Subject III. European countries1815-1847 pp.
§ 7. England and France in 1815-1847 pp.
After the Napoleonic wars in Europe occurred contradictory situation. France, which forquarter century has been embodiment of the revolution, was defeated.Member winner, oblashtovuyuchy postwar Europe, tried to prevent recurrenceevents of the recent past. However, as showedfuture, keep the same world they failed. VinieKalo Question:How will the European civilization - a revolutionary orevolutionary? There were countries that personifiedthese methods. France, where for 60 years, since the completionNapoleonic Wars, there were three revolutions, represented the first model of development. But the example of contemporary England testifiedpossibility of society without revolutionary upheaval.
1. UK Tories on board
CompletionNapoleonic Wars opened for England era when she took a long time leader in world politics,was the workshop of the world, its financial center and a model of liberalsociety. This does not mean that the English society was conflict andproblems. But the ruling elite has learned to find solutions to complex problemsnot bringing the case to a social explosion, as occurred in countriescontinental Europe.
Decisive role in political lifecountry played a Tory party, which brings together conservative supportersabsorptionvirgins and vihiv that shared liberalideas. They in turn dostupalysya to power, forming the British government.During 1783-1830 pp. it continuously led Tories.
У 1815 p. Tory initiative was adopted so-called laws are. Prescribed by the high tariffs on grain importscontributed to rising incomes and local land owners, while aggravatedactwist the majority due to rising pricesProducts nutrition. In London, people rapidlyexpressed dissatisfaction adoptionBread laws. Desperate poverty, and other workers of Nottinghamcities have resorted to the destruction of machines. On newflash luddystskoho motion said the government executed its leading members. InIn 1817 the government suspended the law on personal immunity applied and repression. But unrest did not abate. Petty bourgeoisie and workersDemocrats demandeding political system and for the general electionlaw.
The economic downturn that started inIn 1819 and led to the deterioration of the situation of workers of another, caused the increaseunrest in the country.
Seeking to suppress statementsdissatisfied Tory policies, the government in late 1819 to pass through parliament in Junelaws that gave local authorities the right to restrict the number of chargesParties over 50 persons and mass procession, and the right to conduct searches inprivate homes for the removal of weapons. Press is strictly was subjected to censorship.No wonder these laws are called in Britain "to stop acts of mouth."
У 1823-1824 pp. Tory government made a number of measures that StimulatedIndustry and Trade. Similar principles he introchewed and the inner life: the workers were allowed to freely move, set up the company. Importantimportance for the country's political life had in leveling the political rights ofof Englandkanamy Catholics who not so longhave access to Parliament, the crossnot in 1829, however, this event wasnot enough to satisfy those who demanded radical political reformsystem.
Contemporary system relied onmedieval foundations and eliminated frompolitical power of workers and industrialists, who could not elect their deputies to the House of Commons, that wasbig hands squiresbankers, rich merchants. Consequently, voting took part 160 thousand persons from 16 million population.
New large industrial centers -Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield and othersdid not have deputies in parliament, while small towns, sometimes evenzbezlyudnili, there were representativeslated. Members of these "rotten towns"accounted for nearly half the members (254 of 513) House of Commons.
In the late 20's pp. England intensified struggle of the workers, smallowners and industrialists of the parliamentary reform. In the cities there wereviolent rallies and demonstrations. Police met with stones, beaten windowspalaces of Lords - opponents of reform. There were clashes with protesterstroops.
2. Whigs in power. Parliamentary reform 1832was
The political struggle in England in 1830 sharpened the eveelections were held in spring, supporters of reform intensified duringimpact of the message of the revolution in France. That same year, King was a brotherGeorg IV (The King of England in1820-1830 pp. ) William IV (1830-1837 pp.). According to traditional custom of the parliament was dissolved, werenew elections. Supporters of the reforms won, dostupylysya Whigs to power.
