§ 13.Italy and Germany in the 50's and 60's pp.
After the defeat of the revolutions 1848-1849 pp. Italy and Germany remained politically fragmentation countries. Implement nationalassociation through revolution fortunate. But the problem of unification, and forItaly is also a problem of national liberation has not lost its relevance.Historical experience testified that the only people in their own state has the capacity tofull development. Saving disunity prevented the deploymentindustrial revolution impossible decent part in Italy and Germanyinternational affairs.
In the 50's and 60's pp. XIX Art. in Italy and Germany appeared generation of politicians thatmanaged to successfully solve complex problems of formation of national states. ForEurope's second half XIX Art. unification of Italy and Germany became the personification of nation-states thatwon the right to exist largely thanks to the power weapons.
1. Strengthening the Sardinian kingdom. CamiloCavour
After failing to mergeItaly during the revolution of 1848-1849 pp. country was again divided, and much of the North was underAustrian occupation. In Rome (Pontifical region) were Frenchtroops. In all the states constitution and the liberal laws that people had made theirduring Revolution 1848-1849 he wascanceled. Everywhere the authorities pretendedve to repression and persecution of workers andrevolutionary parties events. There wasrestoration of feudal-absolutist onlines, especially inNeapolitan kingdom. Have fallen economynomichnapolicy absolutist regime was one of the reasons stagnation or veryslow economic development of most ItalianStates. In 1839 in Italy wasThe first railway was built, but toHere in 1859 there were only 1800 km railways, of which about half fell on Piedmont. None of these Railwaysnot crossed the border "Their"state. Customs barriers between Statesalso not been eliminated. Almost everywhere in Italy, especially in the South, agriculture, underminedfrequent crop failures, espezhyvalo in50's pp. acute crisis. GrowthDoes urban poverty. The only exception was Sardinian Kingdom (Piedmont), where preserved constitutional monarchy and liberallegislation. This achappened here due to higher activity of the headGovernment Camilo Bens Cavour (1810-1861).
C. Cavour was born in the ancientnoble family. He received an excellent education. Briefly served in the army.Several years dedicated self-education andtravels. In 1847 founded a newspaper Renaissancepages which taught her political views and beliefs. The modelthe political system he considered England. In 1849 he became deputy parliamentnext year - miNistru Agricultureeconomy and trade, and later headed the government. Was a skilful politician anddiplomat. Garibaldi characterszuvav Cavour as a skilled master"Fox's policy, which was able to force the same art eventsor wait and prepare them to advance or retreat and compromise. Asmain business of the life of Italy Cavour identified association to achieve thispurpose he used any means SuccessfulGaribaldi action he could use to make their plans.
Led Cavour government made number of reforms that contributed to economicelevation Piedmont. Deployed railway construction, a reformFinancial System Began buildingIndustry, trade intensified. HeadThis was the clerics Piedmontunion center in Italy.
Still, Cavour asked not onlyeconomy. Important place in its activitiesassigned the struggle for the liberation of Italy Austrians and of associationunder the auspices of King Piedmont throughwar and diplomatic efforts. Cavour aimed at attach deliveredVenice, Lombardy, along with Parma and Modena to the Sardinian kingdom.Because Piedmont is had sufficient strength toindependent struggle against Austria, Cavour considered necessary to obtainsupport of France and England. For this Sardinian Kingdom (Piedmont)participated in the KRoman war against Russiaon the side of England, France and Turkey.
Paris Peace Congress in 1856 Cavourused for publicizing its program solve the Italian question.Practical results it did not, however, contributed to the perception of EuropeanPiedmont politicians as an exponent of Italian interests. Since then startedits rapprochement with bonapartystskoyu France, which sought to expand its influencein Europe.
