§ 1. Major trends in economic and political development of the world from the XVIII century. to 1870 (textbook)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miss UniverseIApril IPAGEIЯ

9 CLASS

(О. Hisem,O. Martyniuk)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

§ 1.Major trends in economic and political from the end of the world XVIIIArt. to 1870

1. Key features of the history of mankind in earlier times

Historytaken to be divided into ancient, middle ages, new and the newest. From the appearance of man andhuman society, of firststates and civilizations, the rule of slavery to the Agriculturalno-craft society and Christianoutlook in eraMiddle Ages and then to the industrial and postindustrial society during the Modern History -a progressive developmenthumanity. In previous years you studied ancient history (From ancient times to the end VArt. ), The history of the Middle Ages (late V - End XV Art.) And a new period of history - from the beginning XVIArt. to end of the French Revolution XVIII Art.

To the end XVIII Art. in human history there have been significant changes. The biggest changes took place in Western Europe (zahidnohrystyyanskomuworld), which through the Renaissance, the Reformation, the great of Discovery came to a new level not only Actually, and global development. Zahidnohrystyyanskyy(New European) world has made in advancing the development of the Worldscale. Around him, humanity began rally in the economic, political, culturalplan.

In grade 9 you finish studyingnew history. This is period in human history, in whichit became the single entity, with a commoninterconnected destiny. In this sense XIX Art. was epochal for human civilization '.

2. Technical progress and capitalism

The period from 1789 to 1870 whichis the main content Historymaterial world history course in grade 9, - it era ofindustrial society. In the development ofare vitalforces the shift from manual labor to machine, from factory to factory, which caused a huge increase productivity. Thus, when XVIII Art. to obtain 10-15 tons of iron had to be two weeks, then in 1870 - 10 minutes. Significantly increased the power of money. The society began The quest for capital accumulation by any means because they werethe main measure of social status. Pragmatism and commercialism cover all segments of the population and first of all - ruling.

Invention and perfection of the steamgave a powerful machine engine not only for factorymachines, but also for transport. In 1830 Railwaynetwork around the world was only 332 km.

Five years later, its length increasedto 8 thousand, and in 1870 she exceeded 200 thousandkm.

In the middle XIX Art. gained widespread electrical Communications - Telegraph.

In the 60's XIXArt. The first engine was built internalhe combustionwhich play a big role today. Electricity then not yet acquired a significant spread in the techniques, except communications but in the field of electricity was important inventions. Anhliyskyy scientist Michael Faraday discoveredelectromagnetic induction. Based on this discovery was later establishedGenerators AC(Dynamo).

The new era of developments have occurred in agriculture. In the Middle ever it has been prepared on a small part suitable for obrobitku of fallow land and trypilnoyu systems.Since then, more more extended bahatopilna system. In the village beganapply fertilizers according to some research, make the landmore manure, artificial fertilizers - bone meal, lime and others.

In the first half XIXArt. in England and in Northern states USA, and later in other countries began to use agriculturalGeorgia was machine: for land tillage - bahatolemishniplows instead odnolemishnyh for sowing - sowing horse for collectiongraining - in horse-drawn reaper, forthreshing - ion thresher.

Still, machines implemented inagriculture much slower than inindustry. Because only large economy, whichworked in the market, could use them. And in most of the dominant small-scale peasanteconomy.

Industrialization has radically changedsocial structure of society, exacerbated the gap between rich and poor. If bourgeoisie tried to surpass the luxury of the aristocracy, the workers were anxious not to lose the job and not die of starvation.

3.Political life

The ground for the revolutions in NorthAmerica and France, the development of capitalist relations in the world andEuropean social and political thoughtprepared educational ideology XVIII Art. The progress of mankind educators associated with freedom private enterprise and integrityproperty liquidationthis formed the privilege. These principles are further defined socio-economic and political development of most countries world.