In 1831 the House was adoptedon the reform bill, introduced by newGovernment, however Lords rejected it. There arose a wave protests, and the lords had to approve the bill on the reform.
Introduction to the parliamentary bill on the reform
Law on parliamentary reformdeprived 56 "rotten towns' right to representation in parliament andestablished 42 new electionDistricts in the industrial centers. It was somewhat reduced youthe electoral qualification, although it remained high. The number of voters has increased from 220thousand to 670 thousand for the 1b-million population of England. Workers and smallowners, who fought so hard
voting rights, notreceived them. As a result of the parliamentary reform of government access toreceived industrial and traderal bourgeoisie.For most migrant activity, the first stepsthose of the new parliament weregreat disappointment. By law aboutpoor (1834) aid they were dramatically reduced: tax, histhe rich pay for the benefit of the poor have been abolished; poor, whose numberexceeded 3 million souls, could now get help only in the workshophomes, the regime which is not much different from prison.
In 1837 QueenBritain has become Victoria (1819-1901), the latter of Brunswick. It fell on her years boarddeployment chartystskoho movement, legal consolidation of the parliamentarytwo-party system. When authorities in the country at that time were, as before,Tories and Whigs, but the names and composition of these parties have changed. Torus, called theconservatives, represented a large plot of aristocracy, the colonial merchants.They were willing to make concessions to workers, but shook the foundations of continuitystate organization - the Church of England and the monarchy. Liberals used to call vihiv,representing small and medium commercial and entrepreneurial bourgeoisie. Theysupported reforms to improve the political system, but notwilling to make concessions to workers.
3. Features of economic development in England
In the first half XIX Art. and especially from the mid 30's pp., England continued rapid development of industrialproduction. In 30-40-x pp. in the country ended the Industrial Revolution, whichstarted in the 60's pp. XVIII Art. England won first place inWorld the level of industrial development. To1840 its share in world industrial productionwas 45%.
LeadingEnglish branch of Industrial Production remained textiles. On cotton - spinning millsthen worked more than 200 million people. At the same time developing heavy industry and coal.In 1834, production of iron in England was 700 thousand tons Developed and transportation.In the 40's pp. all the major citiesEngland were already connected by rail. Rapidly increased numberindustrial workers. Along with their families they were mostpopulation, which is in the middle XIX Art. counted in 1927, 6 million people. Especially fast growing number ofpopulation of London turned onglobal trade and banking center.
Formed new industrial districts:metallurgical industry - headquartered in Birmingham, cotton - in the centerYorkshire coal - in Wales.
England wasfirst and at that time the world's only industriallyNoah country.
In 30-40's pp. XIX Art. England turned to mass movement, known as "chartism" (from the English. charter - Charter). It was the biggest protest movement supporterswhich demanded greater representation of powers in the House of CommonsEnglandsity of Parliament. Much ofchartist were workers who saw the universal suffragepossibility of parliamentary system,that its actions in regard the their needs.
Counting chartystskoho movement leading from1836 p., when carpenter WilliamLovett has created a small London Association workers. The following year sheput forward their demands in 6 points:
1. Universal suffrageadult male population.
2. Equal electoral districts. 3.The annual re-election of members of parliament. 4. Payment for MPs. 5.Balloting, 6. Elimination of qualification in respect of elections toParliament. This program, supported by a majority of organizations in the country wasbasis of "People's Charter, published in 1838 was compiledpetition to Parliament, which resulted in the signing of the mass wheremonstratsiyi, rallies and grand torchlightdemonstrations with slogans for her support. Soon were collected overmillion signatures.
Approved chartystskym convention(Congress) in London, a petition was presented to Parliament in July 1839 p. But he rejected her majority.
Chartist clashes with police
Summer 1840formed National Association chartystska (Actually, political parties), headed by Mr. Lovett. Soon, a conscript wasabout 50 thousand members. Compound chartist second petition signed by more than 3million. Besides 6 requirements prior to Charter tosecond packaged and "knife and fork question ', ie materialfootconditions of the workers. Put forward demands to abolish the law of the poor, to limittime, increase the salaries of mercenaries. Parliament rejected the petition and.Not succeed and trying to organize in support of charter totalstrike. Activity chartist temporarily fell.
