§ 21. Third Republic in France
1. Features of economic development
Despite the defeat inFranco-Prussian War of 1870 - 1871 pp., France remained a great power that had orlittle economic potential, has been with Colonial Empire strong military, a large fleet. UnlikeEngland and Germanyranks, she remained an agro-industrial state:many people (43%) worked in agriculture.
The population grew veryslowly. From 1871 to 1913, she grew only 3,6 million people, whileGermany's population during the same period grew by 25 million
The pace of industrial development of Franceearly XX Art. were low(2,6% per year), not much greater than in England (2.1%). The pace of growtheconomy behind Germany, France and the U.S. and in industrialproduction - and the UK. Most French workers wereemployed in the textile industry, a bit less - in the leather industry and manufacturing, "Paris" products- luxury goods and fashion accessories. French companieswere generally much lower than German or American, conceded to them bytechnical equipment. Almost 60% of French enterprises belonged to the smallest.Large enterprises with the number of employees over 500 people were few. Among them were notable for the huge steel andmilitary plants Schneider, chemical company Saint-Gobain, carplants Reno. By 1914, France rankedsecond place in the world (after USA) the production of cars reachedsignificant progress in aviation, chemical andelectronics industry, but is seriously behind in the machine tool industry.Almost 80% needed to France vvozylosya machines from abroad.
In agricultureeconomy dominated by small farmers of FranceGeorgia was the economy. Productivity of crops significantlyinferior levels recorded in Germany and England.
Significant role in the French economyplayed by banks. The five largest of them, led by French bank concentratedin their hands 73% of total bank deposits. Two hundred majorFrench bank shareholders ("two hundred families") controlled almost allFrench economy. Excess capital in search of the most advantageous usedirected abroad where profit rate was higher. Because of this export of capitalfrom France until 1914 more than tripled to end XIX Art. and almost four times exceeded investment in Frenchindustry.
Exportcapital of France came in second place in the world. The main flow of capital, selling the contaminated material from France, to countries skerovuvavsyaEastern and Central Europe.
2. Third Republic
Third Republic was proclaimed1870 p., but only in 1875 executed constitutionally. Legislature in the countrybelonged to the bicameral parliament. Chamber of Deputies elected by direct universal suffrage. Women andmilitary participation in electiondid not take. The Senate elected representatives of local government.Chairman of the executive considered the President. Evidence head of government as executive authority, was Prime Minister.
In the early years of the republicParliament dominated by monarchists. In the elections of 1876 the Republicans wonpainsix in the Chamber of Deputies and graduallymonarchists removed from power. In1879 under pressure from Republicans retired president FranceMarshal Mc Magone, known for his sympathies to the monarchists. In his place was elected Republican Jules Greve.
GovernmentRepublicans held a series of important reforms. In 1880 amnesty was proclaimed members of the Paris Commune1881 law on freedom of the press and holding meetings, andas the Law on education of all children aged 6 to 13 years. Act 1884allow free trade unions and the organization of strikes, was limitedchild labor.
Leaders of the Third Republicsaw themselves as continuing the case the French Revolution in 1789 from her thirdrepublic inherited state tricolor, the nationalanthem "La Marseillaise", a national holiday July 14 - Bastille Day taking.
An important feature of politicalof the Third Republic was a multi. '
End XIX Art. in the political life of France's main problem wasstruggle between republicans and monarchists. Latest for 70-90 pp. sought to discredit the republican form of governmentusing both legal and illegal methods of struggle to recovermonarchy in France. During the specified period of political shaken Francecrisis, the most famous of which were right Boulanger, Panama scandal caseDreyfus.
3. Case Boulanger
After the defeat in the Franco-PrussianWar in France shyrylysya chauvinistic sentiments and calls for revenge. Thesemood sought to use the monarchists,who claimed that the country needs ofBin dictator, which united the people and wouldArmy for winning the war against Germany. Under these conditions, the movement grew rapidly,associated with the name of General Boulanger.