In 1858, between Napoleon III (EmperorFrance) and coffeerum was concluded a secret agreement under which the FrenchArmy (200 thousand troops) and the Piedmont army (100 thousand troops) together actions were free of Lombardy (Milan) and Venicefrom Austriansity rule. Theseterritory were to join the Piedmont, thatwould announce his kingdom in North (Upper), Italy. Instead, PiedmontFrance pledged to allocatetionregion of Savoy and Nice. Each of the parties pursued owngoals. Napoleon III, According to Bismarck, wanted "somethingaattached, and now set the French supremacy overItaly. Cavour hoped that Italy, together with assistancetomer France, to resist itterritorial encroachment.
2. The war against Austria. Join PiedmontNorth and Central Italy
MilitaryPiedmont cooking alarmed Austria, і it viyistu announced. However, Franco-Italian army crossedthe offensive, Madmento in the Battle of, Solferino andSan Martino defeated Austrians andliberated Lombardy. In the Italian states of Modena, Parma, Tuscany burstpopular uprising. These States decided to join Piedmont. How is Napoleon III, violatingtheir alliance commitments made peace with Austria (1859 p.). By this treaty Austria passed PiedmontLombardy, and France receivedSavoy and Nice. Other states back in Italy control of the Austrian Empire.
But Italians do not want moreobey the Austrians. Restore the old order in Modena, Parma and Tuscany forAustrians was impossible. In early 1860 at the initiative of Cavour in the Statesthat had to go back under the domination of Austria (Tuscany, Modena, Parma,Romagna), held a plebiscite on the merger of those States with Sardiniankingdom. As a result, these duchies joined the Piedmont.Napoleon III agreed to a union in exchange for transferred himPiedmont territory - Savoy and Nice. As a result of compromise Cavour extendedSardinian authorities in the Kingdom Northand Central Italy. Remained the South. So, Franceco-Italian-Austrianwar, though he has not reached the ultimate goal, yet union launchedItaly.
Italy at the beginning of 1860was
Kingdom SardinesBoard (P`yemonт)
Venetsіanska region (in stock Avstryysькоїymperії)
3.The rise of liberation movements. Hiking Garibaldi
The war became a strong impetus to the unification movementSouth of Italy. Republicans, led by trained Madzini popular uprising inNeapolitan kingdom. Center rebellion had become Fr. Sicily. Leaders revoltGaribaldi addressed a request to lead a detachment of volunteers that werein Genoa (Piedmont). Led his squad to 1100 soldiers (Thousand) ontwo ships left for Sicily. Arriving in May 1860 on the island,Garibaldi their decrees abolished the feudal duties and announceddistribution of land among peasants. It provided support for revolt by farmers.A decisive battle between rebels and troops of Naples occurred nearKalatafimi in Western Sicily. Detachment Garibaldi(Chervonosorochechnyky) fast attack defeated Neapolitan troops,
dominated numerically (25 thousand soldiers). After this victory the squad Garibaldimoved to Palermo (the main city of Sicily). Through joint actions and the insurgent population haribaldiytsiv city May 27 was captured. Liberated Sicily, Insurgentarmy for 18 days passed from the "toe" Apennine peninsulato Naples. Co.rolivska army surrendered.Companions advised him to Garibaldi maintain dictatorial powers anduse time to gain the Pope and Venice area.
Decisive action called Garibaldiconcern in the Piedmont. Cavour feared that when Garibaldi will go to Rome, heprovoke Austria and France to come to the aid of the pope. Besides Cavour did not want to enhance leader"Chervonosorochechnykiv. He himself defeated the papal army, butRome did not go.
In Naples plebiscite was held,so most people in favor of joining the Piedmont. Garibaldipersuaded to join the single conquered lands of Italy, and he handed over power inNeapolitan kingdom Victor - Emmanuel, King of Piedmont. RequestGaribaldi make him governor of South Italy Cavour rejected. Offendedrebel leader rejected the proposed awards and titles, and then returned to his Kapreru - littleIsland near Sardinia.
4. Formation of the Italian kingdom
In the liberated territories begandevelopment of the Italian state.