Last exaltation chartystskohomovement happened in 1847 - 1848 pp. Under the new petition was collected 5 million signatures. But drastic measures taken by the government foiled the attackchartist. Parliament has again rejected the petition. Autumn of 1848 p.. chartist movement began decline in the 50's pp. XIX Art. came to naught.
5. France by backBourbon Restoration
In 1815 in France againReturning Bourbon. King Louis was again XVIII. Together with the Bourbon emigre returning nobles andpriests who sought to regain the ground that they were selected duringRevolution, and dreaming of revenge. The government found itself again in the hands of nobility.France wave of white terror (when this expression was first coined -white flag was Bourbon). People involved in the revolution, those whojoined Napoleon during the Hundred Days, executed, imprisoned, sent toexile.
However, no restoration of the monarchymeant the restoration of absolutism. Decisions binding on the Congress of ViennaLouis XVIII introduce a constitution.According to the "Charter 1814 p. ", as it was called, France became a constitutional monarchy, albeit withenormous powers of the king. King had rightlegislative initiative. In law it turned dvopalatnyyLegislative body. His first chamber (House of Peers) appointed by the King, the secondchamber elected on the basis of age and very high property qualification. Rightvote in France had only 80-100 thousand.
In Louis XVIII enough common sense to declare civil equality, inviolability of the personfreedom of the press and religion. The Constitution also guaranteed the security of private property, including acquired yearsrevolution. Power actually in the country focused onlarge landowners, tworyanand the top of the bourgeoisie. Before France discovered possiblenews evolutionary path of political development.
6. Three glorious days. The July Monarchy
У 1824 p., after the death of Louis XVIII, King under the name KarlX was his brother, Earl d'Artua -"King of immigrants, athylnykunlimited royal power. Each year Charles X increasingly turned to the old order. Since the army wasreleased 250 Napoleon's generals, liquidatedNational Guard, accepted "law of one billionimmigrants (immigrants noble reward for lost during the revolutionLand of a billion francs). Discontent Bourbon regime wasgeneral.
Charles X in the Louvre painting awards
When the Chamber of Deputies in June and July 1830 wereselected 240 opponents and only 145 supportersnykivgovernment, the ruling elite decided to make a coup. July 26 wasissued emergency decrees of the king, which actually annulled"Charter 1814 p. ": dismissal Chamber of Deputies, which had not yet come and, calling new electionsthe law which gave voting rights only large landowners, fullrestrictions on freedom edition newspapers.This was the match that lit the flame of a new revolution, which became knownThe July Revolution of France as, or "three glorious days" (this was herduration). Highlights in the revolution took place in Paris. Private battleParisians with police quickly grew into a rebellion. A day in the city was the hands of insurgents. It was established a provisional government.Charles X resigned deposed and fled abroad. The result of the Revolution 27-29 July 1830 wasfinal overthrow of the Bourbon dynasty in France.
The new king of France wasproclaimed Louis Philippe of Orleans, closely related to financiers andbankers. His rule was called the July Monarchy and lasted for1848 King agreed to revise some provisions of the old constitution."Charter of 1830" expanded the powers of, especially in the fieldlegislation. It reduced property qualifications for those who ran to theParliament, and voters in the lower ward.The number of voters has increased slightly, but was less than 1 % population.Not only workers, peasants, small holders, but most of Manufacturers(Breeders, manufacturers) had no choiceing rights.Close friend of King Laffit banker said: "From now on Franceruled by bankers. "These words have been met. The real power finallymoved from the old aristocracy to the bankers, largestIndustrialists and landowners, owners of railways, coal mines.It was a new financial aristocracy, "the kingdom of bankers."
