Post French Revolution II END XVIII Art.
§ 2.Home Revolution
1. The main reasons for the revolution
In the secondhalf XVIII Art. France entered a period of crisis.Defeat in the seven-year war (1756-1763 biennium) clearlydemonstrated a weakening of France, which previously was considered the most powerfulEuropean countries. International authority of the country strongly pidupav. Among imposednumerous taxes people grew discontent. Political and intellectualFrench elites thought about how to cure sick society. Majoritytended to what is required not only to correct foreign policy, butseek ways to finance health, promote economic development,change methods of governance. For such conclusions, there were significantgrounds.
In French society existedtraditional division into states. In the second half XVIII Art. the French came to 25 million people. Allpopulation was divided into three states: First - the clergy (about 130 thousand persons)Second - the nobility (about 350 thousand people), the third - all the other groups.The first two conditions were privileged and exempted from paying taxes.Most of the third estate (over 22 million people) was the peasantry. The vastmost peasants were personally free, low in the hereditary possession of landplots for which are in favor of seniors are collected numerous duties -money or natural servage, a variety of work, travel,bridge, ravine-branded, char, etc fees. Trying to increase your income,restore the old nobility forgotten senyorialni rights that have become obsolete anddid not meet time.
Dominant inFrench feudal regime - the "old order" - resisted not only agriculture but also industry andTrade, poverty for the majority of farmers would not allow them to buy goods.The big capitalist production in the country was underdeveloped. While in Francebegan to use machines, industrial revolution had not occurred here.
More and more influence inFrench society usefultuvalasyabourgeoisie. its higher strata - bankers, holders of factories - have millionsfortune, gave a loan to the King, but had no political rights. Wasteroyal court, lack of opportunities to influence public policyIncreasingly caused irritation among the bourgeoisie.
Under the rule Louis XV (1715-1774 biennium) State system and the economy of France is gradually degraded. King of the overwhelmingmost of the time spent on banquets and hunting, covering their exorbitant costsby huge loans. "At my age enough, - he said - and myheir let vyplutuyetsya, how can. "Its successor Louis XVІ (1774-1793 biennium) was pretty good king. Butbezsylength of the royal power indeepening economic crisis and unpopularity used to the luxuryQueen Mary - Antoinette, avstriyky of origin, causing thatresponsible for all ills in the country blamed on the king. Indeed,indecisive Louis XVI did not know how to overcome many economic problems. Public debt rose toThree times in 1789 and was 4, 5 billion livriv. To avoid financialbankruptcy of the state, King, on the advice of his finance minister, decided toimpose taxes on the privileged position - the nobility and clergy.
However, convenedKing meeting of representatives from these two states refused to approve these measures and demandedconvocation General States, hoping tothus limit the Corolivskupower. Convening of States was scheduled for spring 1789 Deputies elected separately from each of the three states. Incities and villages, generating orders MPswhich reflect the requirements and expectations states.A significant turnout explained the changes frombulys in French society under the influenceEnlightenment.
By the middle XVIII Art. fallen rise of French Enlightenment - ideologicalcurrents, which reflect the social protest against the feudal order, socialinjustice, Kanobers CatholicChurch, scholasticism in science, advocated a societynyy progress throughspread of education, culture and education. Illuminator developed their own visionworld and the philosophy that sometimes plans ahead of their creators. Historymerit of the Enlightenment was ideological critique of the "old order" andworking out the need to update the ideology of society. What happened ineconomic and political sphere of France, reflected in the writings of Frencheducators. The most prominent of them were Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau.
Voltaire (1694-1778) - pseudonym philosopherpoet publitsysand political activist and Francois-MarieArue. For his political views was in custody,emigrated to England for a long timelived in Prussia and Switzerland. Given the sharp mind, hiscommitment demanded Louis XV, Friedrich II and KateIrina II. The Russian queen Voltaire corresponded for some time evenXia, being a supporter of enlightened monarchy.Sharply criticized Defectsthe French society opposed the Catholic Church, thoughdid not mind religion, considering it necessary to conquer the massespromoted the equality of all citizens before the law. TheirVoltaire views expressed in "Philosophical letters," "Treatise onMetaphysics, "Philosophical Dictionary.