In February of 1861Turin, in the grand opening Parliament, whichconfirmed the establishment of the Italian kingdom InPiedmont stock and attached to it regions, the King of Italy proclaimedVictor-Emmanuel. Under the Constitution, the Italian Kingdom was a constitutionalmonarchy with a bicameral parliament - the Senate, whose members are appointed for lifeKing and the Chamber of Deputies. However, due to considerable property qualification to voteDeputies were able to only 2, 5% of the population.
Venetsіanskaregion (in stock Austriaійської іmperії)
The process of unification of Italy was not yet complete. Under the ruleAustria remained the Venice region, and in Rome, with the supportNapoleon III, secular power savePope. Viktor-Emanuel waiting for favorable conditions to completeunification of Italy. In 1862 Garibaldi made a desperate but unsuccessful attemptcapture Rome.
First, King Victor-Emmanuel of Italy
Much more successful wasaccession in 1866 to the Italian kingdom of Venice. Italian army beganQuantityslovakia steps at a time when Austrianssuffered defeat in Garden City of the Prussian army in the war over Schleswig andHolstein. With peace treaty signed in Vienna, Venice areaforever remain in Italy. Later, during the Franco-Prussian cilia collapseSecond Empire made possible the entry of Italian troops to join the Pope in Rome andregion. It happened in 1870 Unification of Italy finished. Rome identifiedcapital of the Italian kingdom. As a result of unification of Italy it was decidedtwo main tasks - liberated north-eastern part of Italy from the ruleAustria and created the national state.
5.Germany after the revolution of 1848-1849 pp.
National associations and movementsunified German state was the main task of the Revolution 1848-1849 pp. in Germany. The national idea was present in mostsocial movements that unfolded in the country. However, in post-revolutionary years they havenot developed as the largest German monarchs of Austria and Prussiafought for dominance in the fragmented Germany.
The first attempt to unite PrussiaGermany during its vlauid in 1849-1850 pp. ended in defeat following anti- Austria.
Post-revolutionary period for most German stateswas era of political reaction. its leader was the German Confederation. Createdit followed a special committee to ensure that the constitutions of the German stateshas been eliminated all changes introduced duringrevolution. In all states have increased governmental authority and the police closedopposition newspapers, clubs, political associations, have established strict supervisionschool. Because of this, many workers and democratic labor movement hademigrate. But the final return to the pre-revolutionary order wasimpossible.
Germany was moving her ownin particular by the estateationindustrial society it was the way of reforms that postgraduallyturned it into a leading industrial countries of Europe.
6. Economic growth 50 -60's pp.
In Germany the development of 50-60-E pp. XIX Art. marked rapid economic development. For decades, industrial productionincreased twofold. These gains were achieved through the introduction of steammachines, consolidation of the customs union as a basis for forming zahalnonimetskohomarket, cheap labor force, availability of compulsory primary education, whichgive basic knowledge required for skilled work in progressscientific knowledge and their introduction into production. Late 60's pp. in German lands, there were more than 1 millionindustrial workers. Rhineland, Silesia, Berlin became industrializedcenters.
Totalpower steam engines in the 60's pp. increased vchetvero, and the length of railways - twice. The feature of the industrial revolution inGermany was that it relied on native and improved equipmenttechnology. Industry createsbuilt on the advancedAt that time, the sectoral structure. Achieved advances have enabledGermany become industrialized States, which share inworld production in the late 60's pp. XIX Art. was 13% (England - 32%). Onend of the century ahead for Germanyindustrial developmentArkalyk France and competed on equal terms with England.
The main prerequisiterapid industrialization was the liquidation of feudal relations inagriculture. In 1850 Prussianpeasants were freed from the feudal dependence for ransom. Total redemptionwas 18-fold the value of annual payments. Farmers pay redemption amountlandowners through specific parts of the banks within 41-56 rocarriers. In the early 50's pp. agrarian reform was carried out in other German states.
7. Bismark andGerman unification
Attempts to Prussia in post-revolutionaryDecade take the leading position in the German union ended in defeat. Thatmaintain its influence in Germany, Prussiadirecting all the energyder to restore the customs union and achieved success. In1853 Customs Union economically united underPrussian supremacy significant number of the German Confederation.
