§ 9.Russian Empire in the first floor XIX Art.
1. The population of the estate and its structure
Early XIX Art. Russia was the great country that covered the territory in Eastern Europe, NorthAsia and part of North America (Alaska). As a result of territorialexpansion in the first half XIX Art. this country increased from 16 million to 18 million square meters. miles by joiningFinland, the Kingdom of Poland, Bessarabia, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan,Pryamur'ya and Primorye.
The population of the empire during the firsthalf XIX Art. increased from 37 to69 million people. Significant role in this growth has played a conquest of neighboringterritories. Average life expectancy was 27, 3 years. The reasons for this wereperiodic epidemics, high infant mortality, lack of development of medicalservice. This flashy characterized the pre-industrial countries.End XVIII Art. in France, life expectancywas 28, 8, England - 31, Year 5. Russian society was, in fact,of the feudal character of the structure of his birth. The states were divided intoPreferred (Nobility, clergy andpartially merchants) and nepryvileyovano (peasants, commoners). Most numerousof peasants formed theDoes fortress that theirearly XIX Art. there were 15, 2 million people. They were the "property baptized" gentry-landlords, which inWhile there were about 600 thousand
2. Internal situation in Russia
The main trends of stateof the Russian emperorend theory XVIII - Early XIX Art. was outside of expansionsiya, strengthening of autocracy and serfdom. This is contrary to the generalprocesses of democratization and liberalization of public life that were the essence of European enlightenment. Nameperator Alexander I (1801-1825 pp.) At the beginning of his reign concernedWestern ideas and partly under the influence of his advisers, among whomwere Ukrainian (Kochubey V., M. Speranskyy, V. Karasin), made a series ofliberal reformforms. Decree freefarmers (1803) to allow landowners emancipate their farmers. It wasOpen Kharkov and Peterburzkyy universities. On the instructions of King M.Speranskyy developed in 1809 "Plangovernment reforms, which provided separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches, elections representativeof different levels, led by State Duma,- The highest legislative body. Implementation of the projectsthat would causetransformation of autocratic Russia constitutionalconsemonarchy. But those plans provoked sharp criticism of higher imperialbureaucracy and the nobility who did not want any changes that might weakentheir privileged position in society. Incidentally, the Emperor feltcharms autocratic rule, soon abandoned their plans. It wasunless that created the State zakonodoradchuadvice of the emperor, RIlikewise, had a recommendation, andreplaced by board to the ministry. Afterend of the Franco-Russian War in 1812 Alexander I confirmed inthought that the idea of the sovereignty of the people united to fight againstFrench, and became the target of conservative forces. The last decade of hisBoard arakcheyevschyny era called by name a trustee of the emperor O.Arakcheyeva. It was a time of increased bureaucratization spheres of life, the release progressively minded professors from universitiesversitiesand establishing military settlements. The latter event has inspired a wave of revolts thatseverely prydushuvalysya government.
Nextbecame the ruler of the empire Nicholas I (1825-1855 pp. ). Began his reign brutal suppression of speech, the Decembrists, whopersonified opposed to autocracy range of nobleintellectuals and officers. Nicholas essentially waived any significantchanges in the control of the empire and tried to "improve" hisbureaucracy. In fact, the country's police and repressive vstanovyvsya mode. The main role in the management of stateplayed a personal Office of the emperor, especially its NO office,which entered into secret political police functions.
RussianEmpire was a multinational state. Painsix people ended up in its stock as a result of conquest. This, as well asexistence of the Russian people, who constituted the majority in the empire causednational oppression of non-Russian peoples. Carried on their policynational cultural assimilationignore the particularities of origin and historicaltraditions, the imposition of Russian culture.
A striking example of such a policyUkraine was the situation in the empire, which the government viewed as the Russian landignoring the interests of its people. Any attempts of non-Russian people fighting for their national rightsseverely prydushuvaed.
