§ 15. U.S. in the first half of XIX century (textbook)

SubjectVI. UNITED STATES In the first half XIX Art.

CIVICWAR

§ 15.U.S. in first half XIX Art. Civil - War

1. Key features of the socio-economic development

United States after independence the country was the mostdynamic development. From 1820 to 1860 the share of countries in the worldindustrial production increased from 6 to 15%. This was caused by a number of factors, andnamely:

   for the period from 1776 to 1867 the U.S. increased з 1 million to9.369 million square meters. km;

   availability of land in the West, which actively kolonizuvalys;

   rapid population growth - з 4 million in 1776 to 31 million1860 The main source of population increase was emigration. Emigrantsattracted liberal legislation, the opportunity to realize their abilities,rich;

   the existence of natural resources.

End XV1I1 Art. U.S. industrial revolution began.

In 1790 Englishmechanic-immigrant Slater skonstruyuHLW and starts spinningArkwright machine, and in 1793 the inventor Eli Uyimni created a machine to cleancotton. Same time it was built first textile factory. However, the symbol of the beginningindustrial revolution in the United States was not a steam engine and water wheel, whichcaused the spinning machines. Steam machines gained share only 20-30-pp. XIX Art.

Achievement of the Americans was that by inventingRobert Fulton steam engine was installed in 1807 on vehicles. This waspowerful impetus to the development of water transport, increased trade andhence, production. Ships with steam engines were the fastest transport.The U.S. for a short time covered with a network of channels. In a single water systemwere connected to Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basin, southwest of the country.In 13 years of canal was built between New York and Buffalo.

In the 40's pp. XIX Art. railway boom beganconstruction. Railroad stretching from the Atlantic to the PacificU.S. coasts, from north to south. Every five years the length of railwaysdoubling in size.

Development of transport facilitated the development of metallurgy and machine building.

The peculiarity of Americanindustry has become visible roleEuropean capital. This was because the Rapid developmenteconomy given the high rate of return, and protectionist policiesGovernment (imports taxed 75 per cent duty, making imports unattractive).                                  

All the economic achievements were mainly in the NorthUSA. This is due to the peculiarities of the economy in the south and north. OnSouthern plantations developed hostpany,based on the labor of black slaves. Plantations were supplierszations rawand some food products (tobacco, sugar cane, rice) for industrialcenters of Western Europe and Northern USA. The more increased demand for raw materials, thebecame tougher exploitation of slaves. Slavery was a form ofnon-economic coercion.

The existence of plantations sectorbecause the products that it produced, did not need to usesophisticated tools and skilled labor, but only increase operatingincrease in acreage and number of slaves. Thus, in 1860 the plantations of the Southemployed 3.5 million slaves.

Selling slaves

2. Territorial expansion

Since the establishment of the United States before themstanding problem Western Areas -fertile steppes (prairies), forests, rich mineral resources andpopulated by a few tribes whose main occupation was hunting. Asplanters and farmers sought to acquire new lands in the West. Itexpansionary policies caused the American government.

For formationU.S. lands ceded to England by Misssipi. Early XIX Art. The United States purchased in France Louisiana (the area west of the Mississippi), andSpain - Florida. In the 40's pp. U.S. after the war with Mexico have recovered in Texas and herCalifornia. So the U.S. for a short time captured territories from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Early XIX Art. nalichuvalosya 45 statesand 5 territories.

New fieldbecame the first areas that used government, but did not send their representatives toCongress. If the new territory's population reached 60-thousand people, she could ask her acceptance to the group of states to develop aconstitution and to join the union, a full member.

3. Increase the conflict between North and South.Abolitsionistskyy movement

Expanding the U.S. puton the agenda on the extension of slavery into new territory. Since

 a number of U.S.slavery states roughly correspond to the number of those states where slaverywas not.

In addition, the "founding fathersU.S. deliberately brought this matter to the constitution to avoid contentionin the newly created state.