Absolute monarchy evolvedto educational absolyutyzmu who tried to preserveunlimited nature of power monarch, referring tothe need for society "Totalwelfare reform through the top officials.

French Revolution of 1789-1799 brought great changes in all aspectssociety, became a historical Rubicon in European and world history, has acceleratedits course. She broke the bower structure and setsocial and nationalnyy conflictsthe basis for the further development of Europe and the world.

Beginning XIX Art. was associated with the Napoleonic Wars. DesireNapoleon Bonaparte redraw the map of Europe failed. Completion of the Napoleonic Wars has set monarchsEurope's royal dynasties task of restoration, the creation of effective systempeace and stability in Europe, warning of new revolutions.Congress of Vienna (September 1814 - May 1815) launched a system of internationalrelations in Europe based on the principles of balance. its essence wasstrengthen its own security by forming alliances and distractionenemy potentialitiestheir enemies. Exceptrestoration and support of monarchical government, country-winner,especially Russia, Austria, Prussia, tried to satisfy their owninterests at the expense of territorial gains.

End XVIII - early XIX Art. equally respected challenger to the dominantposition in European politics became the UK - such a "world workshop", where he time produced the largest number in Europe, coal, iron, cotton textiles, machinery and equipment.

The Industrial Revolution, whichstarted in England, later covered all other countriesWestern Europe and North America provided English(Later European) economic dominance in the world. This enabled the EuropeanStates develop colonial empire (most of which wasEnglish).

Western Europe and North Americaon the basic foundations economic and technical achievementshave become producers of bulk industrial products, while EastEurope with Russia and Latin America were a raw material appendageWestern Europe and SPIA. This structure led to the formation of the world in WesternEurope and North U.S. economic mechanisms of production anddemocracy, and in Eastern Europe, Latin America, the southern United States - Developmentnon-economic methods of exploitation (slavery, serfdom, peonat) and strengtheningdictatorial, absolutist traditions.

In political terms, the maincontenders for leadership speakers in the worldEngland, France, Russia and then Germany, USA, Japan.

Civilizations of the East - Muslim, Indo-pivdennoaziatska,China-Far East - with the "call" europeytsiv experienced considerable change - both positiveand negative. Based on its economicadvantage, the Europeans brutally

destroy the foundations of traditional societies in Asia andAfrica.

In late 40-ies France, Germany, Austria, Hungary,Italy embraced the wave of revolutions, which, though ended in defeat, had a greatfor the formation of national consciousness of peoples of Europe, acceleratingpace of social and economic development of European countries, becomingdemocratic institutions.

No less important events was saturated second half XIX Art. For most countries this was the time period radical "social and political reforms, which created the preconditions foraccelerate the pace of their development. The world has entered a period of industrial capitalism with its characteristic feature of hiswe;dynamic economic development based on scientific and technicalprogress, the concentration of production and capital, deteriorating socialconflicts and competition for markets.

Another feature of XIX Art. was the sharing of views on the place and role of nations insocial and political life. End of the French Revolution XVIII Art. first accepted the greatest nation value and source of state sovereignty. This event marked completiondonatsionalnoyi era in human history and the beginning of a new era - the period ofnations and national existence nations. XIX Art. deployment was the era of national liberationmovements in different regions of the world.Processes of national revival extremely activeopened at that time among the Slavic nations of Central and Eastern Europe.The result was the awakening of national consciousness as the successful completionAssociation of Italian and German nations in the second half XIX Art.

All thatperiod was a time of almost continuous wars in different regions of the world. The largest inXIX Art. the extent of battles, quantitativety of life and political consequences were Napoleonic War (the end XVIII Art. - 1815), civil war in U.S. (1861-1865 biennium) andInterventions developed countries in China (1851 -1865years), Crimean (Eastern) War (1853-1856), War with the participation of Prussia (1866 and 1870-1871 biennium), Russia(1877-1878 biennium), colonial war France and Britain and others.

