§ 14.Russian Empire in the second half XIX Art.
1. The Crimean War
Russian Empire in ViennaCongress (1815) played an active role in European life. For hisinvolved in suppressing the revolutionary and national liberation movements, she receiveda dubious honor "gendarme of Europe". Executing gendarmerie functions, Russia is not forgotten and theirold plans greater influence in the Balkans which were under the rulethe old enemy - the Ottoman Empire.
In the early 50's pp. XIX Art. Nicholas was preparing to inflict the Ottoman Empiredecisive blow. The reason for the conflict was the dispute between the Orthodox andCatholic clergy for the right supervision Christian shrines inJerusalem. Nicholas and extremely offended that the Turkish sultan, supportedFrench President Louis Napoleon, gave preference to Catholics. Instead, Russiantroops occupied dependent on Turkey DanubePrincipality of Moldavia and Wallachia. These events became the initialcom Crimean War(1853-1856 pp. ).
Anglo-Frenchfleet off the coast of the Crimea
Russia's actions provoked a backlash in Europe, and itfound itself in diplomatic isolation. At first the events unfolded on the frontquite successfully to Nicholas I "in Bay Synops'ka Russian squadron under the commandP. Nakhimov destroyed the Turkish fleet, the Russian army successfully promotedin Transcaucasia, forsuvala Danube. These and other defeats have put Turkey in a difficultsituation. England and France, not wishing to furtherthe strengthening of Russia, in 1854 announced the entry into the war on the side of Turkey.Subsequently, they joined the Sardinian Kingdom.Russia faces a threat of war, almost the entirem perimeter of yourborder: the West to the Far East. It is deprived of its opportunities to successfullyresist the combined forces of leading European countries. Besides technicalbackwardness (lack of railways and steam fleet, obsolete weapons)manning army of illiterate peasants on the basis of recruiting duty, inmost incompetent officer corps did the chances of victoryWar in the ephemeral.
After joining the war alliesTurkey's main military events unfolded in the Crimea. In September-October 1854Allied troops inflicted several defeats Russians here and surrounded by the sea homeempire base on the Black Sea - Sevastopol. Defenders of the base began heroicdefense, which lasted 11 months. However, to provide effective assistance courageous Sevastopolinept imperial command failed. Then in August 1856defenders left the city of Sevastopol.
Siege of Sevastopol (fragment dioramas)
The fall of Sevastopolactually meant the defeat of Russia. The new emperorthe spotAlexander II (1855-1881 pp.) decided to discontinuewar. In PaRiga Peace Congress (1856р. ) defeated RussianEmpire had to accept the demands of England and France. Naydoshkulnishymyamong them were the ban to keep the navy in the Black Sea and the actualelimination of European Affairs.
Emperor Alexander II
The Crimean War clearly showedNicholas backwardness of Russia and has led to understanding the imperial topneed to overcome behind the industrialized nations of Europe.
2. Reform of 1861 abolition of serfdom
Russia's defeat in the Crimean War and humiliating for herterms of the Paris peace treaty in 1856 put the emperorAlexander II complex problems. Oneof them was serfdom as Russia remained the only Europeancountry that used slave labor. Preservation of serfdom inRussian Empire would mean inevitable changes in its futuresecondary state. This, of course, did not meet its ambitious plansrulers. The Crimean War clearly demonstrated the gap from RussiaWestern European countries, dangerously posylyuvalosya. In addition, the ringright of possession "baptized property, very similar to slavery,led to condemnation for its immorality.
Nevertheless, the gradual spread in Russian societythe need to eliminate serfdom does not exclude acute controversyon how it can be done. Liberals felt it appropriate to makepeasant reform so that it created conditions for the development of marketrelations in agriculture. Conservatives, who formed the majoritylandlords, agreed to reform only as yielding. Theytried to preserve the long semi-dependence to provide farmerstheir future.
Rural reform was the result ofcompromise that would satisfy the public, landowners and peasantsinterests. In fact, it did not satisfy anyone completely.
