landowners. In 1866 the Shogun died Yemoti who personifiedsecular power, and 1867 - Emperor (Mikado) Komey that represented religious authority. In the countrybroke power struggle, the new emperor Mitsuhito supported samuraiSouth Japan, townspeople and farmers.
In January 1868 troops of the emperor,that have European arms, troops raided Shogun, and in May came to the capitalshogun Tokyo (Edo). So the emperor united secular ц spiritual power.Years of his reign (until 1912) became known as Meiji ("enlightenedBoard ").
Meiji revolution launchedradical social, political and economic changes in Japanese society.A rapid modernization of the country on the basis of foreign experiencetaking into account national traditions, created a powerful industrial potentialWith necessary for this innovation in political institutions, legalnorms, etc.
2.Reforms 70-80 pp. Features of Economic Development
Unlike China, wheretraditionalism and conservatism hindered the adoption of European innovationsyoung Emperor Mitsuhito resolutely failed tocreative borrowing experienceDM Europe. Japanese civilization wassusceptible to external influences.
Development of Japan in the late XIX Art. accelerated. Restoration of the power of the emperoraccompanied by the removal of government from those of large landowners,who resisted holding urgent reforms. Government headed by the emperorrelied on the business community and new landowners, who were relatedmainly in agriculture, trade and usury. It has causednature of the reforms.
Important role inweakening the influence of large landowners (Prince) played an agrarian reform, which part of land ceded topeasants. As a result of the reform peasants were those in private ownership of land,which they worked. Instead of natugeneral oftax was introduced only in Terrier 3% Did the land value.But even a small tax was too heavy for the peasants, because the costland in Japan was very high. For tax had to sell to50% yield. Finally, in 1890 to 67% of farmers were forced to sell their plots.
Yet reform has given room fordevelopment of commodity production.
Not zabarylas and military reform.Army komplektuvalasya based on general conscription. It was createdmilitary academies and other educational institutions. The officer corps was completedof the samurai. Japan was preparing for the implementation of large-scale expansion planson the mainland.
Destruction of the principalities, the introductionprefectures allowed to overcome the fragmentation of the country and consolidatenational market (administrative reform).
Reforms 70-80 pp. Japan was stripped out of international isolation, packaged for the world economy,favored the development of industrial society and political development.
The weakness of the business capital of the reason leadingthe state's role in the creation of large enterprises and arsenals. The island country subsidization encourageddevelopment of itsIndustry,giving preference to companies that worked on the needs of the army and navy. In 80-90 pp. many state factories and plants been leased or sold to private individualsprivileged conditions. Formed large firms(Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda, "Asano"). Companies often passed into the hands of landowners,senior officials. It consisted of a close relationship Imperial Courtlandowners and entrepreneurs. Due to the state system was createdTransport and Communications. Still, in industryArkalykdominated by small businesses. Level of technical developmentku Japan hasgave way to European countries.
Production (thousand tons)
Industrial development significantlychanged. social structureFaith Japanesesociety. Formed class of entrepreneurs. In a systemtemwage labor vtyahuvalasya growing number of people.
Interlocking interests of the imperialcourt, landowners and industrialists, harsh methods of exploitation of the population,orientation of continental territorial expansion is determinedDoes originality of Japaneseindustrial society. The foreign expansion in JapanMale gained importance as a national strategy of modernization of society.
3. Japanese - Chinese War 1894 - 1895 pp. English - Japanese Union 1902
The first target expansion in JapanKorea became the continent, which was in vassal dependence on China.Nakynuvshy Korea in 1876 unequal treaty, Japan has expanded expansiyu under the pretext of promotingnational liberation movement. Whenin the early 90's pp. revolt broke out in Korea andChinese forces acted on its suppression, drove Japanhis army to the south of the peninsula. The conflict on the KoreanPeninsula has become a Sino-Japanese War 1894 - 1895 pp., which ended with the defeat of China and the signing of the peacecontract. China recognized the independence of Korea, Taiwan and Japan conveyedPeskadorski Islands, Japan opened for trading ports, provided the rightconstruction companies and obligation to pay a huge indemnity.
The war against Japan, China has emphasizedSino-Russian conflict on the Korean peninsula and in South Manchuria.Russia under an agreement with China began construction of China-Eastern Railway (KSZ)and leased Port Arthur. Armed conflict brewing. To win supportmajor powers, Japan in 1902 signed the Anglo-Japanese treaty, aimed notonly against Russia but against the United States. So, in the Far East zav'yazuvavsyacomplex knot of contradictions.
DeliveryJapanese Emperor English pidv'yazok order.
4 Russo-Japanese War 1904 - 1905pp.
Early XX Art. Japan decided in sharp conflict with the kingRussia. Broad anti-Russian campaign, which became part of the overall promotion of nationalismand chauvinism in Japan and ideological preparation of the plans to create"Greater Asia, especially increased after the signing of the Anglo -Japanese agreement in 1902 and receive English credit.
Russian postcard on the eve of warshapkozakydalskymy mood
In the night of AugustFebruary 1904 Japanese squadron without adsing war, attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur and Chemulpo (Korea). SoJapan seized the strategic initiative and changed the balance of power on the seatheir favor. February 10, 1904 Japan formally declared war. Mostevolved dramatically in the port of Chemulpo events where cruiser "Varangian" andgunboat "Korean" entered into unequal combat with the Japanese squadron.Both sides suffered significant losses. Damaged "Vikings" and"The Koreans" that they failed to get to the enemy, were flooded.
