§ 4.Jacobin dictatorship. Termidorianskyy mode
1. Revolt May 31 - June 2, 1793
In Paris was growing rebellion againstGironde. Its not prepared or Jacobin Club of Paris Commune, and the most radicalRepresentatives of the Jacobins and "crazy." They appealed to the Conventiondemanding arrest of all suspicious and give them to Court revolutionary tribunals, to create a revolution in every cityconse army that will exist at the expense of the rich. Suchrequirements zhahaly not only the Girondins, but many Jacobins. But whenRobespierre, whose authority was unquestioned, called Jacobins supportinsurrection, Jacobin Club, "Mountain", the Paris Commune and the majoritysections joined together against the Girondins.
May 31, in different districts of Parisbegan performances of the masses. The next day the Council of the Commune made Marat.He called not to lay down arms and seek full justice. If electedrepresentatives abuse their citizens position,not justify the confidence of the people, stressed Marat, then they shouldtake away the powers to make return to his duties astraitors must be punished.
National Guard troops Nightsurrounded the convention. On it targeted a muzzle guns, configured to eruptiondeadly fire. Girondins had to leave the convent. The government movedthe hands of the Jacobins, who set the country his unlimited power, iedictatorship.
2. Set Jacobin dictatorship
Seizing power by force, Jacobinstried to change its slogan to save the revolution. The task was notlight. The country did not stop the fight fans Girondins. In the Vendee isabate Royalist uprising. Against the Jacobins were in painsixth departments of France. Situationcomplicated by the actions of the InteriorVenta.France was surrounded by coalition troops. Summers were killed Marat.They made a French aristocrat Charlotte cord. Marat was to irreconcilable enemies of the revolution, it respectfully treatedurban lower classes of Paris, he had seven foreign languages, conducted theoretical research in medicine, often treated patients for free, effectively fought againstepidemics. Murder of Marat had a major impact on the course of political events.
In June 1793 p. Convention adopted a new constitution that proclaims the rule of the peopleguaranteed the equality of people's rights. It denounced war of aggression thatwas especially true at the time. Declarative integrity and security of the republic. The Constitution of 1793 had more democraticcharacter than the Constitution in 1791 to participate in elections could men whoage 21 years, no - which of qualification. But putting it into effectpostponed due to emergency in the country.
Jacobins did not stop atachieved. They resorted to the power of solid throughout the country. Actually,was that, warned against what Girondins.
Committee of Public Salvation, which is led by Robespierre, strengthened its influence in the field. In the departments andsend armyallow the creation of extraordinary Commissioners - Commissioner of the Convention. ItJacobins were most determined that did not stop to mass terror. PillarCommittee were local Jacobin clubs and revolutionary committees. They involvedto deal with opponents dictatorship and fororganization repel invaders. Special role in massacre ofrebels played by the Committee of General Security. Broad powers pulled Revolutionarytribunal. With speculation was introduced the death penalty.
3. Highlights Events Jacobins
In July 1793 convention adoptedDecree on the full and gratuitous destructionfeudal rights. All who possessed documentsnents of recovery from farmersany taxes or handling had to destroy these documents within three months.Concealment such documents or theircopies punished by five years' hard labor. The peasants became land owners. Butcastles, parks and forests remained in the possession of landlords. Egalitarian divisionland authorities strongly denied. Land ownership immigrants subjectsale.
Spring with a bang eruptedstruggle against the Merchants. Instead of coercive economic introducedretrieval of bread and grains, vvodylosya forcible restriction of prices for goodsnecessities. Poor Paris welcomed these measures, but it is not solved problems, and buried it deep down. Immediately after adsolid price shops spustily counters.
September 17 convention passed a law onsuspicious, so allowed those considered suspicious and arrestkeep in prison. These announced those who showed himself "a fantyranny. "As a result, hundreds of people find themselves in prisons. Rozpochalisyamass executions. The first died of managersnicksrevolt in Lyon and Vendee. Queen Mary was executed - Antoinette.Her minor son Louis (he was called Louis XVII) died from brutal "reeducation." Masscleansing began in the army. In the revolution of the country aroused the crowd demandedimmediate punishment of offenders. Girondins were against terror, because activityPublic Salvation Committee and the Revolutionary Tribunal and directedagainst them. Girondins expelled from the Convention, they were forced to flee,some of them killed.