One з most difficult problems of internal political life of the empirefirst half XIX Art. was serfdom. The situation where the majority population werefortress, the situation often resembled servile, has become increasingly dangerouspechnishoyu. It felt and the government of the Empire. But he triedavoid drastic changes as would not affect the interests of the nobility -Landowners who were pillars of autocracy.
So, in the middle XIX Art. Russia was still absolutist empire. Attemptsof any changes remained largely unrenes,absolutist tendencies took over the liberal.
3. Decembrist Movement
The reaction of the last years of Alexander I showedthe government is not going to solve the problems posed by the country historicaldevelopment. Since then, Russian society began the confrontation betweenreactive power and those who wanted change. The immediate impetus for thisare:
• growth of national consciousnesspatriotic exaltation in connection with the Franco-Russian War of 1812 p.;
• familiarity withEuropean life during the foreign hiking1813-1815 pp. That allowed their members a convincingservices remain a considerable retardation of their autocratic-serfdom in Russia.
The first secret,opposition organization in the Empire were created Guards officers, members of the foreign trips. In 1816 there wasSoyuz rescue, which two years later transformationmuvavsya in Soyuz welfare. Members of their societies ubachaly goalin the abolition of serfdom, elimination of autocratic: a form of government andimplementing the country's constitutional monarchy or republic. However, betweenmembers of societies existed differences on how to implement their ideas:from a purely educational activities and projects provide? to the government to capturepower after a military coup and murder of the emperor. In 1821radical members of the Union of Welfare "organized hisdissolution, to get rid of those who did not share their views.
У 1821-1822 pp. based on the "welfare of the Union" was createdRenault two secret organizations - Southern CompanyDecembrists in Ukraine centered in the city of Tulchinled by PI Pestel and North companyDecembrists in St. Petersburg under the direction of M. and Muravyova KF Ryleeva. Managers of companies have developed programsreforms known in history as "Russkaya Pravda" P. Pesteland Constitution M. Muravyova. Theydetermined the elimination of autocracy, impletion of the constitution of the libertarian and freedoms (press, speech, assembly and faithetc.), cancellation serfdom and the separation of states, inputrepresentative government. The differences between them lie in the vision of the state structure, organizationexecutive solve the peasant question and to provide electionlaw. Pestel proposed to establish in RussiaRepublic, legislative powerFolk vichu pass, and the executive - the State Duma; authoritative bodies tsentralizovuvalys and nationalmargin rusyfikovuvalysya, peasantsgot liberty and land; election right should have direct and equal for all citizens without any restrictions.Vorobyev saw Russia's future constitutional monarchywhich belonged to the bicameral legislature Folk vichu and executive -emperor, villagers got personal freedom, but kept largelandlords' farms, for Voters ustanovlyuvavsya high property qualification.
Decembrist uprising at Senate Square
Neworganizations have resorted to conspiracy and preparing a military coup. December 141825 p. After the announced death OleksanDrama And Northern Company has allowed some of the Guards at Senate Square in St. Petersburg in order to disruptoath of the new pulseeratoru - Nicholas I,but late. December 29 South companyinspired uprising in Ukraine Chernigov Regimentno. Both performanceswere suppressed authorities, who then brutally cracked down on their members. In HistoryThe movement called Decembrists remained - the Russian name of the month"December" in which they made their appearance.
4.Social Movement in the 30-40's pp.
Board was the period of Nicholas Ipolitical reaction. However, deep socialcontradictions undermined Statesfoot structure. Finding their waysolution in liberal environmenteralminded intellectuals who advocated a reform from above causedappearance of late 30-ies' two ideologicalcurrents, which suggested their of historical development of Russia andits restructuring program.
Westerners(T. Granovsky, P. Chaadaeva and others) believed thatcountry should developvyvatys in lineWestern trendsdentsiy. Movement in the "west" mustwould lead to replacement work on the fortress and free transformautocracy to constitutional Monarevcation.Therefore, their main objective, they thoughtRussian society to prepare for the future. Toeliminate the differences between Russia and Western Europe the authorities believed theyshould make good designed consistentreform.
