§ 8. Germany and Italy in 1815-1847 pp.
1. German Confederation. FeaturesEconomic Development
MajorityGerman politicians and cultural figures count ofla, after their victory over Napoleon people finallygain Civil and political unityfreedom. But neither expectation is met. Established by the ViennaNo Congressburg Union existed only on paperbecause no one had Governmentcommon law and the armed forces. Allied Diet which is chaired by the representative of the Austrian Empirezbyravsya in Frankfurt am Main,real power was not. Each eerzhavGerman Confederation had its monarch, government, army, monetary system and its own tariffs. In mostGerman states existed absolute monarchy in which citizens had no political rights and freedoms.
The political fragmentation preventedand economic developmentment. On those lands, whichduring the Napoleonic wars were part of the empire, the processemancipation of the peasants. But now it has been minimized. This hindered the developmentagriculture and the formation of free labor market. The developmentindustry and becoming a single nationnalmarket prevented the existence of customs borders between the many German states.The Industrial Revolution began inGermany in the 30's pp. - Later than in England and France.Largestshyh successful industrial production reached in threeareas: Rheinisch-Westvaal, Silesiaand Saxony '. Growth of Mining andchemical industry promoted the use of machines and bringtion of technical innovations. In 1822 in allGermany worked only two steamMachinery, 1847 - over a thousand. In 1835, in the country was built firstrail length of 6 km.It was ten years later than in England, and five than in France.
In 1834 18 German statestogether in a customs union where participants terminated duty on the goods that were imported.But it did not solve complex problems.
Economic development needsGermany demanded overcoming the disunity of the country.
2. The struggle for democratic reform and unity of Germany
Creating German Confederation ledto spread in the Nomechchyni hopes thatsuch consolidation will provide economic unity of Germany, willintroduction of liberal constitutions. These hopes were not realized.
Dreams of a unified Germany, wherewill be provided constitutionaltution inalienable rightsman and citizen, entered Sewationespecially in the student environment. In 1815, students areimmediately outUniversity have created a company that promoted the idea of national unificationGermany. These requirements are combined with performances against reactionary orders.In spring 1817, students staged a celebration of the 300-year anniversary of the Reformation inVartburzi. They publicly burned at the stake of existing characters ordersamong which were: Austrian police stick officer corset"Code of gendarmerie. These events for the Austrian Chancellor Metternihaan occasion to launch a campaign against "extreme liberalism"and rebellious spirit "of the Germanstudents. But the movement for democratization social life andunification did not stop.
In 1819 at the Congress of GermanMonarchs were in Carlsbad adopted measuresfor suppression of opposition sentiment. In Universityversity introducedtight control, many people has ended up in prisons, police beganterror.
3.Activation of the opposition movement in the 30-40's pp. Friedrich Franz
July 1830 revolution in Francesparked new growth of opposition sentiment in the German states. Put forwardrequirements of the struggle for democratic reform and national unification of Germany.
The persecution and repression could notstop the spread of the movement for a new Germany. Many patriots had to leavethe country. In 1834, in Switzerland there were the YoungGermany. The members of this secret organization saw its purpose in the struggle forGerman unification and the creation of the republic. In the software company byrequirements put forward by the press and freedom fees, introduce freebusiness and trade activities, the abolition of feudal duties.Make it going through a revolutionary coup plotters groups,who were removed from power governments German states. Expulsion in 1836, the GermanEmigrants from Switzerland led to the collapse of the "Young Germany".
One ofmost influential figures in the national movement Germanycommit 30-40's pp. was professor and economist Friedrich Franz (1789-1846). Promoting the ideaGerman unification, he first fully disclosed the relationship between developmenteconomy and national unification of Germany. In his keynote Labour"National System of Political Economy, he showed howGermany's political fragmentation hinders its economic growth. Lisztsubstantiate the need for economic unification of Germany through the creationintegrated national economy. Only then, he thought, the Germans will"Rise to the height of national greatness." However, in his work Lisztwent much further analysis of trends of economic development. He believed economicCharts reflect the interests of the nation's needs."My whole theory, - Liszt wrote - based on an interpretation of naturenational interest, which is the intermediary between the individual and generalof men. "At that time the world saw Lisztas the 'world of nations "that haveown interests and act to achieve an enabling environment to satisfy them. According to researchers,Liszt was one the founders of the German economic nationalismseeing in it an effective force of nation-building and nation-state.