SupportersGeneral sought to use to their advantage scandal that broke in 1887around President J. Greve (the son-was involved in the sale of Legion of Honor - France's highest award). J. Greve had to resign as bulanzhystyby-election, won in Paris. Boulanger was the leader of the opposition(Committee of protest "), uniting dissatisfied boardRepublicans prepared and political upheaval, but the plot was uncovered andGeneral proven link with monarchists. Under threat of arrest Boulanger fled toBelgium dyskredytuvavshy themselves and their movement.
4. Panama scandal
In 1895 there was a government crisis linked to scandal around the Panama Canal. For its constructionhave gotbut funds for individuals. Heads of companyRoztrynkaly significant portion of funds collected by selling shares and are onverge of bankruptcy. Trying to enter and misleading shareholders and avoidresponsibility, these crooks hired tensMPs and government officials. However, all open, the scandal broke. Manycriminals be judged. Massive financial scam led to the resignation of membersrepublican government and transfer government radicals.
5. Dreyfus affair
The real challenge forthe democratic Third Republic was the Dreyfus affair, which camewide publicity. The matter of judicial discretion, as perceived by the population of Franceassault on civil rights and liberties guaranteed by the political systemRepublic.
And the essence of the case was so. AutumnIn 1894 it became known that secret documentsFrench general staff get intoDoes the German intelligence. Suspicionfell on the chestnut Dreyfus, come from wealthy Jewish family of bankers. Hiscondemned and exiled for one of the islands of French Guiana. Soonrevealed that the culprit was a nobleman of Hungarian origin, Major Esterhazi.However, the revision was not Dreyfus. Under public pressure the militaryEsterhazi authorities gave the trial that acquitted him to keep questionable"Of professional ethics."
Another arbitrary judicial rattled Frenchpublic and caused a political crisis. Society split into twocamps. In Paris and many other cities held rallies and demonstrations,and anti-government forces tried to eliminate even the democratic freedoms andrepublican system. Cabinet was forced to resign. The new government tried to stabilize the politicalsituation. In 1899 the court again found Dreyfus guilty, buthead of government and let him spare to freedom. Ultimately the case was determined only in 1906 p., Dreyfus when fully rehabilitated.
Dreyfus during rehabilitation ceremony
6. Socialists and Radicals
Forall XIX Art. in France were differentorganization Socialist Party. They were closely related tolabor movement and had a significant faction in parliament. Word"Socialism was popular among French workers, somepoliticians called themselves socialists.
Traditions revolutions XVIII-XIX Art. exacerbated the influence of socialist doctrines.
Along with the revolutionary and socialistin France there were strong monarchist and clerical traditions Onceattempt to overthrow the republic failed, the monarchists lost their influence in society. Created them1905 uncleaning political organization "Aksyon Franyx") operated under the slogan: "Down with the republic, long live France, long liveKing! "
Early XX Art. in the French Parliament there were about Ten parties and groups, and none of them had a majority and could not independently form a government. Getmost baldlysat could only block of different parties, whose representativesusually formed a coalition government. THESEblocks were fragile and therefore were the same governments that theyrelied. From 1900 to 1914 FranceGovernment changed in 1913. On average, each of them was at power one year andsome - for 2-3 months.
The most influential forces inParliament were radical and socialist parties.
From the beginning XX Art. unfolding political struggle between left(Conservative) and left (radical) Republicans. The latterDnipro River socialists.
Radical Party, founded in 1881 p., Georges Clemenceau was headed, a doctor by profession.
Throughsharp mind, stormy temperament, s questionsof the Company's talent, Clemenceau became a prominent politician in France. Partyradicals very popular among small businessmen and farmers. Her program was formulated PrinciplesProtection of the Republic, private property, against the dominance of clerics,demands the nationalization of monopolies, the introduction of progressive income tax.
After the defeat in the Franco-PrussianWar in France, of significant prevalentnationalistic and chauvinistic ideas, especially the idea revenge for a war. Revanchists calledGermany 'declineissuer enemy "and urged France to preparea new war against it to avenge the defeat, Alsace and Lorraine back.The slogans of revenge and supported the right and left parties. One revenge of the main preachers of the leaderClemenceau radicals.