In the early 40's pp. Did westerners breakaway supporterski radical views - A. Herzen, Ogarev M. et al. Determining -the need for Russia to overtake West - noyevropeyski countrythey advocated the construction of the country's principalnew order - socialism.
Particular,different from the Western way of development of Russia justify Slavophiles (slov'yanolyuby). These included A. hamsters, I.Kyreyevskyy, I. Aksakov. They believed that Russia could avoid the Revolution, andWestern capitalism. PledgeThey saw the "community" - of the Russianthpeasantry, where all were bound by common interests. Orthodox faith seemedpromoted peasant tendency to reweightthe common interest above personal. Governments should remainautocratic, to protect people from external voronitskyi and maintain necessary order. Peter thought Slavicfily violated the harmonic structure of Russia, strengtheningkriposnytscue wick and extending Western customs. Therefore it is necessaryabolish serfdom and return to ancient traditions.
Slavophile ideas werepidmurivkom for creation and dissemination of the official ideology of greatRussian aviationryzmu - Theoryofficial nationality. "constituted the basis of its" rightvoslav'ya,autocracy and nationality. "spiritual life of the empire was determinedOrthodox Church, political - an autocratic parade. In folkpropahuvalosya unity with the people of the king, no differences between them. Only what wasPeople, who served as autocracy. It justified the foundations ideology, its empire throw people whoinhabiting its territory.
5.Economic development in Russia
In the first half XIX Art. the level of economic development Russian empire considerably inferior leadingzahidnoyevropeysWho countries. In the secondquarter XIX Art. the country began Industry Revolution, however, the pace of deployment was very slow. Decisive role played in the productionOld industry feudaltype. It actually was not incentives for technicalfoot of progress: the number ofand product quality was defined above, set itoutput correspond to the number kriposfarmers are enrolled in the factory. Industrial feudalnewswas doomed to decline. In 30 pp. began to appear factorynew type of enterprise. They are not dependent on States worked to meet market needs, vykorystovuvaDoes "free labor. Such enterprises emergedfirst of all in light industry.In this production was the future, but Existenceserfdom system significantly constrain its development.
Development of agriculturedefined feudal relations. Forfirst half XIX Art. was vtyahution of agriculture in market relations.But in a serfdom increased productionto meet market needsturned to increase exploitation of dependent peasants.
Thus, the existence of serfdombecome an insurmountable obstacle to normal development.
Documents. Facts. Comments
French statesman Alexis de Tocqueville ondifferences development in Russia and Sela (1835 р. )
"... Two great nations of the world, which, Having started from different points seems to be moving toward the same goal.American reboron natural obstacles, and a Russian man caught inpaws. The first leads fight against savagery and barbarism, and the second all possiblemeans of fighting against civilization. Conquest of America by Plowshares, Russiagaining the sword.
The first achieves its goal,relying on personal interest and givesfree space for the uncontrolled use of force and common senseindividuals. Second purposefully concentered all power in societyhands of one person.
The first freedom is one ofprimary operating conditions, the second rule of slavery.
They beginits motion from different points and will go different ways, however, seems that some secret providence condemning oneday, each is designed to hold in their hands the fate of half the world ..."
What was different ways of developing Russiaand the U.S.?
Questions and Tasks
1. What distinguished the population of the Russian Empire from the leadingEuropean countries?
2. What was the internal political situation in the first half of the empirecentury?
3. Give facts that indicate that in the middle XIX cm. Russia remained absolutist empire.
4. What was characteristic of the imperial policy?
5. Describe the movement of the Decembrists.
6. What ideological trends emerged in Russia in the 30's 40's pp. ? The more different views of their supporters?
7. Compare the economic development of Russia and leading European countries infirst half XIX cm.
Note the date!
End XVIII - 1870 - Doba"Risordzhymento in history Italian.
1820 - Neapolitan Revolution and Sardinian Kingdom.
December 14, 1825 - PetersburgDecembrist uprising in the Russian Empire.
1830 - The July Revolution in France.
1831r. - Creation of "Young Italy".
1832 р. - The first parliamentary reform England.
1834r. - Creation"Young Germany".