The most equitable social order, he believed hewhich embodies three main ideals - liberty, equality and respect for property.His attitude to the absolute monarchy, Voltaire expressed this: "Ihate any tyranny. "But he thoughtnecessary to conceal their views from the people, OskolKI ifmob begin to think, all will perish. "However, tyranny and despotism were also sent his tragedy"Brutus" "The Death of Caesar," "Mohammed". Inhis scientific writings Voltaire touching the history of Ukraine.
The name became associated Voltairepolitical and religious catholicity that was called Voltairism.
Montesquieu (1689-1755) received an excellent education, well-traveled.In socio-philosophical novel "Persian letters" he condemned absolutism of Louis XIV, His political ideal was a constitutional monarchy. Montesquieu not only resorted to criticism, butoffered their own versions transformation of society. The best for him waspower-sharing executive, legislativeted andjudicial branches, and work legislatorsMontesquieu considered as main driving force of social progress. Most popular Monttesk'yegained through the book on the spirit of laws "(1748 p.). Montesquieu was recognizedliberal ideologue stormszhuaziyi, which is not satisfied beyondabsolutist regime.
Rousseau (1712-1778)got youknowledge only at the end of his life. The point of anger hedirected against social injustice. Idealized primitive society,when people lived in harmony with nature, were free and equal, inequalityemerged with the advent of private property, its appearance was the result of oppression of poorrich. But Rousseau did not demand the abolition of private property. If you already have sois, the government must take care to limit inequality. The best form of governmentRousseau believed the republic, which would direct people took part in the managementstate. His views on the state structure outlined in the treatise: "Considerationsabout the provenancetion and causes inequalitypeople "(1755 p.), On public agreement, principles or political rights "(1762 p.). Rousseau tried to prove that the rich have conspired andusurped power, and with it - the ownership and right of the people. So is justifiedstruggle against this power and establish "popular sovereignty".
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Thought valued rolereligion in society. He believed that there is no state in whichit would not be its basis, the ideas of Rousseau easily perceived by all sectorspopulation of France and beyond, had a great impact on publicviews education.
Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau activelyworked on the edition of the Encyclopedia of Science, Arts and Crafts. Itedition unite all opponents of absolutism, the adherents of different socialcurrents, which defended the third estate. It worked Diderot, D'Alamber, Holbah,Helvetia and others are united nazvysko "encyclopedist. Popularwas the publication of dictionaries, which together with the encyclopedic volumes, progressivemagazines, literary and philosophical works promoted intensive searchesbetter organization of society, said the principles of social justiceand humanism.
3.Convening of General states. Constituent Assembly
General States (birth-representative body) were not going to France with1614 In a situation of crisis that engulfed the country, all waiting for some of themsubstantial changes. Hope third estate, which was most of the peoplecountry, expressed in his pamphlet "Whatis the third estate? " Abbot Siyyes (1748-1836). On itquestion, he replied: "Everything." And he wrote further: "What he was toin this political system? - Nothing, "" What he wants to be? - Becomesomething.
Generalstates started May 5, 1789 in Versailles. 270 members representingnobility, 291 - clergy, 572 - the third condition. King hoped thatwork states limitedzhytsya approval of his proposalson tax reform, but from the very beginning the events unfolded after anotherscenario. Before a performance of King announced that the vote willregulations that each state will have one vote. Members of Third Estateopposed this, because in that case they would have had one but the privileged position -two votes.
The General states
RepresentativesThird Estate proposed a jointno discussion, to vote all together, each member hadhave one vote. Many deputies from the two states joined the privilegedthis proposal: June 17 they declared themselves the National Assembly, iebody that represented the interests of the entire nation. National Assembly announced that they consider necessary to eliminateabsolutism in France.