InRevolutionary tribunal court was short-lived and were treated without compliance. All the accused awaited the guillotine. It was invented in 1789J. Hilyoten physician, and improved ... "King-smith" Louis XVI, Proposing to replace direct than inventoroblique, because the latter is better separated the head from the torso. That's a surprisevalue entered expression on his head! Severe sentences were executedimmediately.
Ideologist and organizer of the revolutionary dictatorship performedRobespierre. Of his committee condemned the public rescue of all thoseRobespierre whom he considered enemies. In the last leader of the Jacobins attributed all thatnot supported the revolution. Terror and persecution in the country became extreme. To courtcould be attracted even members of the Convention. So revolutionary dictatorship lostany limits, and its mastermind caught in their own endeavors and decreessought an exclusive brutal power, the main feature of which was the right to punish andpardon. Massacres of the Jacobins pushed most of the population.Everyone was afraid that his execution on some charges.
Robespierre, seeing that his actionscausing resentment and fear, triedrally republic, adopting a new religionder - "cultIntelligence. Skasovuvalasya Catholic religion, worship at the oldCatholic rites was forbidden. Place of Christian holidays replacedrevolutionary. Calendar Frenchdo not belong on Christmas, but from the appshas declared republic.The first year began in 1792 with the old calendar. Number of Monthsremain preliminary, but their names have now been linked with others andchanges in the nature: vandem'yer - that September-October, time for grapes BruMayor - October-November, the month of fogs; frymer -November - December, Haze. July-AugustThermidor was called (specialka). However, the new cult of the great popularitynot acquired, resulting in some time convention approved the principle of freedomcults. However dechristianization while not running.
4. The fall of the Jacobin dictatorship
Controversial measures Jacobinsinevitably led to their defeat. Strengthening the Jacobin dictatorship and prohibitionChristianity zhahaly as landowners and the bourgeoisie and the poor.The largest scale terror reached after Robespierre was the soleHead of the Convention. Were arrested and executed in March 1794 Shomett,Eber and other extreme Jacobins, who continued the line of "crazy"required to arrangepour all propertycounterrevolutionaries between poor, requisition bread in the village and the richsend it to the city, increase terror. Soon the terror was directed againstmoderate Jacobins, led by Danton, who sought to weakenrevolutionary dictatorship, a return to constitutional order, non-political terror, the maximum price of freedom of speech and so on. At the insistenceRobespierre tribunal in April 1794 sentenced to death and his Dantonsupporters.
The collapse of the Jacobins became apparent aftereliminate foreign threat of revolution.Jacobins managed to organize a strong and combat-ready army ofOver 600 thousand soldiers. In June 1794-first antyfrantsuzka coalition sufferedLast defeat. But in a dictatorshipFrantsiyi reached the edge of the itscruelty, and so onvalennya itsbecome inevitable.
Conspiracy against Robespierre emerged inConvent. 9 Thermidor II Year of the Republic, ie July 27, 1794 p., occurred coup. Robespierre andhis supporters were accused of trying to establish tyranny and declared outsidelaw, which meant the death penalty without trial. Alreadynext day 22 Jacobins, among them - and Robespierre "maddog "Saint-Just went to the guillotine. The same fate awaited many membersCommune of Paris.
The fall of the Jacobin dictatorship did not mean complete revolution. The country hasdid not happen last redistribution of property and establishment of new powerelite.
9 Thermidor II Year of the Republic
5. Termidoriantsi power
After the coup to power termidorianskoho dostupylasya new bourgeoisie, which was enriched during the revolutionand was interestedstalled in preserving the results of only those who wereprofitable wealthy owners. They supported a republic, played byremoval of any restrictions of free enterprise. It abolished the law ofsuspicious. Convention to return those Girondins, who escaped duringJacobin terror. Obtainedhad amnestyvandeyski insurgents. At the same time were executed hundred Jacobins closedJacobin club and national association and Commune of Paris and the revolutionary committeesdissolved in other cities. It was lifted up prices, which caused unprecedentedexpensive. In the village renewed sale of large plots for the high price.Convention decided to abolish the Constitution in 1793 anddeprive the poor of voting rights. People feel deceived. Againsttermidoriantsiv rose a wave of popular protest as Paris itself, and in the provinces. Especially significantSpeeches Workers were in April andMay, they were suppressed would help withAssisted by troops. Some members of the Convention charged with preparing theseuprisings and later six of them killed.