In the process of accepting new members toFederation has always tried to keep this balance. Moreover, not against slaverydenied majority of those states, whereit was not. Industrialists from Northsuccessfully traded, zbuvayuchy in the southern states slaves and industrial products and acquiring raw materials andfood. In 1820, they adopted the Missouri Compromise, which indicated nation-wide issue of slavery.According to him new territory to the west, the Mississippi units divided into twoof parallel 36 ° 36 'W §. To the north Did it prohibited slavery.

The tension between South and Northstrengthened after the accession of new lands, captured in Mexico, and significant atswim there farmers and slave-owners agents.The crisis was the Provisionalowl softened by compromise in 1850: Californiadeclared free from slavery, and New Mexico and Utah have slavery.

Three years later the same questionhave arisen over Kansas and Nebraska.

Kansas came in two streamsimmigrants - from North and South. When the issue of electionlegislature and the fate of slavery, planters resorted to variousmanipulation and coercive pressure, which allowed them to win at slaughtered. But it is not stlumylo antagonismsgrew in real civil war. Between the armies of planters and farmersbegan fighting.

The problem of slavery became the center ofstruggle. To the south it was a matter of life or death. Planter nalashtuvalysyato extreme actions. For the North this problem can be resolved without violatingconstitution.

Southern States sought to legitimizeslavery throughout the country by depriving Congress the right to cancel orallow it in any state. ForThey sought to use Supreme Court. In 1857 there obeyedstDreads right Scott - slave who lived for some time with your ownerin the free state. Office sued for release. The Supreme Court rejected it andat the same time declared that any law banning slavery is unconstitutional.These successes were the last slave-owners, the country gaining strength abolitionarymovement - the abolition of Negro slavery and equal rights with whites. This movementreached epidemic spread in the 30's pp. XIX century, it involved intellectuals, farmers,workers, entrepreneurs and other segments of society.

To assist the Negroes, who fled from the planters,abolitionists created a system of care called "undergroundRailroad. In 30 years of this road there were held over 60 thousandservants, the bulk of which perepravlyalasya to Canada.

In 1833 was created"American Society of Fight withslavery ", chaired by the William Harrison. Abolitsionisyoufought against slavery, using religious arguments and humanisticmorality. Violence is a company not acknowledged.

4. Formation of two-party system

Political life in the United States celebrated the formation of a bipartisansystem. At its creation largely influenced by the political system of England. Toindependence in politics played a major role, as in England,Tories and Whigs. At the beginning of its existence, the party actually were political clubstop of society, or factions in Congress. Gradually occurred relationship betweenpolitical parties and voters. Formed the professional politicians.The fight for the presidency was the struggle of party leaders.

In the first years after gainingindependence of the basic question of political struggle was the question of statesystem. They formed a bipartisan firstSystem: Federalists and antifaderalisty.Prior XIX Art. power wereFederalist. His ideological political leader they considered George Washington.During their rule was laid the foundations of the U.S. federal structure. In1801, the government dostupylysya national Republicans (antyfederalisty)ideological leader which was Thomas Jefferson.They held power until 1828 p., putting effort to strengthen democracy and the formation of strongcentral authorities.

Strengthening the social heterogeneity of society,extension of voting rights and the development of the West require new approaches, political decisions. In 1829 Presidentwas Andrew Jackson. Jackson led the new democratic party (shelaunched the modern Democratic Party). Democrats cryly ratefor maximum freedom of business on the principle of "equalopportunities. "Jackson for his presidency (I829-1837 pp.) made reforms aimed at decentralization of financialsystem (the central bank was liquidated, the whole financial system passedprivate banks) and pricing (the system was eliminatedprotectionism). Such policies enjoy the support of Democratic PartySouthern planters and industrialists, bankers, farmers, related to the assimilationlands in the West.

Democrats were in power until 1841 for their rule in the internalU.S. policy was introduced the practice in which the new president spent cleaningstate apparatus and place appointed for the released of their supporters.

In 1841 the president was William Harrison - a new leadervihiv party, the successor of national Republicans. New Whigs defendedinterests of the federal government, were inclined to compromise with the planters in the Southissues of slavery.

Democrats and Whigs formed a new secondtwo-party system that existed until 1860

From the rise of conflicts betweenindustrial North and the South slavery Whigs lost the support of newthose strata of society who defended the elimination of protectionist policies andslavery.