King rescind this decision and tried totame the rebellious MPs. In turn, the deputies refused to performKing's will. Then Louis XVI decided to act by force and ordered to close the hall, where they were. June 20outraged deputies found the courtroom closed. But they do notconfused, and gave an oath not to disperse until they create for Franceconstitution. They also announced the immunity of deputies and that the encroachmenton their rights is a state crime. First successes and support activitiesDeputies of the population have prompted them to declare themselves a Constituent Assembly July 9,whose task was the creation in France of a new state system.
MPs vow to create a constitution
For Louis XVI it became an occasion to begin preparations fordispersal of the Constituent Assembly.
In the struggle between MPs andKing watched the whole of France. Any action now would be met with Kingindignation. The dissatisfaction of the people growing daily. Even the troops began toParisians support. Several hundred voters created the French capitalParis Committee - actually a city municipal government. The Committee, in itsturn, organized armed BOILus -National Guard. July 14 took over a huge crowd arsenal andalready armed, went to state prison-fortress, military garrison which supported the king. It was enough proletariatvalue hadfortress with one gulp, as the rebels burst into the fort and captured it.All night the Parisians celebrating their victory. King forcedwas to recognize the Constituent Assembly and to withdraw from Paris.
That day became a national holidayFrance, that his point so far.
The revolution quickly spread toProvince, where by the third state created new elected authorities.Destroyed most hated old regime Islands - prison. Revoltsupported the local National Guard units. In the villages burned castlesdestroyed documents on which vyzyskuvaly peasants. Frightened noblesescaping from estates. So fire revolution, starting from the day the Bastille,gripped the country and resulted in dramatic improvements in the lives of the French nation."The fall of the Bastille fortress was falling all fortresses" - wroteFrench writer Victor Hugo.
July 14 in France became a symbolwon freedoms, the day of awakening people, raising patriotism.
5. Activity of the Constituent Assembly. Declaration of human and civil rights
As a result falling Bastille initiative completely passedto the Constituent Assembly, who started the restructuring of state and society. In August1789 members endorsed two important decisions.
First, in "Night of Miracles" -named as the night of August 4, 1789 p., Constituent Assembly developed a highly anticipated bill fornext week a bill (Decrees).Proclaimed the equality of all before the law to pay taxesoverturned by the class privileges, duties personal feudal peasants, churchtithing. Duties related to land use, had to buy.
Second, taking as a modelAmerican Declaration of Independence in 1776 p., August 26 Constituent Assembly proclaimed the Declaration, the I789human and civil rights, which was later usedbuilt on in many countries as a basis for preparingNational legislation. Documentgeneral principles proclaimed constructedyou a new society. The source of higher power oholoshuvalasya nation. This meant the elimination of absolutism, but denied existenting a constitutional monarchy. The basis of the newsociety were natural human rights - freedom of speech, thought, conscience,security of persons and private property, equality before the law -"People are born and remain free and equal in their rights" -alleged in the declaration.
With the adoption of these documents center of political struggle moved to the Constituent Assembly. At firstthere were many moderatesupporters of constitutional monarchy. their leaders were well known andpopular in the country Marquis Lafayette and Count Mirabeau.
Mirabeau saw an example of constitutionalmonarchy in England. A talented orator, heattracted students; able perekonuvathou. Aristocrat oforigin, Mirabeau rose from the enemy king to his supporters.
Lafayetteduring a time headed the National hvaraction fond ideas encyclopedists. Like Mirabeau, considered necessarysave power of a king, but to the Constituent Assembly of significant rights.
As conservative groupssupporters opposed the decisive revolutionary action - left. This is the name they werebecause the meetings of the Constituent Assemblysat on the left. Later leftist supporters began to call allradical, revolutionary views. The largest group was headed by a young leftlawyer Maximilien de Robespierre, the Jacobins future leader.
