§ 22.England in the years 1870-1914
1.Economic development. Loss of Industry and Trade Championship
End XIX - Early XX Art. The UK was one of the most powerful andrichest countries. . British investments abroad exceededinvest the remaining states combined. British Pound wasmajor world currencies. London became the chief of shoppinghim and the world financial center. England call"Owner of the Seas" for her, as before, belonged to about 40% of the worldmerchant fleets.
At the same timeBritain's economy began to show some negative trends. Growthindustrial production from 1890 till 1913 (2,1%) was lower than in other countries (in the USA - 4,2%. in Germany - 4,1%). Technical equipmentmany factories obsolete, and some indicatorsEngland lagged behind the U.S. andGermany. Early XX Art. Germany ahead of hervyplavlyannyam Steel USA - by producing iron, steel and coal.Thanks to better technology and higher productivity washes American and Germanproducts are higher quality and cheaper thanenglish.
In agricultureUK economy dominated fractionnot farming. Large farminggatherhalosya in Ireland. Role of Agriculturesector in the economy fall.If at the beginning XIX Art. it gave the third nationalfoot of revenue at the beginning XX Art. - Only 6%. Significantly decreased areaunder crop crops. Agriculturehouseholds did not provide the needs of England, significant quantitiesFood and had to import raw materials. Thesenegative features of the economy countrycompensated by the presence of colonial possessions, which were guaranteed markets and a source of cheapraw materials.
Thus,retention and expansion of the empire was considered one of the most important tasks of England, the basis of its stability andprosperitygrowth.
The second half XIX Art. in Victorian England called era by the name of Queen Victoria, who wasthe throne from 1837 till 1901 Це period was the largestpower Britain. Then quickly grew its colonial possession,Englandplishment industry still heldleading position in the world. The country maintained a constitutional monarchyParliament and dvoparsystem will be constantly.
In the parliamentary elections conducted betweena struggle two ~ main parties the Conservatives andLiberals.
Conservatives expressed interestlarge estates of the aristocracy and big bourgeoisie (financiers).Conservative leader considered BindzhaminDisraeli, son of writer, writer and politician.
Liberals supported the vastpart of the large and middle class, and much of the workingclass. Leader of the Liberal Party was an outstanding statesman, son of a wealthyMerchant, William Gladstone.
Liberals defended the principle of free trade and advocatedagainst protectionist policies, in contrast to conservatives who foughtEnglish to protect industry from competition '.
Both parties felt it necessary to reform the electoralsystems and social legislation.
In 1867 the conservative governmentDizrayeli parliament heldproficiency reform thatdoubling the number of voters. Zastupyvshy him in 1871 p., Gladstone Liberal government officially recognized the legitimatetrade unions, including strikes. Offensivefoot on the parliamentary elections by secret ballot was introduced.
Instead, the Conservatives finallylifted the ban on strikes, and allowed the activities of cooperatives.
In 1875 the Conservatives agreedlaws limiting working hours to 54 hours per week and the Protection of Childrenwork. Hiring children who had not yet turned 10 yearsforbidden.
Instead, the Liberals in 1884 had yetone electoral reform. She gave a voice of most workers and peasants.
In foreign policy andConservatives and Liberals kept the principle of "Europeanequilibrium ", whereby noneGovernment should not prevail in continental Europe. To saveequilibrium UK resisted stronger states, without giving them the opportunitytake the leading position in Europe. Maintaining the domination of the sea, it is notafraid of an armed incursion into its territory.
The second principle of Englishforeign policy - the principle of "brilliant isolation. This meant thatEngland refrained from making lasting alliances with other states. Inrulers and diplomats of the country's motto: "In England there is no permanentpermanent enemies and friends she has only permanent interests. "
Almost to the end XIX Art. British policymakers primarily an enemythought was France - the main rival to colonial conquest. From the beginning XX Art. Instead of it the Anglo-German tensions.Economic, military and naval power of Germany continued to grow.Instead, the eve of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 pp. England have improved relations with France. In April 1904in London signed a secret Anglo-Frenchagreement providing recognition forUK rights to Egypt, and in France - in Morocco. Fromsettlement of Russian-British relations (agreement 1907) completed the processcreation of the Entente, which opposed the Triple Alliance.
