§ 33. China and India in XVI-XVII centuries. (textbook)

§ 33. Whaleaj and India in XVI-XVII centuries.

Remember:

1. What you know about the economic and political development in China XIII - XV centuries.?

2. Which progress in the development of science and technology was made in medieval China?

3. Remember when and how was the conquest of India.

4. The first person Europeans found a way to India?

 

1. Economic and political situation in China

In the XVI century. in China dominated imperial Ming Dynasty. Chinese empire encompassed the territory of modern interior provinces of China and Manchuria. Dependent from Empire countries were Vietnam, Korea and Tibet. Higher power belonged emperor, who ruled a huge country, relying on lots officials. The entire territory was redistributed to the 15 major administrative units.

Foremost in China's economy occupied agriculture. Emperors of the Ming Dynasty beginning of his reign, the policy aimed at strengthening the peasant economy. At the time, has been considerably improved tools and agrotechnics, from one field were to collect two harvests - spring and autumn, the ground began to make fertilizer. Got a proverb: "Keep manure - that is, to buy another field. Great progress has irrigation equipment. Chinese water pipes laid with bamboo pipes lashtuvaly water wheels, dams were erected.

All land in the Empire Low divided into public and private. The vast majority of public lands handed in life-farmers who had to pay for it State taxes and duties to perform. Private lands mostly owned large landowners. The largest raids in XVI - XVII century. had emperors, they generally belonged to one third of all private property lands. Possession was huge imperial family, nobility, officials who received land from the emperors. From the lands that were in private ownership, taxes paid by landowners that the land might give small plots on lease to the peasants.

In the Ming Empire was an extensive and comprehensive tax system. Every ten years consisted of lists of taxpayers who were kept in the Office of Finance. Peasants were forced to perform duties, worked in the construction of cities, palaces, channels. From the duties could redeem themselves or hire someone else instead the other, but it could afford only wealthy people.

China has been well developed handicraft industry. There were small handicraft workshops where master himself worked with his family and students, in large public workshops used work attached to them artisans. In the XVI century. private manufactories became more and more, especially in the weaving industry. By their nature, they approached the West. Their owners became rich merchants and craftsmen, and artisans or small farmers who had other means of livelihood, - hired workers.

The relationship between emperor and subjects were traditional relationships master and slave. On audience with the emperor in all the ministers were to stand on your knees. Emperor could arbitrarily deprived or remove from office anyone.

 

2. Penetration Europeans to China

The first attempts Europeans get to China made in XVI century. In the first half XVI century. Portugal tried to force to establish their settlements on China coast. In the 40's of the XVI century. they pidkupyvshy local authorities, established a trading base in the north of Guangdong Province. Frankly colonization policies that guide the Portuguese, ignoring all local laws forced the Chinese to act decisively and in 1549 expel them from China. The Portuguese managed by large bribes to local officials reserve the port Macau. In the second half of XVI century. China began to penetrate the Spanish colonizers and the end of the century - the Dutch. When England win over Spain in the fight for supremacy on the seas, she also found interest in entering into China. Ming Dynasty at the time finally collapsed and could not stop armed squadron. British bayonet made Chinese to allow the right to trade through the port of Guangzhou. Invasion of XVI-XVII centuries. launched China's a country dependent on European colonizers. A however, until it happened in the XIX century.

 

3. Peasants' War XVII. Overthrow Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty

In 20-ies XVII. internal and external situation has deteriorated Ming Empire. Within the country grew in intensity anarchy caused by the endless struggle for power. Abandoned army collapsed. Excessive taxes additional funding and military expenditure of the imperial family entirely destroyed the economy of farmers who could no longer pay not only taxes but also even sustain itself.

End 20-ies XVII. in the north-western areas of China increased natural disasters, drought zminyalysya floods, locusts destroying crops in the summer. By the testimony of residents of Northwest China, thousands of kilometers rozprostoryuvalysya land abandoned. The peasants starved to death, but authorities not only served them no help, but constantly increased taxes. Desperate peasants began to revolt.

These were the reasons peasants struggle that began in the 20-30's XVII. in northern of Shanxi Province.