February 19, 1861 Alexander II approved the "Regulations", "Manifesto" andother documents peasant reform. "Regulations" were distributed tomajority provinces of European Russia, where there were about 25 millionserfs. In the Manifesto they received personal freedom andSome civil rights, could sign on to the factories and plants. In"Regulation" identified some issues of reform: the size of landportions, duty, redemption and other transactions. All doreformeni peasant holdingsconsidered property of the landlord and the peasants were on land-use rights.For this, they performed a series in favor of landlord obligations and were onposition, "tymchasovozobovyazanyh. Only after farmers were buying plotstheir owners. To purchase the farmers to perform duties in favor of the landlordform processing. Term of redemption of land by peasants are not clearly defined, and its provisionspredicted that 75-80% of the peasantinheritance money or securities Papeframe landowner is paid a Statethe rest - himself a farmer. Power sum payout landlord were charged with peasantfor 1949 of 6% per annum. Total peasants had to payabout 1, 5 billion rubles (for value of land about 500 million rubles).
Announcementroyal manifesto February 19, 1861 p
Despite the fact that after the reform in 1861 remained highlandlordism (thirty thousand landlords have 95 million acres of land, while20 million former rural landowners - 116 million acres), some dependence of peasants on the landlords and petty guardianshipof the peasant communities, peasant reform had a progressive nature, as liquidated-old servant- cosand created conditions for rapid economic development.
In the village began bundles:appeared prosperous peasants, who used hired labor, and poor,who were forced to seek additional sources of income. This Russianfactories and plants were able constant influx of cheap labor.However, the reform contributed to the increase of the internal market, which was the impetus forenterprise development. Due to the presence of peasant ricereform in 1861 was considered the boundary between the old and new Russia.
3. Regional, judicial, municipal and military reform
Abolition of serfdom drewneed furthershyh transformationsunder new historical conditions. These reformswe, although not changed inwhole political system of Russia and left intact the sovereignty, createdfoundation for the transition from feudal-birth order of the Russian Empire tobourgeois.
In 1864, with the reform of school wascreated elected authorities in the province and county scale - zemstvos. Zemskovvowels were selected from landowners, urban voters and representativesnykiv rural communities. Business operation of countylimited facilitieszhuvalasya economic issues of local importance: Holdroads, post, schools, hospitals, establishment of veterinary and agronomic services and more. Funds for this came from Zemstvothtax, which obkladalosya entire population. However Zemskov Board had no rightenforce its decisions. To do this, they should seekwith the king's authority, especially police. Officials on the ground in theirdiscretion, may suspend any decision zemstvos. Yet the emergence of small zemstvaimportant. In the Russian empire were local government whose activities differ significantlynyalasyafrom the dominant state-bureaucratic system.
Like county agencies in 1870was rebuilt and the city government. Elected municipal councils took care of the citypublic welfare, health care and education.
One ofthat time was the most important judicial reformstion reform in 1864
Doreformenyy court was is (that is, each state had itsseparate court) and covert (hearings held behind closed doors,defendants had no defenders). The Court entirely depended on the administration.
New legal statutes declared independence from the courtadministration: a judge appointed by the government, but removed from office could only trial.Preliminary investigations conducted by court investigators, who were not subject to the police.Zaprovadzhuvavsya court only for the entire population. He was transparent: ontrials could be members of the press and public. Introduced competitiveprocess: the prosecution supported the prosecutor, the defense - lawyer (jurorattorney).
Criminal cases were considered byjury of all states, including from farmers(Jurors could not be a person who worked for hire, that is, workers, servantset al. ). Jury determined the guilt of the defendant and the sentence carried outchairman and two members of the court.
Reform of the court was the mostreforms. Thattrue, preservedTownship special courts for the peasantry, the courts for the clergy, the military courts; limitedjurisdiction officials: soon gendarmerie was again given the rightPrevious investigation for political affairs, especially the important thingstransferred to a specially created government judicial commissions have been savedcorporal punishment for the peasants, convicts, soldiers penalty, judicial transparencyraised.
In the 60's pp. the initiative of War Minister D. Milyutina startedmilitary reform.
The most important reform in 1874 hadp., where introducedgeneral duty, it had to undergo all men 21 years of age are eligible for military service. Dates Serviceshortened. In the infantry installed lifetime duration of 6 yearssubsequent admission to the reserve for 9 years. In the Navy service lasted 7 years and 3years in reserve. This gave an opportunity to significantly increase military during the war. Forpeople with less education were established lifetime. Improved trainingTroops and training officers. The army began to be equipped with modernweapons, created the steam navy.
However, along with changes in the Army cancould see a lot of old: the command structure remained noble, preserveddrill and the beating of soldiers.