A new political force which stronglyopposed interests of the South, Republican Party proved thatformed in Chicago in 1854 and still exists.

its leaderwas Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), born infamily of a poor farmer. Since childhood he used to work, helping to handleland, hunting and more. Heavy American Lifeing farmers start XIX Art. (Attacks of Indians, land depletion, epidemics, migration) hardenedyoung Lincoln. He remarkable growthand strength. Hard work prevented him get at least primary education. He alone learned to read and write. Lincolnall in life has made their own efforts. Starting in the 21-year-oldindependent life, he tried many professions. Worked as a surveyor,store clerks, loggers, postal employee, even fought with the Indians.For several years he studied law, trying to get a lawyerlicense. Working lawyer, he gained great credibility. By justicepeople gave him the nickname "Honest Abe" (diminutive of Abraham).

U.S. President A. Lincoln

 

The firststeps in the policy of Lincoln made in 1834 p., when he was elected to LegislativeAssembly of Illinois. Nextstep in the political Lincoln's career was his election 1847 to the House of Representatives conbelieve that this kind the United States. As a deputy of the Congress, through hisperformances against the military- us with Mexico and against slavery inlived a lot of political enemies. In 1849Lincoln was, after deputypowers, returned to Springfield, where he continued katsku practice. Failureson MPGeorgia was not the field forced him to withdraw from thepolitical life. After the formation of the Republican party he has been an activemember and 1860 - a candidate for president. D. Election of President Lincolnmeant political victory for opponents of slavery.

Republicans in the wake of wideabolitionary movement underway, especially in the northern U.S., dostupylysyato power in 1861 they had to solve naypekuchishu problem at that time the United States -the issue of slavery.

5. Drive and the beginning of civil war. Operationsв 1861- 1862 pp.

The election of President A. Lincolnwas the reason for rebellion in slavery states. Eight states, slavery,zmyryvshys not the loss of political power, have announced secession from the United States.They established a confederation with the center in Richmond and was elected presidentplanter Jefferson Davis. The insurgents have declared that governedconviction: "Slavery - the normal situation for blacks.

President of the Confederation States Jefferson Davis

 

After joining Lincoln asPresident of the Confederation forces 12-13 April 1861 attacked and seizedFort Sumter near Charleston.

 

Fort Sam ter (internal and external appearance)

 

April 15Lincoln announced a set number of militia 75 thousand people. Thus began the civil war - a war between citizensone state.

Attempts to separate the southern statesfrom the federation were made long before the Civil War. Yes, 1832 SouthCarolina declared void federal laws in its territory and announced its withdrawal from the federation. Inresponse, U.S. President Jackson sent to the coast of the state fleet. Under threatincursion of federal troops from the state government refused their intentions. In 1850South was again threatened department, but this time the position of the army decidedcase in favor of the country.

The situation dramaticallyThen in 1860 changed much of officer corpssupported the rebels and civil war became inevitable.

Fighting the federal governmentunfolded very slowly. This enabled the army of the South, led by atalented general R.-E. Lee, gain one victory after another. In June 1861 , the Confederates nearly captured Washington.Capital USA was pryfrontovym city.

General Lee

 

The beginning of the war was accompanied bypatriotic inspiration. As the army of the South and the army entered Northmany volunteers. At the end of 1861 Army North (Yankees) was 650 thousandsoldiers, several times exceeding the army of the South. However, only the most numerousadvantage was not enough for victory. This still need talentedcommanders and a plan of engagement. In the early years of the war the Northlacked both the First and second.Strategic Plan of eyelashesUkrainepredicted block area conFederation and the gradual compressionring environment. This plan was named "Anaconda". The course of warAction in 1862 revealed his falsehood. Roztyahnenist thousands of troops northkilometers involve the concentrate enough of them andright place.

 

In 1862 hostilities opened simultaneously on twofronts: in the basin of the Mississippi and Virginia. North Fleet blockedConfederation coast, preventing the imported equipment and export of arms andcotton and other export crops. Fighting has been successful for the North, despite the success of General Grant in the pool U.S. wasMississippi and capture New Orleans. Confederates inflicted three defeats on the YankeesVirginia and, through the creation of armor-clad fleet, broke through the sea blockade.

