English Revolution of the mid-XVII century.
childless after the death of Queen Elizabeth I Tudor dynasty ceased. Throne passed to Scottish house Stewart. Representatives of a new dynasty (James I and Charles I) also tried to reinforce the absolute power of the monarch, but rather did not in the national interest and their own. Therefore, parliament and the people were not maintained. Disputes stewards of Parliament went so far that I've stopped Carl reconvened. And external adventures of King needed the money collected which could be achieved only by parliament, introducing new taxes. But in exchange for funds advanced to the King parliament demands which were cut in with his absolutist aspirations. August 22, 1642 the king declared war on Parliament. The English were divided into supporters of the king and parliament. The country began a civil war.
At first success was on the side of the King. But already in a short time the army of Parliament was to win. Conducive army "new model", which made Oliver Cromwell. In the decisive battle at Neysbi (1645) his "zaliznoboki" beat the army of the king.
After King got captured and the insistence of Cromwell was executed. England proclaimed a republic.
country was headed by Cromwell, who proclaimed Lord Protector. He worried about economic development, caring for her dominance on the seas that led to war with Holland. Navigation Act 1651 laid the foundations of the sea power of England for the next 300 years. Cromwell and came near to the colonial conquest. The first victims of colonial expansion began to Scotland and Ireland. He thus laid the foundations of the British colonial empire, which later was to become the largest in the world.
In the middle of the country, he set a strict dictatorship founded on Puritan principles. In fact, he was more than the powers of the king.
But after his death the power struggle in the country erupted with renewed strength. In 1660 the monarchy was restored, Stewart returned to the throne (Charles II, James II). But they could not find common language with the parliament. And then last invited to the English throne ruler William of Orange Netherlands. As a result of the "glorious revolution" (1688r.) in England finally acutely parliamentary monarchy.
English Revolution of the mid-XVII. become an event of great historic importance. She set a new economic and socio-political order. The economy has been destroyed everything that impeded the development of market relations and commodity production. After the revolution, the industrial revolution, in which England became one of the most developed countries. Invention and spread of the steam-engine J. Uattom subsequently transformed England in the "workshop of the world." The development industry has changed and most England. Rapidly became the city occur mines, factories and plants. Once the backward central and northern areas of the country have become new industrial centers. Real championship has enabled the country to gain superiority in trade, control of trade routes and major markets.
consolidate itself in the political life of a parliamentary monarchy in which Parliament limited the power of King, who represented the interests of various strata of British society.
At the beginning of the XVIII century. after the unification of the Kingdom of Scotland, England turned to the UK. After inclusion of Ireland (1801) state called United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.