Advances in Italian unificationinspired by German patriots. In 1859 representatives of the Northformed a German national union. Its purpose was declared unificationGerman states headed by Prussia.In Union noted that part of Austria futureGerman Empire should not be included.
In the 60's pp. the question of German unification has become a major. Transitioninto practical actions on its distribution ofchavsya after appointment as chancellor (head of government) of Prussia Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898). "Iron Chancellor, as wereto call it, walk confidently moved to our main goal - Germanunity.
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck was born in a family Juncker, close unitsBerlin. Despite the military tradition yunkerstva it, at the insistence of the motherentered the University of Goettingen, although study of science itself is attyazhuvav, preferring Fencinghunting and other fun. Byvershyvshyeducation at the universities of BerlinUniversity, became a clerk magistrate.However, there did not stay long because of his temper, which leads toclashes with superiors. After leaving work, Bismarck was Superintendent of the two parental estates. Being an ambitious person, ithas made considerable progress in economy management Physically strong, withloud voice, Bismarck contemptuously treated human weaknesses.
During the 1848 Revolution he ozbroyivshytheir peasants came у Berlinsuppression of the uprising. He noticed, and in 1851 he - back to stateservice. Bismarck was the representative Prussiathe Union Parliament. In 1859-1862 pp. - Ambassador to Russia and France. UnderWhile in Russia, Bismarck had refused an offer to move to the kingRussian service.
In 1862 Bismarck was the head of governmentPrussia. He headed the governmentjust as between the parliament (diet) and King broke sharpconflict with issues of military reform, modernization and increase of the army.
In speechparliamentarians before he outlined the program of future foreign and domestic policy. "Not on a liberalralizm looks Prussia Germany, and on herpower. No promowill not solve the great majority of statutesa matter of time - it was a mistake in 1848 p., - And blood and iron. Prussia to keep their forces ready forwaiting for the opportune moment, that it was lost several times, "- Bismarck said. Not moving from the parliamentary opposition and bypassing parliamentary decisions, he spent the reform and increasedArmy doubled equip it with new guns and cannons shvydkostrilnymy
8. War against Prussia of Denmark and Austria
Reform of the army gave the opportunity to resort to decisive action that time nahodyvsyapretext for war against of Denmark.
After the death of the Danish King Frederick VII (1863) on the throne of his dependent femaleChristiane IX. He sought to inherit all Danish possession. But in German duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which belongedOf Denmark, is supposed to follow the female line. This Bismarck decidedskorys- tatysya as a pretext for the war resolution. Disregarding the interests other German states, offered BismarckAustrian Christiane force andX give up these possessions. In1864 AustriaPrussian army defeated of Denmark,which relinquished Schleswig for the benefit of Prussia andHolstein in favor of Austria.
Bringing this war to Austriaenabled Prussia odds its other membersGerman Confederation, which she chaired. Having achieved isolation of Austria, Bismarckset about plans to implement its final removal from German affairs.On the eve of war, Bismarck had serious diplomatic training. Yes, it wasconcluded an alliance with Italy, which wanted to conquer Venice region in Austria. He enlisted the sympathy of manysmall German states and the neutrality of France, natyaknuvshyNapoleon III the possibility"Rounding" French possessions on the left bank of the Rhine.
The war began in 1866 attackHolstein to Prussia (Holshtiniyu) and the allies of Austria - Hanover, Hesse,Saxony. The enemy was not prepared for war and was able to stronglyresistance. In addition, the Austrian army was completely routed in Garden City. NotAustria deliver victory on the Italian front in Kostotse and near the seaLisse.
Austria was forced to make peace withItaly, Venice gave her, and Prussia.
The peace treaty between Austria andPrussia at the insistence of Bismarck was not humiliating for the former. Austria does notsuffered territorial losses, only had to pay 20 million Thalers and exitGerman Confederation. Bismarck Wilhelm I even banned to enter aswinner, on a white horse to Vienna.