Constituent Assemblyeliminated Institute hereditary nobility, guild system, the internal customs borders, confiscated churchesNo raids. For the unemployed organizedCharity Maystubble, but the creation of strikes and workers'Unions were forbidden by a special law.
Since September 1791 the Constituent AssemblyFrance adopted the first Constitution, which legislated existenceconstitutional monarchy. Executive power remained in the king and his ministers.He also had the right to veto vidkladalne, that could ever stop activitiesapproved by the legislature. Higher belonged to a unicameral legislatureLegislative Assembly. The judiciary was based on the election of judges and juryin the proceeding. Reorganized the system of local government. Francedivided by 83 departments, the power which belonged to the elected councils.
Elections to the Legislative Assembly were two-step, tobased on high property qualification. The right to vote had the only men whoover 25 years of age and pay at least half livra tax. In suchFrance there were 4, 3 million they choose electors, and they in turn -Deputies.
6.Activation of counter-revolution
The deployment of the French Revolutioncaused the emigration of white - the nobility escaped abroad. A white flag of Bourbonwas their embodiment of "old order". King also feltcaptives in revolutionary Paris. June 20, 1791 night Louis XVI with the family attempted to secretly leave France and jointo immigrants. But the attempt was unsuccessful. King was detained and returnedto the capital. The population of Paris was met with Louis XVI sullen silence. For him the act was a betrayal of the Kinginterests of the nation.
Parisians demandedabdication of Louis XVI and his trial. Was becoming increasingly popular idea of establishingRepublic. July 17, 1791 at the Mars field in Paris, gathered a hugecrowd, who demanded establishment of the republic. Aggression Parisians scaredConstituent Assembly. Under their command the National Guard opened fire with gunson demonstrators. Shot on Mars showed indentations in the fieldSociety ideological divide between supporters of a constitutionalmonarchy and republic.
Documents. Facts. Comments
From the Declaration of Human Rights і citizen
Declaration of Human Rights and citizen, adopted at the endAugust 1789 p., proclaimed principles that were to form the basis of the constitutionFrance.
National Assembly recognizes andannounced before and aegissupreme people are human and civil rights:
1. People are born free andequal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only ongeneral benefit.
2. The aim of every political unionConservation isthem and inalienable rightsrights. These rights include: freedom, property, security and resistance to oppression.
3. Source of all the supreme power is always in nation. Noinstitution, no person may not exercise power that is derived directlyof the nation.
4. Freedom is the right to do whatever does not harmOtherwise ...
5. Law can only prohibit actions detrimentalfor societyStudies. All that is not prohibitedlaw allowed, and no one can be forced to do what the lawdoes not allow.
6. Law is the expressiongeneral will. All citizens have rightpersonally or through representatives participate in the publication laws. Lawshould be equal for all ...
7. No one can beaccused, arrested or detained otherwise than as prescribedlaw and rules provided him ...
10. No one should fear for their beliefs, evenreligious signs if they do not violate the public order established bylaw ...
13. For maintenancegovernment agencies applicable taxes. They should be evenly distributedbetween citizens according to their means ...
17. Because the property is inviolable and sacred right,no one can be deprived, except when this is clearlyrequires a public necessity, legally certified, and provided fair andprevious awards.
1. Comment own understanding of the provisionsDeclaration Human man and citizen.
2. What are the basic rights and freedoms proclaimed inDeclaration?
Questions and Tasks
1. Identify what caused the revolution in France.
2. What social and political ideas of French educators claimed?
3. Think about whether you can consider the views of educators ideological prerequisiteFrench Revolution.
4. Tell us about events that made General States turned toConstituent Assembly.
5. Why Bastille consider starting the revolution?
6. Describe legislative activityConstituent Assembly.
7. Discover the major provisions of the Declaration of Human Rights and Civil Liberties.(Use the document number 1). What is its historical significance?
8. What were the main provisions of the Constitution in 1791? (UseDocument number 2).
9. What impact did attempt to escape Louis XVI to deepen the ideologicaldistinction in the French society?