Failures and delays in the warfinally convinced the U.S. President Lincoln in the need to take radicalZakhodays. In 1862, they adopted a series oflegislation, then constitutional character of the war (for Unitycountries) has changed to a revolutionary (for the radical transformation).

6. Homstedy Act. Abolition of slavery. The defeat of the South

May 20, 1862 was adoptedhomstedy law. Under this law, every citizen who did not participate inrevolt had right, by paying $ 10State fee, get homsted - land on the free landsarea of 160 acres(64 ha)to create a farm. After five years of residence, development and cultivation of the soilshe became a free private property. Although this law had no directmilitary value, he helped mood of the people mass for winning overSouth.

September 22, 1862 waslaw on the release of slaves, by which all slaves received freedom of 1January 1863 This law has undermined the rear of the South. Slaves began to rise up en masse andjoin Army North.

 

North Generals Shermanand Grant

 

Despite the difficult economicand political situation, the forces of the South kept fighting ability. Yes, spring 1863Southern army under General Lee inflicted heavy Army offensive stroke in North Chanselorvillem. But themanifest victoryLai last. LI Army was stopped in July 1863 underHittisberhom (Pennsylvania) and rejected. Meanwhile, troops under the command of the NorthGrant possessed strong point, the Confederates on the Mississippi and the city Viksberhomfollows віdrizaly South of the West sat down. In the spring of 1864 Yankeesstruck at the heart of Confederation: troops under the command of General W.Sherman captured the industrial center of the city of Atlanta (Georgia) and began"March to the sea, cutting the South in half the states. Troops of the South donestubborn resistance to April 1865 p., Grant is still army captured the capital of the confederation of Richmond. General LeeApril 9 with his army surrendered.

Glowing Richmond

 

The victory was marred by tragedy North - fivedays after the capitulation of the South shot Abraham Lincoln in Washingtontheater actor shoes, intelligence agent southerners. Four-year war ended. Underwhen it killed 600 thousand people. Significant losses were material.

7. Reconstruction of the South (1865-1877 pp.)

After the civil war the country facedproblem of reconstruction - the restoration of unity and rebuilding livesSouth.

The first step on this path wascomplete and irreversible abolition of slavery. In February 1865 Congress passed13 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibiting slavery throughout thecountry. But waiting for the solution of such problems: conditions of admission of former statesthe union confederation, the status of former slave-owners and slaves, the organization of powerin the South and others.

The ruling circles in the U.S. on this consensus was not.After the death of Lincoln differences between the president (his state of Andrew Jones,former Vice-President) and Congress in solving these problems become more acute. E. Jonesadopted a position of appeasement. In May 1865, he decreed an amnesty thatrenewed: planters in the civil, political and property rights (other than rightshave slaves). Southern Planter interpreted this decree я : weakness. Theystarted to return to their plantations and to force the former slaves back to workin ourselves, but also created an extensive terrorist organizationKu Klux Klan, which rozpravlyalas of those disobedient Negroes and whites, who wsorry. Lynch has assumed distribution - punishment for a throat without trial.Regained his power held by planters. state legislative assembly"Black codes" - laws that prohibit former slaves haveproperty, were deprived of their freedom of movement, expression, assembly, the right to marrywith white and so on. So, in the south took place "creeping" processto restore order. There was the threat of another civil war betweenplanters and former slaves, who began the restoration of organized resistanceold order. Negroes were in the name of restoring civil rights,"Everyone - 40 acresand mule. "They began to take over the lands and distribute them. The situationintensified after the election to Congress in December 1865, MPs from southern states. Among the newlyDeputies many former leaders of the confederation. Radicallyset Members of Congress have madedecision not to allow these members to the meeting room and refer casesreconstruction Congressmanance. In July 1866 Congress passedI4 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, under which former leaders of the confederationdeprived of their right to occupy public office, and Negroes in the rights of zrivnyuvalyswhite. Banned the "black codes".