Peasant groups began to unite. Among the notable leaders of the rebellion and Zhang Syanchzhun Lee Tszychen. The driving force were peasants, small artisans, urban poor, soldiers. At first the rebels did not have a single leadership and clear organization, but after the heads of peasant groups in 1635 in Henan was decided to reorganize all the units into a single army. This army was divided into four great union, acting on specific directions and to reserve squad help in difficult situations. Combining forces helped the rebels to go Activism against government troops.

Shortly between Li Tszychenom and Zhang Syanchzhunom disputes arose which led to the fragmentation of power and mismatch of action. This enabled government forces first split Lie groups Tszychena that after the defeat retreated into the mountains, and then, and Zhang Syanchzhuna. But The rebels have not stopped fighting, using the time to shuffle the forces.

In 1639-1641 biennium began a new rise of the rebel movement. Impact and Lee Tszychena popularity grew. In the occupied areas of land were distributed Villagers and liberated them from taxes for three or five years. Before Lee Tszychena joins other groups. In 1643 Tszychen Lee took the title of "Big general, governed by the dictates of heaven and restoring justice. "

Army rebels went to the march of empire capital - Beijing. April 25, 1644 rebels occupied the city. The last dynasty emperor caused a death, Lee Tszychen became the emperor.

Dropping dynasty Low and conquering North China, Li Tszychena insurgent army was embroiled in the struggle against the Manchus.

In the first half XVII. in the northeastern part of China there was a Manchu state Manchu-th. Manchus decided to exploit the situation to seize China.

200,000th army Tszychena Lee was defeated by a huge army Manchus in June 1644 Manchu army invaded Beijing. This event is considered the beginning period of rule Manchu Qing Dynasty.

Manchus, relying on the officials referred to them in the service gradually expanded occupation zone, displacing insurgents west. Lee was arrested and Tszychena killed. Insurgent groups have continued to struggle against the Manchus and stopped her only 1683

In China, finally established power Manchu Qing dynasty, which ruled in 1912

 

4. Development of craft and science. Inventions

XVI-XVII centuries. in China was a period of outstanding cultural flowering.

High Level craft reached. At the time of Ming empire developed industries such as manufacturing silk, porcelain, paper, jewelry, metal smelting, mining and salt others. For the production of paper used water engine.

Concerning China famous for its porcelain. Porcelain workshops were state; huge income from production received by the imperial treasury.

Interesting inventions was done in maritime affairs. To fight against enemy ships Chinese masters invented diving armor and simple mines.

In the XVI century. quickly developed architecture. Restavruvalysya were built new and old palaces, was constructed and partially restored the Great Wall, created many great strength of bridges, some of which have survived to this day. On the construction palaces, which worked simultaneously to 200 thousand workers are used invention, as the winch. Have been improved vodopidiymalne wheel for irrigation land for melting metal bellows are widely used.

At the same time with Columbus travel and other European seafarers also made the Chinese number of trips to the shores of Africa and the Pacific Islands. But the Chinese people to Unlike the Europeans who carried these trips to glorify the name of Emperor, not to seize new lands and find new markets.

Technical discovery development of manufactories, travel to distant countries stimulated the development of scientific knowledge.

For development Medicine had important work of scientists Jin Chzhuntszyna on typhus " multi-volume "Treatise on trees and plants," Lee Shychzhenya where it was published descriptions medicinal properties of herbs, trees and minerals.

Chinese scientists began to study the scientific papers that appeared in Western Europe, Latin, mathematics, translating Chinese mathematical terms.

End Ming dynasty in China was issued several fundamental encyclopedias, uzahalnyuvaly that experience and knowledge gained in the country. Thus, a large encyclopedia Xu Huantsi "collection of books on Agriculture" covering development Farming not only in China but also in Europe; Song Insyn in its technical Encyclopedia talked about the development of handicraft production in China, Fan Ichzhy created encyclopedia of science called "Home of the laws of nature."

Acquired development and historical science. Continued writing chronicle "Overall mirror that helps management, started back in the XI century. During the Qing Dynasty carried editing and revision histories for the creation of such variations, which would have been acceptable to the Manchus.