Therefore, 1815-1847 pp. sometimes becoming a force that overhangFuel for unification and a unified German state, demandedimplementation of the constitutional system of guarantees of basic political rightscitizens. Various forms of display of these requirements showed their supportmajority of the German nation.
4. Italy after the Congress of Vienna
The decision of the Congress of Viennanegatively influenced the development of Italy. It was again redistributed to eightsmall kingdoms and duchies, and north-eastern part - Lombardo-Venetsianske Kingdom - joined theAustrian Empire as an autonomy. In all states of the peninsula wasrestored absolute power of monarchs, ruling forces again become nobilityand clergy, a negative to a whole new set that brought revolutionaryand the Napoleonic era. Elimination of the rule of Napoleon did not causeNational Liberation Italian, FrenchAustrian oppression gave way, as all Italian states found themselvesto a greater or lesser dependenceformalities of Austria. One of the most backwardItaly Papal States was an area that was under the secular authority of the pope.Of all the Italian states only Sardinian Kingdom (Piedmont)advantage from its location between France and Austria, navazhuvalosyaconduct an independent policy.
Existed between Italian statescustoms borders in each kingdom andDuchy operated their own systems of weights and measures, monetary systems, laws.Disintegration of the country was the main obstacle to economic developmentcountry. The level of industrial development of Italy significantly inferior EnglandFrance, even Prussia. The Industrial Revolution began here only in 30-40-x pp. XIX Art. Underdeveloped industry could ensure the work of those who did not have her in the village.Rural Development Economyoccurred very slowly because of the feoFar survivals. The peasants had no land and rented land to landowners, paying for that part of the harvest.Some laborers worked only for food. Poverty, hunger, lack of labor turnedpoor peasants and vagabonds.
Italy fragmentation hindered the development of internal tradetims. In order to carry the goods by the river Po,should have been 21 times pay taxes.
Lombardo-Venetian Kingdomhad received no autonomy, as anticipated decisionsCongress of Vienna, and ruled by foreigners. Italians preventedhold any important positions. In the Kingdom was located AVIstriyska army raged powerful Austrianpolice. Grim controlled press censorship, persecuted anynational-liberal ideas. All this resulted in that asset in LombardyLater than in other regions, increasednational liberation movement.
National Liberation Movement in Italyled carbonari who appeared for the French domination. It was a secret,strictly undercover organization. After 1815 carbonari created extensive network of Venta (cells) in allstates of Italy. Among the representatives of liberal carbonarinobility, bourgeoisie and intellectuals. His main purpose, they believed fighting for the independence of Italy. ConcerningFuture system Italy's most independent carbonari supporteda constitutional monarchy.
So, the situation in which facedItaly on the decisions of the Congress of Vienna, caused by the need to combatnational liberation and reunification.
5. Revolution 20-30's pp. XIX Art.
Period ofend XVIII Art. to 1870 in ItalyHistory called epoch"Risordzhymento" (Renaissance). It was a period deployment of a national liberation movement fighting for the buckettion of Italian independence. Term"National revivaltion "later became used tonational characteristicstional liberation movementsother European nations. Revolution 20-30's pp. were part of the era"Risordzhymento.
In July 1820 the first in ItalyNeapolitan carbonari revolted. The revolution lasted a week andended in victory. Everywhere were heard the words of the hymn carbonari: Despotyzm destroyed, lost tyranny and aristocracywill never vex you! "King was forced to sign the constitution andsklybutchers parliament.
Meanwhile, European monarchs at the meeting of the HolyUnion discussed the situation in Naples and Austria instructed to suppress the revolution.Austrian army defeated and resumed neapolitantsyam Naples absolutemonarchy. All participants in the revolution was waiting brutal massacre.
Meanwhile, the revolutionary movement brokein northern Italy - in Piedmont. If the main requirement was the introduction neapolitantsivconstitutional form of government here, along with Austrian holdings,pushing the slogan of national independence in the northern Italy. Revoltled carbonari - p'yemontskoyi army officers. It was proclaimed by the Constitution andcreated provisional government. But Austrian armyput down the revolution.