Characteristicfeature of cultural-historical process that took place in Western Europe andNorth America XIX Art. was intense development of all sectorsspiritual culture, nationaltional literature andart. Features that vtilyuvalys in them testifiedto form in these countries a new society with its morals and culture,changes in economic and social fieldtical areas. So theestablishment and strengthening of the Indusstrialnohosociety, these fundamental principles in basic features and operatingtoday.

 

4. World Rights XIX Art.

Establishment of industrial society in Europecountries and the U.S. resulted in significant changes to the human condition. Previously mostpopulation lived in villages and working near ground, the now rapidly growingurban population. End XIX Art. the number of urban population all European countries ahead of UKwhere nine out of ten people lived in cities in other countries the urban populationalso grew very quickly, but still lived in villages have 70-80% of the population.

High levelurbanization (concentration of population and economiceconomic life in cities) were notable industrial areas. Rapid population growth in the industrial citiesaggravated social problems. Lack of basic sanitationconditions (water supply, sewerage systems) in the homes of the urban poor made a themsource of possible epidemics. Terrible living conditions in overcrowded urbanblocks causing that for many citybecame the embodiment of destruction of traditional socialrelations, the threatfor the existing order, and at the same time, favorable location for distributionrevolutionary ideas.

Growth of urban populationfor XIX Art. caused suchfactors:

   development of plant industry as a result of deploymentIndustrial Revolution;

   improve land use and new methodsvirgins farming. Agriculturalrevolution inbrought to a large number of rural populationfound itself without a job and was forced to look for it in cities;

   significant population growth in Europe. As his strength boomerspopulationtion of the continent (including Russia) has increased from 190 million people in 1800to 420 million in 1900

Sign of a new era in human historybecome significant in size migration (resettlement within the country, soand overseas). The masses of the population leaving hometowns and wandered in search of betterfate to the big cities or to other countries.

During the previous century, the influencereligion and church on a person weakened considerably. Under the influence of enlightenment spreadviews that the church must be by separateNoah from the state. Generally, however, the existence of religion and churches not disputed."A nation without a church - proclaimed Napoleon Bonaparte - as king withoutcompass.

End of the French Revolution XVIII Art. launched in evpeancountry movement of women for their equalization in rights with men. Fighting for womenemancipation (liberation from dependence oppression, prejudiceattitude, the abolition of restrictions and giving equal rights) continued throughout XIX Art. But society was not yet prepared toCivil and fieldAtlantic emancipationwomen belonged to these ideas hostile. VnasliThis dock solution femalezvolikalosya problems. In the UK women were equal with menCopyright 1928 only changes that occurred while in Europe and the U.S. hadpervasive character. Therefore XIX Art. in the history of these countries defined asperiod of great modernization - changes in all areas social lifeaccording to the time.

Documents. Facts. Comments

1. Development railway network world

Years

Length of railways (In km)

1830

332

1840

7700

1850

38 600

1860

108 000

1870

210 000

1900

790 000|

1913

1102 000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consider:

As the data indicate changes in the role of railways indevelopment of transport?

2. The population of Europe and the USA у XIX Art. (In million persons)

 

Country

1800

1900

1.

Germany

24, 5

56, 4

2.

Great Britain

10, 5

37, 0

3.

France

26, 9

39, 0

4.

Italy

17, 2

32, 5

5.

Russia

37, 0

125, 6

6.

U.S.

5, 3

76, 2

Consider:

In which countryand why the population growth rate were the most?

Questions and Tasks

1.     Recall of learned inprevious classes: what were Featuresdevelopment of mankind in ancient history, servicerednovichchi and in the first periodnew history?

2.     What  different agro-Craftsof society andнdustrialnoho?

2.       Specify majoreconomic and technological developments in Europe and the USA.

3.       What were the featurespolitical life in Western Europe and North America?

4.       Identify major changesthat took place in the world XIX Art.