In XVI-XVII centuries. issued in China and work in geography, information about where uzahalnyuvalysya peculiarities of individual provinces, cities, historical monuments davavsya description of these areas. Importance for the development of Chinese geography had job Gu Yanu "book about the benefits and drawbacks of areas of the shares of the Middle Kingdom."

 

5. Fine arts

In our time quite a few monuments XVI-XVII centuries. Ancient monumentality zastupala sophistication. Roofs of houses have started to decorate ornaments, stone and wooden sculptures, marble bridges were also the various balustrades. The most famous architectural monuments belong to the Ming Dynasty architectural ensemble of the Forbidden City and Temple of Heaven in Beijing.

In painting XVI-XVII centuries. preserved traditions inherent in past times. The most famous masters of the era - Lyuy Tsayi, Bian Ventszin.

Emergency achieved mastery of Chinese masters of painting porcelain. They developed Technology multicolor painting, making each product was small, but unique works of art. Collections Ming porcelain decorated the most famous museums of the world.

Rapidly developing art portrait prints. For the first time in the world in China during the Ming Dynasty began to do color prints on wood.

In the XVII century. Chinese culture began to intensively penetrate into Europe. Spread Chinese treatment - because Chinese medicine has always considered man as a whole, considering that we must not only treat disease, and all the body. This principle was crucial to the development of medical science.

Worldwide became popular Chinese philosophy, literature, fine porcelain articles and silk fabrics. In Europe, was a sign of good taste and refinement Chinese products have masters.

Chinese culture of XVI-XVII centuries. is integral part of world civilization.

 

6. Country Mughal

Early XVI century. Indian Sultanate, established in the early thirteenth century., Collapsed the set of warring principalities. Aspiration supreme ruler - Delhi sultan subdue recalcitrant princes were accompanied by violent wars. Most "were famous" Sultan Ibrahim Lodi this. Biased against him vassals together and asked for help Zahiruddina Muhammad Babur - Ruler of Kabul.

 

The figure in the history of

Babur, who was descendant of Genghis and Timur, ruled Ferghana. After failures in internecine wars and distress at the end of XV century. he was lucky to capture Afghanistan, and Kabul convert to his residence. Great military leader and a formidable warrior, he at the same time was a talented writer. Known in the world became his memoirs "Babur-nameh" where he described the bright and talented not only their campaigns and conquest, but also flora and fauna of India.

 

Babur, with strong army, equipped with artillery in a battle near Panipata (1526) defeated Delhi Sultan's army.

1526 date of establishment of the state believe Mughal, Which lasted 200 years. Babur came to India Moholystanu because it and all those who were with him, called Mogul.

Babur ruled long. In 1530 he died and was succeeded by son Humayun, which for 25 years had the right to defend state created by his father. Humayun died after falling from a failed marble steps. In 1556 the throne followed his 13-year-old son Akbar.

 

The figure in the history of

Akbar was one of the greatest emperors of India. During his rule Mughal Empire reached the highest power. In 1561, when Akbar was 18 years old, he began to conquer Hindustan. Land of the tribes who resisted, spustoshuvav mercilessly, and those who walked before, allow local governments to save by paying an annual tribute. As a result of such actions created a huge empire. One of the greatest achievements of Akbar was administrative reform, which he created as a result of strong centralized management system. Being illiterate, Akbar again promoted science and culture.

Board of Directors of Akbar was found violent methods, but is believed by historians, it can be was considered a model for future rulers of the empire.

 

From 1568 to 1592 Akbar won the valleys of the rivers Indus and Ganges. Being wise ruler, he realized that to maintain peace in the state must achieve the loyalty of all subjects, so he abolished the tax on non-Muslims (Dzhyziyu). In 1575 At his behest, was erected a house of prayer for religious discussions. There, Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, Jews were in discussions Akbar presence. It introduced the Palace some of their customs. Such religious tolerance outrage Muslim clergy, which in 1580 raised uprising. Prydushyvshy his Akbar proclaimed a new religion - Din-i-ilahi " ("Divine faith").

During the son Akbar - Jahangir Empire lived in rest and peace. Developed, culture, art, architecture, science.