One of the main directionsEnglish foreign policyki end XIX Art. the extension of the colonial empire. In 1875Disraeli government bought in Egyptcontrolling stake buildingFrench footSuez Canal. It provided England control over an important waterway,which opened the English fleet the shortest route to India and other colonies. In1876 Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India. Englishcolonies were officially named the British Empire.
In 80-90 pp. XIX Art. colonial expansionBritain has the largest scale. At that time the British took possession Burma, Nigeria, Somalia, Kenya, Tanganyika,Uganda and partsNoah SouthAfrica. Area colonial possessions increased to 33 million square meters. km and a population - from 200 million to 370 million persons.The area of the UK was less than 1% of the its colonial possessions, the population - less than 12%.
Early XX Art. colonial expansion of England continued. Aspiringcreate a continuous line of British possessions from Cairo to Cape Town andcapture the natural resources of South Africa, the British went to war in 1899to two small South African - Transvaal and Orange(Orange). They were rich in gold and diamonds, lived in their drills - nativesfrom the Netherlands, which colonized these areas and local people turned toslaves.
British troops in South Africa
The war against the Boers of the two-half years. At first the British were defeated. Hammer relied on assistanceGermany and other rivals England. their combat support part of the world community. But the forces wereunequal. In 1902 Transvaal and Orange (Orange) Republicbecame part of the British Empire. Considering the interests of white people'scolonies, Britain decided to give them the right dominions - a self-governing unitsBritish Empire, with its parliament and government.
This enabledbeaten eventually become the dominant force in politicscolonies, which in 1910 was merged into South AfricaUnion (PAS). Dominion status obtainedDo all columns, populated by whiteimmigrants: Canada (1867 p.), Australia (1900 p.), New Zealand (1907 p.).
Dominions took part in the imperial conferences at whichissues of defense, foreign and trade - financial policies.
In colonial conquest, Englandactively participated in division of spheres of influence in ChinaIran, Thailand (Siam), Turkey and actively fought for Latin marketsAmerica.
4. Irish question
A special situation happened inIreland, which was considered part of Great Britain, but was actuallysemi-colonies. Despite 400 years of English colonization, the Irish have not lostidentity. They kept their religion, language and culture.
End XIX Art. - Turned mass movement for Irish self-government and agrarian reform(Home Rule). Movement was led by Charles Parnell, who was elected to British Parliament in 1875He was using all possibleparliamentary methods - obstruction, claims, demands, if only to drawawareness of the plight of Ireland.
Simultaneously, farmers in Ireland,managed the Land League, have been fighting against the British landlord.They are destroyingDoes their possessions, crops, livestock.One of the new methods of struggle a boycott (the name derives from the surnameCaptain Boycott, which was first used this form of struggle, and meanscomplete rejection of communication).
In 1886, the government decided to Gladstonesubmit to parliament a law about Home Rule, but it was rejected. This led todefeat liberals in elections. To power nearly 20 years conservatives came.
Early XX Art. exacerbated the situation in Ireland, the radical partIrish national liberation movement formed a party which named"Shinn Fein (" Ourselves "). She acted as an independentIrish state under the slogan "Ireland for the Irish." To avoidexpansion of the conflict, 1912 р. toParliament was again included on the Home Rule Act. Admitted twice Chambercommunities, it is double-departed House of Lords. In Ireland itself brokethe struggle between Unionists (for union with England) and supporters of independence.
In 1914 the House was the third timeendorsed the bill, and he became law, but its action is not extended tosix northern counties, populated mostly by Protestants. Subsequently, this decisiongave rise to the problem of Ulster.
5. Features of the labor movement. Formation of Labour Party
End XIX - Top XX Art. period was the rise of English working-classmovement. Loss of industrial monopolies, increased competition on world marketsEntrepreneurs striving to reduce production costs led to a decreaseliving standards of the English working class, which in response to increasedfight for their rights. Significantly increased number of strikes increasednumber of trade unions - tredyunioniv. In 1913 their number reached 4 membersmillion
The number and organizationTrade Unions of England at that time occupied the first place in the world. Some figuresunions believed that trade unions should lead not only economic but alsopolitical struggle. In 1900 a committee was established workerWhat representation for parliamentary electionsWorkers' Deputies. In 1906 the Committee was renamed the workers(Labour) party, which took part in the elections of 1906 and had toParliament in 1929 its members. Bipartisanship shaken. Along withconservatives and liberals grew new force - Labour.
