France in the XVI - the first half of the XVII century. (compendium)

absolutism and civil wars in France

France in the XVI century. was the most populated country in Europe. The number of inhabitants reached 15-18 million people. Its capital was Paris at that time the largest city in Europe with a population of 300 thousand inhabitants. Combining French centralized state ended late XV century.

majority of the population of France, lived in villages and the country remained generally agricultural. Gradually growing French cities. The capital of French typography and banking was Lyon. The largest port city, which was carried through Mediterranean trade remained Marseille France. At the same time increased the value of western and northern ports located on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean.

the reign of King Francis I (1515-1547 biennium) in France were subject to reform economy ideas. Late 30's more and more popular in the country gets Calvinism. French Calvinist called Huguenots. By 1560 their numbers increased, while increasing tensions between Protestants and Catholics.

In 1562-1598 he was swept France religious civil war. The reason for them was the massacre Huguenots in Vassa, hosted by Duke Francois de Hizom March 1, 1562 During the later years alternated during the war period of peace and armed conflict.

during Bartholomew's Day (23-24 August 1572) in Paris were killed over three thousand Huguenots. For two weeks thereafter throughout France were exterminated about 30 thousand Huguenots.

After the death of King Henry III (1574-1589), who had no direct descendants of Huguenot leader Henry of Bourbon, King of Navarre became real and rightful heir to the French throne. He became King of France under the name of Henry IV (1594-1610 biennium) after renounced Calvinism.

Henry IV regulated religious disputes in the French edition of 1598 in Nantes Nantes, in which Roman Catholicism remained the dominant religion of the Huguenots but obtained the right to hold public office and perform their prayers in all cities except Paris. Publication Edict of Nantes ended the religious wars in France.

At the time of Henry IV began the colonization of French Canada. In 1608, with the support of King Samuel de Champlain at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River Quebec founded - the first French colony in America.

Successor became Henry IV Louis XIII (1610-1643 biennium). However, this period in the history of France is regarded as the "era of Richelieu" in the name of its first minister. Cardinal Richelieu (1586-1642rr.) During 1918 effectively ruled the country for indecisiveness King. He consistently and deliberately destroyed the power of the Huguenots and strengthened the authority of royal power. France overcome consequences of the internal squabbles of an earlier era and gained a new political face - absolutism.

Formation absolutism ended the reign of King LyudovikaXIV (1643-1715 biennium). Louis XIV for his greatness and power of the Sun King named. Sophistication and luxury of the French royal court became the model for all European monarchs. It is believed that at this time hegemony in Western Europe came from Spain to France.