After death Jahangir started the power struggle between his four sons. Winner was Aurangzeb (1658-1707 biennium) - strong-willed ruler, cruel and treacherous. Being faithful Muslim, he eliminated the religious tolerance, and 1679 resumed dzhyziyu. Despite the fact that for years his administration has empire increased it every year rebellion shaken. During his long reign Aurangzeb and failed to pacify society. Empire began collapse. In 1674 Maratha state was declared, and after death Emperor created three states that were fighting among themselves uncompromisingly. This internecine strife set the stage for the conquest of India by English colonizers.

 

7. The device of the Mughal state and its development

Mughal created eclectic brilliant civilization that combined religious and cultural traditions as Ancient India and Islamic countries, especially Iran and Central Asia.

Mughal, winning India had not violated its traditional way of life and only joined in the ruling elite organically combined with her thanks to religious tolerance. Once harmony between the conquerors and the conquered violated state Mughal killed.

Resistance to the authority supreme ruler (shah) were users of the land, which by the service received land from rural communities in conditional possession. Each tenant must rig was mounted detachment of soldiers to collect taxes. If he violated the contract of the Shah, his land passed to another. A tenant is not promoted the development of its economy, and received from farmers Taxes spent for the construction of palaces, magnificent costumes, jewelry, fun. In such a system of peasant community suffered so much as a thousand years ago.

The development of handicrafts in Mughal Empire was due to the fact that chess and land users provided large orders craftsmen and demanded from them high quality goods and artistic. So, the Indian craftsman, unlike Europe, worked on the reservation, and not on the market and not produce goods for mass consumers, and works of art for sophisticated buyers.

Significant development entered into trade with other countries. First, sympathetic to Islam trade, and secondly, there was great demand for Indian goods, especially after penetration of Europeans to India. Trade in India was so advanced that there already existed an extensive banking system and the bills.

Still, craft and trade, which mainly served the needs of the Shah and the rich elite, with the decline of the Mughal state also declined.

 

8. Penetration Europeans to India

The beginning of the XVI century. in India was marked by the penetration of Europeans. The first arrived at the Indian Portuguese coast with Vasco da Gama expedition in 1498 through the use of military force at the beginning of the XVI century. they seized more ports on the west coast. Portuguese possession in India operated viceroy who rozshyryav areas dominance, capturing the knowledge of local feudal lords. Together with the Portuguese garrisons and traders in India were monks and missionaries.

In the XVII century. European expansion had increased. British and Dutch founded in 1600 and 1602 East India Trading Company and the Portuguese gradually squeezed. Trading base located on the Dutch coast Koromandelskomu in Bengal, Bihar, Huflati. But the constant internal wars in these regions, and most importantly - Competition with the English led to a weakening of Dutch merchants in India.

In 1639 British were fixed in Madras and then in Bombay. Simultaneously, the French captured Pondicherry town. Fighting the British and French colonialists continued decades. Finally, replace the French with British India managed only 60's XVIII century.

So awesome country with a population of many millions because of feudal fragmentation and internecine strife lost its independence and became in the XIX century. colony of England - most developed capitalist countries of Europe.

 

9. Cultural development

Indian Culture during the reign of Mughal reached a high level. This was caused by policy support artists that they made. Greatest writers India during Akbar was Abu Fazl-whiteness. He created history Board kilkatomnu Akbar, which became a source of knowledge about events at that time in India. His work whiteness Abu Fazl-written Persian language, which was the state in Mughal empire.

One of the masterpieces Mughal culture was the art of miniatures, which later served as a model for Rembrandt's work.

Two Persian masters - Sid Ali Mir and Abdus SamadWho came to India together of Humayun Shah, led the imperial painting studio ("kitab-khan") based Akbar. Akbar played an important role in creating the original Mughal style. He demanded units masters of realism and the rejection of Persia traditions. In the workshop as Muslims and Hindus working on a illustrations to historical works, portraits and paintings of scenes. It was created miniature paintings to the memoirs of Babur and Akbar.

Another achievement treatment was semiprecious and precious stones. Real work art became world-known "Peacock Throne", decorated with jewels, in which lived about 100 years of Mughal emperors.

According to Akbar and his successors in India constructed the majestic and grand, monumental buildings: temples, mosques, palaces, fortresses, tombs. One of the huge palace-fortress Akbar was built in Delhi. Fortress walls composed of large boulders, were the height to 20 m. The other palace-fortress that it lifted near Akbar Agri, standing in the desert and almost looked like a city drive with houses, parks, ponds and pavilions that each z'yednuvalysya paved roads.