But no coup termidorianskyywas restoring the old order. Only symbolized the rejection of most radical restructuring of society and the optiontransfer of power to moderate politicians sought protectioninterests of the new elite that has developed over the years of revolution.
In 1795 it wasadopted a new constitution that reinforcing the French republican system, but revoked the generalelection right to restore the property qualification. Bicamerallegislative body - the Council and the Council of five hundredElders - consisted of persons who already turned 40. Memberselected two-step elections, andvoters could only be the owners of property equivalent value of at least 200 work days for all such France was 30 thousand people. Executivegiven five memberslegislative body - the Directorate. Policy Directorate in the interests ofthe wealthiest groups. The rulecreation of the Directory "was Mr. Barras. He remained its permanentMember while the rest zaminyuvalasyaone year through the draw.
6. Conspiracy Babefa
Policy Directorate ignored the interests ofSocial NIH, contributingdevelopment of the movement for a revolution in the name of equality. "
The founder of the movement and its ideologicalnative became the leader of a poor provincial family Francois Babef (1760-1797), who removed the name of the Roman tribune brothersHrakhiv. He was a supporter of the Jacobins in his magazine "Tribunapeople, "praising the memory of Marat, Robespierre and the" day of freedom. "Babef founded the Association anTEDequal "and declared it the idea that" the earth does not belong anyoneand its fruits belong to all, required elimination of all existing property and toWhile rights, opposed the "five prychepurenyh mules in LuxembourgHouse "(another convention attributed to dictators ceremonial dress) method.Society members have chosen the fight armed revolt. But in May 1796Society was exposed, leaders arrested. Later Babefa, darts and theirclosest associates were executed.
7. The Warsecond anti-French coalition. Italian and Egypt toursBonaparte
Foreign Policy Directoratecharacterized by constantlywe have wars. In 1795, France signed a peace treaty with Prussia, where she went toland left bank of the Rhine. Spain also adheredfor peace, and the first anti-French coalition broke up. But Austria has decided tocontinue to wage war, and England helped her money. In the war against these countriesmost distinguished young general Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821).
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on the island.Corsica, which just three months before the birth of Napoleon was French.Napoleon's father, a lawyer impoverished nobleman, the son decided to give education inFrance. Dull, clumsy, with bad French pronunciation, a smallNapoleon constantly ridiculing exposed but persistently studied and 1785brilliantly graduated from military school of Paris. In 16 years of age he began militarypidporuchyka service with the rank (lieutenant) ArtiLarry took over and retaining the family (father died at that time). Manwithout ties to the court, and no hope of career, Napoleon all the free services you render self-educationand became one of the most educated peopletheir time not only in military, but inother areas. During the Revolution, which Napoleon treated approvingly, he fought in the ranks of the revolutionary army,went from whichbintsyamy. In 1793 the plan was a chestnut Bonapartereflected in the rebels and the English port of Toulon-fortress. Napoleon received rank of brigadier general. After termidorianskohooverthrow it for a time fell into disfavour, was even arrested,but then managed to earn the trust of the Directory.
In 1795 heinstructed to suppress mutiny Royalist. BonaPartner defeated the rebels, which strengthened its credibility ruling circles.After this 27-year old general was appointed commander in northern ItalyArmy, which had come to hike the Austrians.
The army consisted of little more than thirtyrozzutyh thousand soldiers and badly dressed. They confronted the 80000th wellarmed Austrian army. Nevertheless,Bonaparte invaded the territory of Italy. Combining the speed of advance of Precipitationstrikes, Bonaparte defeated Austria's best generals. Speak About itlathroughout Europe.
Going to Italy, Bonaparte declared thatto hike is vyzvotion of its populationAustrians and the oppression of feudal governments. But promises were false. The domination of Austria was replacedbutdomination of France. Italians Napoleon robbed, brutally suppressedpopular movement in Italy.
The war was ended in peace October 171797 France Belgium won, Lombardywith neighboring countries and left bank Rhine.Italy was transformed into several "daughter", and actually - dependentof the French republics. Switzerland and the Netherlands also become dependent onof the French Republic. However, the main enemy - England remained immune.
У 1798-1799 pp. Bonaparte made a trip to Egypt and Syria (30-thousand army with artillery for 350 vehicles)hoping to eventually to separateEngland its most valuable colony - India. Initial successtion phase of the expedition soon changed for the failure.Completing a Hikehas ended complete failure. Populationdesperate resistance to the invaders did. The army declined from continuous battlesheat and plague. Links with Franceinterrupted. English Admiral NelFrench dream destroyedfleet in the night battle near the Cape Abukir.