Reforms 60 70 pp. XIX Art. contributed to the rapid and dynamic economic and socio-political development Russia. Features reforms in Russia lie inthat their conduct completelydepended on the ruling elite, they were neposlidovthem andhalf-especially in the political sphere. Russia remained an absolute monarchy, without a representative system, multi clearly defined civilRights and Freedoms.
Yet these reforms have fundamentally changed the social and economic structure of the Russian Empire, creatednecessary conditionsyou for its economic development.
4.Economic development of Russia after reforms
After the abolition of serfdom inRussian Industry free-work gradually began to prevail over compulsory. Since the mid 60's pp. Russian government began to pay more support of private capital, share in itsstate hands enterprise. Successfully developedtextiles - cotton fabrics increased in 20 yearstwice. Metametallurgy had to not onlyswitch to vilnonaymationworkforce, but also make a technical upgrade. ManufacTED metal in the Urals, the old steel baseEmpire, in post years declined,and is increasingly gaining pace and Metallurgical mining in Donetsk-Krivoy Rog basin.
In the 60's pp. unfolded active construction of railways. Government instrumental in developing and engineering, resulting in the second half of the 70's pp. railway rolling stock was mainly domesticproduction.
The Industrial Revolution causedemergence of new cities. The significant textile industry became Ivanovo-Voznesenskrapidly growing port city of Rostov-on-Don, the largest Siberian and generalmarket town has become Tomsk.
There were significant changes inpopulation. More significant place in society sat entrepreneurs. Roslinumber of industrial workers, which replenished the ranks of farmers, Were looking earnings. Over time, they finallyleft to the rural farm and settled in cities. Working conditionsWorkers were extremely serious lack in the Russian Empire anylabor legislation. AgricultureRussia is developingLOS slowly. After the fall of serfdom landownersposdylosya rebuild its economyon market principles. Not all were able to do it. Partlandowners on their estates made a commodity market, others are not able toentity under the new conditions, they sold their land.
Disintegration of the peasants after the reformcaused that most of the village were poor and mid-levelprosperity to farmers, wealthy owners was not enough.
In post decade in the economyRussian Empire took place transition to a new economic model basedon the use of "free labor. Economic development to cause inRussian Empire, the emergence of advanced industry, which coexisted with numeroussurvivals of serfdom in the countryside and autocratic political system thatdepriving citizens of basic democratic rights. This led to numeroussocial conflicts that were dangerous source of instability in the country.
5. Social and political movements of the second half XIX Art.
In the center of social and political lifeSecond half of the Russian Empire XIX Art. were most painful question - landand liberty. Reform measures by the Russian Society perceivedfavorably. But the unresolved land issue, the lack of political rights andfreedoms caused increase in the number of dissatisfied among different socialgroups.
In 1865 at a meeting of representatives of the Moscow nobilityraised the question of the introduction of representative in the countryrule. The emperor had failed to repression, as did not want to spoil relationsinfluential nobility of Moscow, but said that the introductionRussian Empire, the constitution will cause its collapse. Similar requirementsexpressed zemstvo. In post zemstvo were the maincenters of the movement for a constitution. Consequently, the Russian government launched a policyrestricting the rights of county agencies.
Government's unwillingness to reckon with public opinion arousedpolarization among the intellectuals who come from replenished nedvoryanskyhriznochynskyh groups. Among young people, especially students, distributedradical-democratic ideas, which suggested to solve immediate problemssocial and political life through popular uprising. Ideologists of this directionwere Chernyshevsky M., M. Dobrolyubov, A. Herzen. In the 60's pp. radical intellectuals was to createsecret anti-government organization. Among them were the "Land and Freedom" (1862-1864pp. ), M. Ishutina circle,"People massacre" (1869), led by S. Nechaeva. Severe repressionautocracy led transition radicals totactics of individual terror (D. Karakozova attempt in 1866 onAlexander II).
On the Edge 60 70pp. in Russia was becoming ideologicalBIR revolutionary populism. That was the radical-democratic movement, whothe basis of Western European socialist ideas created his own theory of transitionRussia to socialism through popular uprising and the peasant community. "Seeing a single purpose, populism theorists proposed various ways toachievement. M. Bakunin (rebellious direction) advocated immediate peasantRevolution, which begins radical intelligentsia. Mr. Lavrov (propagandadirection) believed that you must first educate the villagers to prepare them forrevolution. P. Tkachev (collusive direction) also shared the view that farmers are not readybefore the revolution, but insisted that the emancipation of the peasants intelligentsiato seize power through armed revolution and make the topnecessary transformations.