Masterpiece architectural style of the Mughal Empire became a mosque-mausoleum Famous Taj Mahal in Agra. It was built the orders of Shah Jahan Shah in 1631-1642 biennium in memory of his wife who died in the birth fourteenth child. The mosque was built with fine white marble, decorated with its white domes and minarets that reflected in pool, built alongside.

Culture of India's Mughal era unites elements and traditions of Indian, Persian, Central Asian, Arab culture and left descendants attractions unique beauty.

 

Documents. Facts. Comments

1. Chinese officials about the situation in China on the eve of the Peasant War

"In the province of Yanan during the year was rain. In August and September, people in cities eat wormwood, in October to eat with measles trees at the end of the year all the bark was ragged, - began to eat chalk. A few days later rozpuhav stomach, people fell and were doomed to death ... In all districts of the city dug large pits, each of which are buried under several hundred persons. "

 

Consider:

Define this evidence of one of the reasons the peasant war.

 

2. Francois Bernier on activity Christian missionaries in India

"The Agri-Jesuit fathers in church and is house that they call it college. There they taught Christian teaching children 25-30 Christian families. They called here at Akbar largest Portuguese power in India, he appointed them to retire food and allowed to build churches in major cities - Agra and Lahore. His son, Jahangir, more protehuvav them ...

Good Jesuit fathers had high expectations for Christianity spread in the reign of Jahangir, given their contempt attitude to the Islamic faith and respect that he showed to ours. He allowed two of his nephew to become Christians ...

Those Jesuit fathers argue that Jahangir, starting with the permission of Christianity, intended to put the whole yard, dress up as Franks (Europeans). Having all the necessary preparation, and in particular putting himself so he summoned one of his masters and turned all a joke.

... Based on everything I saw, on the basis many conversations and thoughts of many unbelievers I allow myself to say I almost despaired of the possibility ... important acts of the apostles ...

Knowing from experience and having visited almost in all cities where there are missions in the East, I say that all missionaries are not only in India but also in all Islamic countries, could, of course, their training, combined with the distribution of alms and charitable deeds, to have some success in the Hindus, but they fail to at least every ten years, his teachings and his arguments convert to Christianity at least one Muslim ... "

 

Consider:

1. How to evaluate possible missionary activity, Francois Bernier, and why?

2. How can Jahangir explained promote Christianity?

 

FAQ task

1.Describe especially economic and political situation of China in XVI-XVII centuries.

2.What you know about the penetration of Europeans to China? What was the purpose of Europeans?

3.Fold plan report "Peasant War XVII. in China. "

4.Under what conditions dostupylasya to power the Qing dynasty?

5.Fold table "Development of Culture in China" on the scheme:

Culture Industry

The most remarkable   achievement

 

 

 

6.Compare development of crafts and science in China and you all know Europe. Draw conclusions.

7.Describe development of fine art in China. What was the contribution of China to the world culture?

8.Why Babur managed fairly easy to master India?

9.What internal politics led Akbar Shah?

10.Name cause of religious reform Akbar.

11.What caused the decline of the Mughal Empire?

12.Which system management existed in the empire?

13.Define peculiarities of the craft and trade in India at that time.

14.That attracted the Europeans to India?

15.What implications for India was opening a path to the Europeans?

16.What achievements of Indian culture during the Mughal Empire, you know?

17.Compare development of China and India in XVI-XVII centuries.

 

Remember Dates:

1526 - Establishment of the Mughal state in India.

1644 - Home Board of Manchu Qing Dynasty in China.

 

 

 

End

Three centuries world history.  It was an era of great changes in people's lives and their worldview. Thanks to the geographical boundaries of the opening of the world known to Europeans, have improved greatly. New commercial, political, cultural ties ran through the oceans, connecting continents.

There were new religious trends that otherwise than previously determined place in the church society, human relationships with God and man responsible for his fate. Such doctrine was necessary to form a new European civilization.