In the parliamentary elections in 1902winner-left bloc. He united the radicals and socialists and promisedto anticlerical and social reform, including law pensions and the law of the 8-hour day.Head of Government was One of the leading figures of the Radical Party EmilKanb. From that moment until the beginning of World War radicals owned home role in all French governments. They concentratedattention on the state to provide secular character. To this end, 1902-1905 pp. they spent overParliament several laws that separated church and state and school from church.Kept freedom of conscience and equality of allcults. Study of Religionthemschools was forbidden, but the children of believers could attend religiousclasses outside of school. Along with public private schools existed in whichtaught religion. France was the first among major powers has become a secularrepublic. Carrying out other promised by radical reforms long postponed.Clemenceau, who in 1906 became Prime Minister, not once sent troops against the strikers, although in the past sympathized workers."Now I'm behind the barricades," - said he said. Only
1910 district,following the resignation of Clemenceau, France adopted a law on workers'Peasant pensions. It provided pensions for people over the age of65 years - 5 years earlier than in England and Germany.
7. Colonialexpansion. Relations with Britain, Russia, Germanyreason for
Foreign policy of Francewas aimed at rapprochement with Russia and England to fight against Germanyand expansion of the colonial empire. Almost the entire second half XIX Art. France had in colonial wars in Africa andIndochina. This colonial expansion led to conflict with England, who narrowlynot result in armed. However, common threat withfrom Germany forced them to seek common ground. In 1891 - 1893 pp. had strengthened the Russian-French alliance. AgreementEngland in 1904 on the mutual settlement of territorial claims in NorthAfrica and the Far East ended the Anglo-French rivalry and becamefirst step in creating a union of two states. He was named "Cardiacagreement ("Entente kordial). In 1907 it joined Russia.
French colonialists in Indochina
Based on the agreement with England andRussia, France began seizing and Morocco, despite the protests of Germany,in
1911 was declared a protectorateover the conquered country. Formally, it remained its chairman local sultan.
Considering clash with Germanyinevitable, Frenchcue the government undertook toconstruction of a large navy, air force and modernized army. In 1913 the term of military service was extended2 to 3 years, which has greatly increased the number of French Armybefore the war.
Steadily increased and the militarycosts. In 1914 they accounted for 38% of the budget.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. E. Etienne (politician) on purposecolonial policy France. 1894
What is our purpose? We created and wewe intend to preserve and develop colonialempire to secure the future of our country to new continents,provide our products markets, and ourIndustry sources of raw materials. This is undeniable.
I must say that when there isjustify the cost and human victims, which requires the establishment of ourcolonial possessions, it is the hope that the Frenchindustrialist, a French merchant in the colony can direct the excessFrench production.
What purpose is pursued, the French government, exercising colonialexpansion?
2. 3 resolution adoptedCongress General Labour Conference (ZKP) of France in 1906 in Amiens(Am'yenska Charter)
"In the everyday strugglesyndicalism seeks approval to increase workers' effort and welfareworkers reached throughnennya immediateimprovements, such as: reduction of working hours, wage increasepaid more.
Yet these activities - only one sidesyndykalizmu; syndicalism is preparing the complete liberation of the proletariat, which can occuronly through the expropriation of the capitalists; means to achieve this goalsyndicalism recognizes the general strike. He believes that syndicate - now the unionstruggle - in future willbody that knows the production and distribution of products - basis of social transformation ...
... In the interests of the greatest successsyndykalizmu economic struggle should be carried out directly against the classHazyayiv and konfederalni organizations (those thatare ZKP. - Auto.)as a group syndykalni should standoutside party and sects ... "
1. What was the purpose oflabor movement in France?
2. What attracted workersZKP calls?
Questions and Tasks
1. Give a description of the economic development of France in 1871-1914 pp
2. Tell me, what was the political structure of the ThirdRepublic.
3. What are the major political parties struggling for power in France?
4. Describe the radical politics in the early XX cm.
5. What were the characteristics and workingsocialist movement in France?
6. Describe the foreign policy of France.
Note the date!
1875 р. - Adoption of the Constitution of the Third Republic.
1907р. - Creation of the Anglo-French-Russian cociations - Entente.