Trying to intercept Admiral Makarovstrategic initiative at sea is not true - he died on the battleshipPetropavlovsk, which exploded on a mine. After that the Russian navymethodically znyschuvavsya Japanese artillery in Port Arthur. Some shipsbroke through to Vladivostok and the Chinese ports. Pacific squadron ceasedexistence.
On shore events unfolded toonot in favor of Russia. 1 st and 2 nd Japanese army and Russian army rozchlenuvalycaused her injuries at Liaoyang (August J 904 p.) Mukdenom and (in March 1905 p..) 3 rd army surrounded Port Arthur, which after II Months defense surrendered.
The death of 2 of the Pacific squadron May 28, 1905 inTsushima Strait tragically ended the war.
Japanese infantry attack on Port Arthur
Russia's defeat largelyexplains the lack of initiative and incompetence Command (Kurrpatkin,Alekseev and others), and technical backwardness of the country, lack of meaningful ways(Siberian railway could miss two convoys per day) and generalunpreparedness for war, although soldiers and officers showed heroism and miraclesstability.
May 31, 1905, the Japanese government asked the U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt asking for mediation in the conclusion of peace.
August 5, 1905 p. in Portsmouth (USA) signed the peace, under which Japan established aprotectorate over Korea. Port Arthurrailway in South Manchuria, and southern of Fr. Sakhalindepart to Japan.
Russian troopsleave Port Arthur
In 1907 and 1911, between Japan and Russia concludeda series of secret agreements on the distribution of spheres of influence in China. ThereforeRusso-Japanese conflict weakened. The main opponents of Japan nowbecame the United States and Great Britain.
This war was a vivid examplewars to redraw the world. Both sides fought for its imperial interests (areasinfluence) in China.
5. Preparations for the World War
Japanese-Chinese andRusso-Japanese War began
a landmark development in Japan. Significant funds received from China ascontribution, the Japanese government spent on the needs of the Army and Navy. Preparing forthese military conflicts, the ruling circles of the country approved a programten-year economiclopment. Prominentplace it occupied the problem of heavy industry andincrease and modernization of armament. In countryindustrial development began, which ended in 1907 Industryrevolution. A few years after the victorious war against Russiaterritorial division of the announced land-force Japan to annex Korea (1910 p.).
6. Political Constitution of 1889development
Japan's 1889 constitution created by the Prussian model.It was established sovereignty of the emperor. His person was considered sacred andinviolable. As head of state he was entitled to declare war and peaceenter into contracts, approve and make laws, to convene and dissolveParliament, appoint and dismiss public officials and the military highrank. Under the Constitution, Parliament consists of two chambers - the Chamber of Peers and the Houserepresentatives (MPs). In the Upper House wasrepresented aristocracy, members namedperatorskoho court that appointed.The lower house was elected. Suffrage was granted 1% of the population. Parliament fortverdzhuvav budget, but his right to tsoth issue limited. The Government was of theResponsiblenot to Parliament, and the emperor. The Constitution of 1889 officiallydeclared democratic liberties and civil rights, equality of all citizenscountry.
In the 80 pp. any political party (Liberal Party and the partyreforms). They have not had a mass base, a clear organizational structure and morethrown off the political clubs that relied on different groups of landownersindustrialists.
End XIX Art. in Japan have unions. In 1896 there was first the workers strike.But the formation of trade union and labor movement are very complicated becausefeatures of the social structure of Japanese society. To prevent thisprocess were police terror and relations between workers and entrepreneurs,в the considerable role played by traditional rules of conduct: respectelders, loyalty host, life employment, collectiveproperty.
Once an 1901 first socialistorganization under the leadership of Sen. Kata Government banned, despite its loyalattitude to authority.
Suffered brutal persecutionsyndykalistska anarchist organization that advocated "direct action" в including at the general strikes. Leader of the organizationKotok and his comrades were executed.
Before the First World WarJapan was not legitimate labor organizations (parties, trade unions), butunions created by the entrepreneurs.
Documents. Facts. Comments
One of the leaders of the "Mitsui onJapanese expansion
Although the Japanese are hardworking, even though their technique is perfectand organization of production, the Japanese trade expansion is not will have a future if it can not relyfor responsewell, power. The main strength of our military readiness isArmy and Navy. We can safely carry out its expansion abroad andadventure for all sorts of endeavors, if we are confident that under theirprotection.
What were the main reasons Japaneseexpansion and itright?
Questions and Tasks
1. Describeeconomic and political situation of Japan end XIX - Early XX cm.
2. NameReform 70-80 pp. in Japan. What was their value?
3. What is the role of Japan-China (1894-1895 pp.) And Russian-Japanese(1904-1905 pp.) Wars in the modernization of Japan?
4. Why,unlike China, reforms in Japan were successful?
5. Thatcaused Japan to join the group of great powers?
6. Whatwere features of the labor movement in Japan?
7. Byusing maps show the clash of interests of Japan and other states.
Note the date!
1868-1912pp. - Revolution Meiji ("enlightened rule").
1889 - Adopted Constitution of Japan.
1904-1905 pp. - Russo-Japanese War.