Napoleon at the Pyramids
During the campaign of Egyptformed a second anti-French coalition (England, Austria, Russia, Turkey,Neapolitan kingdom). Upon learning of the victory of the Russian general AASuvorov in Italy and Switzerland, and that the shaky state of the Directory,Napoleon left the army in Egypt and with great difficulty, through proskochyvshyentanglement English ships that lay in wait for him in October 1799appeared in Paris. The remains of the French army in Egypt later surrendered to the British.
8. The coup in 1918 and establishing consulates bryumera
In 1799 the internal situation in France deteriorated due to:
• growing popular discontent policytermidoriantsiv;
• Royalist revolt (they once again raged in the Vendee);
• drop directory authority;
• deterioration of the situation at the front;
• France's defeat in the war against the second anti-French coalition.
Conspired with his brother, LucienBonaparte, head of five hundred, and some members of the Directory, NapoleonBonaparte November 9, 1799 (18 bryumera VIII Year of the Republic), together with his son in law drove MyuratomDirectory. In the evening, wishing to maintain formal legitimacy wasissued a decree on the transfer of power to the three Consul: Siyeysu, Roger-Ducomet, Bonaparte.
The coup in 1918 bryumera VIII Year of the Republic
To strengthen the new government December 241799, the new (fourth) constitution. France remainedrepublic, the legislature passed the State Council, Trybunatovi,Legislative corps, the executive was run by three consuls, butactually - in the hands of the First Consul of the enormous powers. Him;Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1802 he became consul for life. The coup in 1918 bryumera1799 was the completion of the French Revolution.
9. Value Revolution
French Revolution hadhuge impact on developingTalk Frenchsociety and world history. "She shook Europe and launchedprofound social upheavals. Monarchist rulers did not perceive the revolutionaryevents and saw in them a threat to their own security. Military invasion in Franceother states had no success.
The revolution destroyed the feudal-absolutistorder and opened the space for the development of capitalism. She helped expandcivil rights and freedoms in other countries, the introduction of constitutional formsrule.
The most important outcome of the revolutioninclude: the abolition of the privileges of nobles and clergy, the introduction of the principle of equal opportunities for all citizens. Sproschuvalysya formProperty farmers received for payment of land for ten yearsland. Minyalasya tax system. Bower nature of taxes were abolished,their volume is now dependent on income or property. Public spending longersecret.
The revolution put an end to royal authority in France and established a republic. Despite the bloody terror andcontinuing with the postwas for power, she relied on the rulerepresentative elected bodies. First, itwere the Constituent Assembly, later - Legislative Assembly and NationalConvent. Parliamentary democracy has won in France, and the state over timebecame the guarantor of the irreversibility of the socio-political and socio-economictransformations.
Documents. Facts. Comments
With the decree of the Convention of 17 September suspect1793
2.Declared suspects: 1) those who by their conduct or bonds, speeches or writings found ourselves as supporters of tyranny,feudalism and the enemies of freedom ... 4) public servantsservants, removed or displaced from their posts in the National convention orCommissioners and it is not restored to them, even those who were or shouldbe offset by law of 12 August; 5) those former nobles who are husbands, wives, parents,mothers, sons or daughters, brothers, sisters or formerantsimmigrant employees, unless they constantly showed their commitment toRepublic ... "
1. What wasdue to the adoption of the decree?
2. How to evaluatedecree under the legal point of view?
Questions and Tasks
1. As a result of the eventsestablished Jacobin dictatorship?
2. As the power of organized Jacobins?
3. Discover the basic policies Jacobins.
4. What caused the fall of the Jacobin dictatorship?
5. What changes have occurred in the country due to power termidoriantsiv?
6. Describe the foreign policy of the Directory.
7. Compare the contents of the four constitutions adopted during the Revolution. Whatwere their features?
8. What events have become history under the name"Revolution in 1918 bryumeDoctor?
9. What is the historical significance of the French Revolution? 10. Completedrafting table "during the French Revolution.
Note the date!
1789-1799 pp. - French Revolution.
July 14, 1789 - Bastille. Start the Revolution in France.
August 26, 1789 - Declaration of Human Rights and Civil Liberties.
November 9, 1799 - Coup d'etat of Napoleon Bonaparte. Completion of the revolution.