Received in elections to Congressvictory, Republicans have resorted to radical reconstruction. In 1867, atSouth was introduced martial law, revoked the former state constitution. Thanks to decisive actions in 1868 the states of the Southratified 14 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

Radical reconstruction - isForced democratization of life in the South by the U.S. army, but withoutsolution of a dictatorship and terror.

Nefam was allowed to have real estate;in the southern states began to move law homstedy 1862

Thanks to a radical reconstructionNegro population actively worked hard to political life. Southern Statesafter reviewing their constitutions were again taken to the Union.

The new presidential electiondefeated former army chief, General U.S. Grant North. Hepresidency has been notable growth in entrepreneurial activity. Stormydevelopment of market relations contributed to the gradual elimination of differences betweenSouth and North. Former planters and their slaves adapted to neweconomic conditions. Gradually achieved the radical reconstructionbefore her goal. In 1877 the South was taken out federal troops and theeliminated the last elements of an emergency.

U.S. President W. Grant

 

During the period of reconstruction occurredsignificant changes in the U.S. party system. Democratic Party by joiningits ranks of farmers and entrepreneurs have not only represented the interests of former planters. Democrats everyElection recruited weight in Congress. Simultaneously, the Republican Partytransformed into a party that reflected the interests of big business,industrialists and bankers. It has lost its radical spirit.

End to the tragic period of historyU.S. presidential election in 1876 brought p., in which representative democracy Partyreceived the most votes. But the election results were relook andpresident became the candidate of the Republican Party R. Hayes. This was the result of behind the scenes collusion between party leaders Abouttermination of reconstruction and troop withdrawal.

Civil War and Reconstructionis the only time in U.S. history. Estimates by historians of these events are different. Some compare them with the bourgeois-democraticRevolution and Nazimvayut their secondAmerican Revolution, others consider it as a struggle between two forms of ownership and labor organization.

 

Documents. Facts. Comments

З proclamation freeing the slaves of January 1, 1863

"... Now, ifarmed insurgency against the government and the United States government and using it asfair, necessarymilitary action to suppress the rebellion, which goes Language, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United Statesvlauid and the Army ChiefUnited States Navy firstday of January (1863) in agreement with my (former) intention publicly declared a hundred days before the saidfirst day, the radioconstitutesand indicates those states and parts of States, people are now in a state of insurrection against the UnitedStates ...

On the basis of power (I provided) andto achieve specified abovegoal declare that all persons who were considered slaves in these states and parts of States, and henceforthAnd still free the executiveUnited States authorities, including military and sea power, recognize and guard freedomabove mentioned techoccupants.

Next, I herebyand report that such persons if they satisfy the relevant conditions will beadopted by the militaryone military serviceUnited States garrisons, posts, stations and other places and all the military vehicles. "

Consider:

1. How important was freeing the slaves for furthernemotion of civil war in the U.S.?

2. Confirm your thoughts documented.

Questions and Tasks

1.              Whatwere features of the U.S. in the first half XIX cm.?

2.              Describeplantations and farms.

3.              Whatwas due to the existence of slavery in the U.S.?

4.              Whatterritorial changes occurred in the first half XIX cm. and what events they related?

5.              Giveassessment of U.S. foreign policy in the first half XIX cm.

6.              Whatcauses abolitionary movement?

7.              Findcauses of civil war in the U.S..

8.              Describe  changes  в  party-political systemSIIIA end XVIII - In the first half XIX cm.

9.              Whatperiods of civil war can be singled out and what it due?

10. Give a definition: abolitionary movementpublicdefined as war, reconstruction,radical reconstruction.

11.      Giveassessment of the political activities of A. Lincoln. Fold his political portrait.

12.      Asdeveloping events on the fronts of the civil war? Roselook of the troops on the map.

13.      Thatresulted in a victory over North South?

14.      Findbasic measures of reconstruction and its implications.

Note the date!

1860                    - The election of Mr. Lincoln, U.S. president.

1861-1865pp.         - Civil War in the United States.

1862р.                     - Lawhomstedy.

1863р.                     - Abolition of Slavery.

18641865-1877rr.  - Reconstruction South.