Louis-Philippe of Orl
So, the old aristocracy experienceddefeat, and her attempt to surface ofmay remove the back wheelhistory of failure. Changes in political life in France Julymonarchy, the king caused the reduction of power and strengthening the authority of Parliament.
However, the situationthe country remained unstable. In the 30 pp. in France have secret republican society. Increaseopposition sentiments, the labor movement, the peasants' overhangpi "and characterized 40-e pp. All anti-government speeches prydushuvalysya with troops.Financial aristocracy stubbornly refused to makepolitical reform, liberalization of the regime. In fact, late 40'spp. developed in France againrevolutionary situation.
7.Economic development France
У 1815-1847 pp. France increased industry and tradeFor, expanding roads and canals, laid Railway. Market relations are increasinglypenetrated into the rural economy.
In industry gaining. rateIndustrial Revolution, there were large at the time of factory machines andSteam machinery, iron and increasedcoal mining. In 1820 in France were 65 steam engines, 1830 - 625,1848 - 4853.
Iron production increased from 114 tons in 1818 to 600 thousandt 1848 p., coal - from 1 million to 5 million tons in the 30's pp. there were ships, began construction in 1831railroads - until 1848, their length is 2 km. The volume of industrialproduction has grown over the years by 60%. France ranked first in the worldManufacture of silk fabrics, cotton production has increased significantly, furs.Textile industry was Alsace.But the Industrial Revolution in France there was much slower than inEngland manufactories were more than factories. Prevail in small workshops,especially in the production of luxury goods, where France at the forefront in Europe.The process of introducing factory system led productivity growthintensification of production. The biggest industrial centers of the country, and nowcenters and the labor movement became Lyon, Marseille, Lille, Roubaix, Saint Etienne.The largest workers' performance, suppressed by troops occurred in 1831 and1834 pp. in Lyon. Leading role in the economy keptfarmercos. The volume ofproduction increased at this time (without increasing the number farmland)50%. Large enterprises former nobles were only in the north, in otherparts of the country largelyly small peasanteconomy. In the village there was a process goodsing economy andproperty stratification of peasants. Appear wealthy owners, which producedproducts to market needs, those who forge peonage, and generallylandless peasants.
Documents. Facts. Comments
The petition passed by the National Association of chartystskoyu May 1842
Petition from the people of the United Kingdom says:
"Governmentauthority has its primary source of people, those tasks - protecting freedom for all and promoting the welfare of all. It should be accountable to the people. Wheredenied the right the representation must chynytysya resistance penaltytaxes. With 26mln (naselennya. - Auto. ) only 900 thousand eligible voters.Your beauty comes from taxes on their personal expenses daily 164 pounds, 17 shillings,10 pence ... while many thousands of families of workers are daily in penceeach.
... Your solicitors complain aboutthey are burdened with staggering taxes to pay interest on so-called nationalDebt ...
In England, Ireland, Scotland andWales, thousands of people die distressed units. And your solicitors, knowing thathardships are the main cause of all crimes, with astonishment, mixed withconcern, followed by how little is done to the poor, sick andold ... "
1. What were the requirements regarding chartistchanges in politicaltional system of England?
2. Why chartist feltpoverty of large parts populationcountry dangerous to society?
Questions and Tasks
2 Describedevelopment in England during the reign of the Tories.
3 Whatchanges have occurred in the country during the tenure vihiv?
4 Specifyfeatures of economic development of England.
5 Describechartystskyy movement plan: a) reasons of b) requirements in) the major activities, d) consequences.
6 Asdevelopment of France took place during the Bourbon restoration?
7 Definecauses and consequences of the July Revolution of 1830 in France.
8 Compareeconomic development of England and France. Youmeans common features.
9 Foldcomparative table "England and France in 1815 - 1847pp. "Scheme:
1. Political devel o ^ ^ ^ II
2. Economic Development ||
10 Onmaterial under paragraph compare the features of the evolutionary and revolutionaryEuropean model of development civilization.