At first the Labour Partycomposed of corporate members, joined to her organization's objectives. It immediatelymade it mass. In 1904 the number of its members closer to the first million
Labour for a long timehad their program. The main task they thought of the Parliamenttheir deputies, where they would vote for making decisions on protectionworkers blokuyuchys with liberals.
Thisamorphous labor movement sparked protests from the supporters of socialist doctrines, In 1911 they created the BritishSocialist Party, who tried to lead the working class movement, but had no success
The rise of the labor movement andaggravation of the struggle for Social Rightsbrought the most visionary figures liberaltion parties to understandnecessary social reforms that would facilitate the workers, restrictedprivileges of the wealthy class have established peace and social opportunities affordedfoot blast. One of the first and ideologuespractitioners of a liberalfoot reformism was the political leader of Great BritainDavid Lloyd George.
Son of a teacher, a lawyer by profession,a gifted speaker, clairvoyantpolitician Lloyd George first came to South Africalament in 1890 27 yearspublic figure soon became one of the leaders of the Liberal Party. Broadfame it gained through theirspeaking out against the rich hangers-on. Lloyd George felt that something had to beeffective measures to end 3 "Humiliating begging"workers. Hugging liberals in government as minister of trade, which hadEngland great value, and in 1908 - asFinance Minister, Lloyd - George in 1906-1911 pp. introduced to Parliament a series of laws which laidfoundation of social legislation.
On his initiative the law on unpaid primary education and nutrition in school canteensChildren low-income parents. There is the Law onregulation of night work.
Work at nightchange for men fell, night work Women prohibited. Victims of accidentswork had the right to free treatment and disability.
In 1908Parliament passed laws on 8-hour day for miners and the old age pension for workers.Such pensions people called "pensions for the dead"because they give those who was turning 70 and to this age, fewdozhyvav. However, these measures of Parliament were a step forward in creating a systemsocial security. Then introduced the benefits andillness. These payments consisted of contributions of workers and entrepreneursstate subsidies. Employers could no longer interfere with union agitationand require the union for damages caused by strikes.
Great resonance caused submitted Dzhor-Lloyd jam draft budget for 1909, which envisagedallocation of 1% funds for social reform and a significantincreased spending on weapons. Expenses to cover anticipated sharpincrease taxes on land ownership, inheritance, and increasedtaxes on tobacco, alcohol and stamps. His budget Lloyd Georgedefined as the beginning of "war against begging and can break"Impudence of wealth." Ownersbig property called the budget "revolutionary."
House of Commons,where the Liberals were with Labour a solid majority, approved the draft budget. King Chamber appointeeLords, where the rules of land and financial arysto grounds of rejected it. ThenLloyd George launched a campaign against the House of Lords, seeking to reduce itspowers or even eliminate them. In 1911 the House was decidedlaw office of narrowing the House of Lords. Now the latter had only prompt a veto, that could brake onindefinitely enforcement ofHouse of Commons legislation, but not abolish them. If the House of Commons adopted the bill three times, he recruited forceDespite denying the House of Lords. After these changes are "revolutionary"Lloyd George's budget became law.
Questions and Tasks
1. What were the features of economic development of Great Britain in the second half XIX cm.?
2. Why end XIX cm. Great Britain began to lose leading position in the economy?
3 Tell us about liberalsand conservatives and their leaders and fight for the Victorian parliamentaryera.
4, As the Labour Party was formed?
5. What reforms had Lloyd George? What were their consequences?
6 Describecolonial policy of England in the late XIX- Early XX cm. Purchase made by colonial Britain in this period?
7. What was the situationIreland in the British Empire?
8. As unfolding struggleunder Home Rule?
9. Prove thatAnglo-German differences in early XX cm. become crucial in international politics.
Note the date!
1837-1901 pp. - BoardQueen Victoria
1899-1902 pp. - Anglo-Boerwar.
1900. - Formation of the Labour Party.