Economic foundation new civilization began to capitalist social relations. It is causing changes in the structure of society. Man were not respected as much for its origin, but by entrepreneurial, diligence, knowledge. Formed a new type - a man who wanted to know most of all, his intellect, which has questioned and unquestionable truth authorities. This thirst for knowledge of the world contributed to major scientific discoveries made in the early new time. As a result of these discoveries in humankind sure the possibility of knowing the world and its laws. People began to believe in the power of science. It formed the most important prerequisite for future progress of mankind - the belief science as a force that knows the laws of the world and contributes to technical progress. Need production and development of science have stimulated progress in the development of implements. Hand tools replaced by a machine. Artisan hiding the first manufactory and factory. New social relations and gradually zatverdylys in agriculture.

Change and political map of the world. Having the new state. Map of Europe became more resemble modern. In Europe, new national states, whose citizens aware of a French, Spaniards, Austrians, Brits, etc., not only residents of towns and villages. To guide the rulers of these countries created a special institution to guide governance reforms. Where most people wanted to change the state structure and their lives, flared first revolution. It was also one of the hallmarks of a new era - people began to settle himself, how to live.

The pace of development countries of West and East began to vary. In the West, formed a new civilization, which later will be called industrial. In the East maintained the traditional society.

However, most population still lived in villages, working on the ground. However, industrial Revolution quickly changed everything. Formation of industrial civilization was main content of the next period of world history.

 

Town Plan for independent work of student with textbook and additional literature

1. How to write a paper?

1.Uvazhno sure to understand that the subject should prepare an abstract.

2.Vyvchit literature on this topic.

3.Vyznachte, in what sequence will cover. Make a plan summary.

4.Referat is written in such a plan:

In the introduction you explain the importance and relevance of the chosen topic. Pay attention to what and how you describe;

in the body of the abstract essence;

at the end of the phrase main results and conclusions, which you reached;

end of the essay is a list of literature that you used.

2. How to create a historical portrait?

1. How was the personality of historical figures?

1.1. When and where he was born?

1.2. Where and in what conditions he lived, grew, grew up?

1.3. As shaped his views?

2. Personal qualities and character traits.

2.1. As personal as a figure of influence on his work?

2.2. Which of his personal qualities you like and which not?

3. Activity historical figure.

3.1. Describe the main business of his life.

3.2. What were the successes and failures in his case?

3.3. What segments of the population supported its activities, and are not, and why?

3.4. Who were his friends and enemies who and why?

3.5. What were the consequences of its activities:

a) to contemporary;

b) for posterity.

3.6. For that humanity remembers this person?

4. What is your personal attitude to the historical figure?

4.1. What sense is it you work?

4.2. How do you feel about the means and methods of its activity? Justify your position.

3. How to create abstract?

(Abstracts - Briefly general points of articles, lectures, posts the report.)

1.Prochytayte text, abstracts, which must pass.

2.Peredilit it to logically complete parts and give them name, that is, make a plan.

3.Znaydit in the text of the basic provisions, which give an answer to question the plan.

4. How to compare different estimates of historical events?

1.Vyznachte essence of each evaluation of historical events or phenomena.

2.Sprobuyte find out that the author relied in giving this assessment, and define the objectivity of his conclusions.

3.Proanalizuyte the arguments and logic presented evidence.

4.Zrobit your choice of one of the estimates and explain why you made this choice.

5. How to create a message?

1.Prochytayte the textbook material, which ye use message.

2.Prohlyante literature, which you will cook it.

3.Skladit plan their stories.

4.Za plan or record the contents of the message, make it thesis.

5.Podumayte over which illustrations should use.

6.Pid speech with a message do not forget the expression and correctness of their language.

6. How to deal with a historical document?

1.Z 'yasuyte origin of the document.

1.1. Who is its author?

1.2. Under what historical circumstances it is?

1.3. What is the document in content and form (description contemporary historical event, event rating historian, legislation, etc.).

2.Z 'yasuyte that task to the document you need to accomplish and you need to do.

2.1. If the document is to deepen your knowledge about some historical phenomenon, event or person - remember that you already know about it.

3.Prochytayte text document, define the meaning of concepts and terms contained therein.

4.Sprobuyte perform the task. If you can not do it Define what you prevent.