After the revolutionary events in Naples and Piedmont in Italy over abusecarbonari persecuted. However, the organization officially eliminated secretlyprepared to continue struggle.This time actively worked carbonari Central Italy. Under the influence of the July1830 revolution in France in February, 1831 rebellion broke out in Parma,Modena, Papal region. At first the rebels won, but dueintervention in Central Italy the Austrians were defeated.
These failuresItalian patriots were forced to seek new forms of struggle. One of the failures carbonari was thatthey were isolated in different parts of Italy. In 1831, in Marseilles Former Carbonara Giuseppe Madzini (1805-1872) created the "MoLod Italy "- the only zahalnoitaliyskunational-revolutionary organization.He formulated the principle of "every nation - state and began to struggle for its realization. CreateItalian nationaltional state Madzini consideredpossible thanks to the revolution realizedWith the people and for people. " "Young Italy" was intended to unification of Italy in one independent democraticrepublic.
Fervent enthusiasm and dedication to the release MadziniItaly contributed to the rapid spread of the influence of "Young Italy". In different parts of the Apennine peninsula appearedits local axisrarely, which should prepare zahalnoitaliyskurevolution. However, repeated attempts have failed uprising.Consequently Madzini concluded that in the near future to make Italianrevolution is impossible. Among the members"Young Italy" remarkable GiuseppeGaribaldi (1807-1882). Bypart in the revolutionary conspiracy, organized Madzini 1834 p. He was sentenced to death, and he emigratedin South America. There he was in 1848 p., being among thoseSouth American republics fought for independence
6.Activities of moderate liberals in late 30 - initialku 40's pp.
Your attempt to make associationsItaly's revolutionary way led to thethat from the mid 30-s-in Italian national liberation movement inforeground left moderate liberals. Among them were large landowners andbusinessmen and intellectuals. The liberals believed that the onlyway to unification of Italy is converting the top, through reform. theirVincenzo ideologue Dzhoberti Italy imagined future as a federation of separate states,created by agreement their monarchs' withoutblood, without excitement, without revolutions. "His practiceLiberals directed at promoting the growth of national consciousnessItalians. During 1839 - 1847 pp. They collected nine times zahalnoitaliyski Events scientists. Althoughopen to political problems are not discussed, this form of communicationcontributed to the cohesion forces of moderate liberals and develop their programaction. Over time liberal attitude toAustrians became sharper. In 1846 - 1847 pp. in many of their newspapers and magazinescalls appear to zahalnoitaliyskoyi warAustria.
Documents. Facts. Comments
In secret instructions "YoungItaly the struggle for the means national independence
"... The means by which the" YoungItaly is trying exercise itspurpose is education and rebellion ... Education - press, an example of a word ... should be the consequences in the principlenational education ... Rebellion must bear in terms of their germItalian national program of the future. Where will revoltmust be an Italian flag, Italian opinion, the Italian language. With a view torevive the nation, it will begin in the namePeople and spyratywill be paid to people who ignored this.
... "Young Italy"sets the stage revolt on the stage revolution.The revolution will start when the insurgency resame. Stage uprisingie the period from the beginning of the uprising until the liberation of the whole Italian territorycontinent must guided temporarydictatorial power, concentratedNoah in small circles of people. Justterritory is liberated, any government should disappear before the NationalCouncil, the only source of any authority in the state ... "
What strategy for fightingindependence offered "MoLOSAItaly?
Questions and Tasks
1. Give factsevidence that further development of Germany sought to overcome disunitycountry.
2. As there was a struggle for democratic reform and the Association of GermanStates in 1815-1847pp. ?
3. Which role was played in the national movement Friedrich Liszt?
4. Describe the situation in Italy after the Congress of Vienna.
5. How rozhortavsya national liberation movement in Italy in 20 - 30'spp. XIX cm. ?
6. What is moderate activityLiberals in late 1930 - early 40's pp. different from the struggle for the liberation of Italy) whichwere performed in 20-30's pp. ?