The defeat of the police clandestine printing populists
Attempts populists translate their plans in life were unsuccessful.Sacrificial 'walking in people with the aim of advocacy amongfarmers failed. Having lost faith in the fact that farmers are able to rise againstautocracy, populists have resorted to individual terrorism. Shot V. ZasulichGovernor-General in Trepova (1878) launched a wave of attacks on seniorgovernment officials and even the king. Terror populists tried to destroy the systemimperial authority.
Lack of desired outcomes and government repressioncaused the split, "Land and freedom", which broke up in 1879Black Division "and" Peoplethe will. "Members of the latter concentrateded on the politicalterror. In 1881, they killed Alexander II. The irony was that on the day of the murder of the emperorapproved the proposal of Minister of Internal Affairs M. Melikov Loris-onfurther reforms and measures for implementation in the empire of representativerule.
The murder of the emperor nochanged in the country, unless aggravatedsituation. See followed Alexander III (1881- 1894 pp.). "Constitution"Loris - Melikov was rejected, in a country bedeviled reaction.
Politicskontrreform as Harakteryzuvalydomestic political Alexander rateIII, hadintended strengthening the sovereignty and limitationspolitical freedoms. There wasloheavily censored, closed liberalby spectraledition, limited opportunities obtainingeducation for children from lower groups(Circular on "kuharchynyh Children 1887 p.)strengthened administrativenyy zemstvo control and urbanself-government.
6. Russia's foreign policy
Since the late 50's pp. Russian Empire, eliminated from European affairs, directing its expansionto Central Asia. During 1864-1884 pp. She waged war for the annexation of territories and Kokandskoho Hivinskoho KhanateEmirate of Bukhara and Kazakh lands. their result was the establishment ofconquered lands of the Russian military and administrative control. ButRussian expansion in Central Asia caused the collision with the interests of England. In1887 both countries signed a protocol on the delimitation of the Russo-British,who stopped the further progress of Russia south to the north-western borderAfghanistan. As a result of Russian expansion in the second half XIX Art. It included a large territory of Central Asia- from the Caspian Sea to the mountains of Tien Shan andof the Aral Sea to the border with Afghanistan.
Russia's foreign policyin Europe was directed to review decisions of the Treaty of Paris 1856Careful and skillful politician Foreign Minister Gorchakov AA enabledRussia, using the contradictions between European countries, leavediplomatic isolation and increase their influence on Balkans. After Prussia defeated Austria (1866) andFrance (1871 p. ), Russia has not met withtheir part. against their plans.
In the 70's pp. Russia regained its navy in the Black Sea anddirection taken by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire through the supportnational liberation movements. In those years the impetus to liberation movementsBalkans, the Turks brutally suppressed it. First, Russia has BalkanPeoples informal support, and in 1877declared war on the Ottoman Empire. This war ended in victoryRussia. As a result of the Russo-Turkish War1877-1878 pp. Turkey recognized the independence of Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria provided autonomously. But Berlin treatise1878 limited the influence of Russia in the Balkans and the Middle East.
A new correlation of forces that happenedEurope in the late 70's pp., Resulted in a reorientation of foreign policy of the Russian Empire. Ondominant position in Europe, Germany claimed that concluded a military alliance withAustria-Hungary (1879) and Italy (1882 p. ). So there was the Triple Alliance, aimed primarily againstRussia and France. This prompted Russia to seek rapprochement with France and England andUnion to abandon the three emperors, which were girded Bismarck Russia in 1873was
Questions and Tasks
1. Identify the causes and consequences of the Crimean War.
2. WhyRussian government went on a peasant reformwe 1861r. ?
3. Describe the basicprovisions of the peasant reform 1861r.
4. What changes have occurred inRussian Empire at regional, judicial, municipal and military reforms?
5. What waslimited reforms 60 - 70 pp. ? What value they have for Russia's development?
6. Describeporeformenoi economic development of Russia.
7. Make a plan§ "Social and Political Movementssecond half XIX cm. And prepare a story behind it.
8. Expand FeaturesForeign Policy of the Russian Empire in the second half XIX cm.