Prussia annexed to a Holstein,Hanover co- rolivstvo, Hessenskekurfyurstvo, Duchy of Nassau University. FrancFurta-am-Main. Above Saxony wasestablished protectorate.
Such actions were Bismarckforward-looking. He understood that onlyAustria may be the ally of Germany in Europe by communitynational interests and proximity. Helping Italy, he also transformed it intoits ally. Great achievement Bismarckwas to neutralize Russia, which is not entered in these conflicts.
9.Formation of the North German Confederation and the German Empire
War of 1866 was crucialstep toward German unity. In August 1866 German states joined inNorth German Confederation. It consists of 22 States and three free cities.A year elected under universal suffrage, the Reichstag approvedUnion constitution.
Union was headed by the president,the position is always appointed by the Prussian King. Heconcentrated in the hands of the executive. Federal Council composed of ministersand representatives of some countries. Chaired the board of Federal Chancellor - ChairmanPrussian Council of Ministers. This post until 1890 he held the Bismarck. Legislativebranch personified the Reichstag which was elected on the basis of general electionlaw. He had the right of legislative initiative, but to approve or rejectlaws could only union president.
Prussia united Germany (cartoons)
Of great importance in establishing the NorthUnion single economic system: freedom of movement, a single measurement system andscales, the only criminal law .. This opened the space of economic initiativesGerman entrepreneurs.
So instead of hopelessly outdated in the German Confederationcenter of Europe took German national state - the North Union.As a result, significantly changed the balance of power on the continent. Austria lostposition of great power, paving the way for the Completion of Italian.The new situation created a threat of loss of its governing position of France in Europe.Contemporaries viewed the event as the 1866 revolution. This "Revolution from above" was the first revolution "of ironStationarykillers "Bismarck. His role in the unification of Germany wasextremely significant.
Beyond Bismarck createdGerman state remained pivdennonimetski state. their sovereignty jealouslyNO defended Napoleon, who also claim to them. "IronChancellor "had to do with the emperor of France a long and sophisticated play onimpact on them. The long struggle ended with FrancoPrussian War 1870-1871 pp.As a result of the victory over Franceto this "North German Confederation was added south of the state. January 18, 1871 inVersailles Mirror Hall the palace wasproclaimed a German Empire. Prussian King wasEmperor and Bismarck - imperial Chancellor.
Proclamation Creating the German Empire (in the Mirror Hall of Versaillespalace
In the case of German unification wasput the last point. The new German government, which appeared in the centerEurope, has since played a significant role in international politics. Being late todistribution of spheres of influence in Europe and beyond, she started fighting forDivision world.
Bismarckhis ideal of political power
"As I always idealattracted monarchical power, which would be controlled by an independent, in my opinion,As a professional or representative of the country to the extent necessaryto either the monarch or parliament could not unilaterally change the currentlegal status, but only with general agreement in an open and public criticismpress and the diet of everything that happens in the state "
1. What political system attractsBismarck?
2. What are the limits and balances he saw fitnecessary to introduce a constitutional monarchy?
Questions and Tasks
1. How was strengthening Sardinian kingdom and its transformationCenter for Italian unification?
2. What role in the fight forunification of Italy played a war against Austria in 1859?
3. D. Describe the role of Garibaldi in the fight for the unification of Italy.
4. As the process ofunification of Italy?
5. DescribeGermany's situation after the 1848-1849 pp.
6. Identify featureseconomic development of Germany in the 50's and 60's of the nineteenth century.
7. Make a Political PortraitBismarck. What role he played in German history?
8. Tell meGerman unification was "blood and iron".
9. Make synhronistychnuTable unification movement in Italy and Germany.
10. Compare, how was unification of Italy and Germany. What washistorical significance of these events?
Note the date!
1861 - Formation of the ItalianKingdom.
1866 - Creation of the North German Confederation.
1871 - Creation of the German Empire.