4.1. Note that as formulated the task; you may not understand the task.

4.2. Read the document carefully and slowly once more, paying attention to the contents of some sentences.

 

Glossary Directory

Absolutism - Form of government under which the monarch is unlimited supremacy. A. In the Muscovite state existed in the form of autocracy.

Absolute monarchy - Form of government under which the monarch is vested with the unlimited authorities.

Agrarian Revolution (Coup) - Changes in agriculture, the basic content of which is to establish capitalist production relations. As a result of AR in agriculture with a shift from natural to commodity production, small farms were liquidated, land concentrated in the big landowners, introduced wage labor.

Aggression - An armed attack against one or more States for the purpose of seizing new territories.

Anglican Church - Church, which originated in England in the XVI century. because of Reformation. Chairman A. Tse. was king. All Catholic doctrines and rituals preserved, land values and monasteries were confiscated and passed in King property.

Boyars - Higher stratum of feudal society in the Muscovite state. In X - XVII. B. - vassals (dependent people) Grand Duke, and later - the king. They were complete masters of their patrimony (hereditary possessions) and had their vassals. In the XVI century. by Ivan IV the influence and significance Boyar nobility in the country significantly decreased values strengthened the nobility. In the XVII century. B. became to senior officials, appointed king.

Buddhism - One of three world religions (along with Islam і Christianity). Guideline B.: life - this suffering, to avoid suffering, one must abandon all desires and achieve full sedation - nirvana.

Bourgeoisie - The original name of citizens opposed to higher states of feudal Society (Nobility and clergy). In the period of capitalism into a dominant social groups. It has major means of production, exploiting hired labor.

Industrial relations - Social relations that arise between people in the process of financial production.

Revival - An era in the culture of Western and Central Europe. Characterized by the spread of ideals humanism, the rise of the political and cultural movements.

Geza - Nick, who gave the Spaniards the Netherlands nobility, which 1565 stood up in opposition to the Spanish authorities. Later, this name spread to all those who fought against the Spaniards.

Civil War - Organized armed struggle for power within the state between social classes.

Huguenot - Supporters of the Calvinistic faith in France.

Humanism - Trend in the Western European culture of the Renaissance, aimed at strengthening respect for human dignity and understanding, her right to happiness in life free expression of feeling and natural ability.

Nobility - Privileged social classes, landowners.

Declaration - Documents, official statements, which proclaimed the basic principles foreign and internal policy or programmatic position of parties and organizations.

Democracy - A form of political system of society based on the recognition of people as source of state power. Provides separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branch, the election authorities.

Tithing - Tenth of the revenue received by the Church of the population.

Dictatorship - Unlimited power in the state individual, group of persons, social groups that based on direct violence.

Dynasty - Number of monarchs of the same kind that deputize each other on the throne way of inheritance.

Dogma - Basic provisions that should be taken as indisputable truth and perform.

Clergy - Ministers, social classes, whose members perform religious rituals and services. D. usually combined in a special hierarchical community.

Operation - Appropriation of economic or non-economic methods of strangers results.

Export - Export of goods abroad, securities, capital.

Heresy - Religious current, hostile dominant church, the deviation from the official doctrine.

Heretic - In Christianity man who went from church dogma; follower heresy.

Imports - Imported into the country goods, securities, capital.

Index Negative Books - List of banned books, compiled by instructions from the Pope. Contained literary, scientific works and names of the individual authors who spoke against the Catholic Church. Last "I. with. room "was published in 1948

Industrialization - The creation of large machine-made or just for all economic sectors, especially in industry.

Industrial'ne Community - A society where the process is complete create a large, technically advanced industry (as a basis and a leading sector) and relevant social and political structures.

Inquisition - Forensic investigative organization established Catholic Church in the XI century. to fight heresy. Fighting against the heresies of the church turned into a massacre of the advanced thinkers and scientists.

Intervention - Interference by one or more of the internal affairs of another state or its relations with third countries. II is the military, political, economic and diplomatic.

Islam - One of three world religions (along with Buddhism and Christianity). Guideline II: belief in one God, Allah and his Prophet Muhammad Comprehensive study of all existing dependence on the will of Allah.

Genevan church - One of the ways the Protestant church, which originated in Switzerland in the XVI century. Unlike the Catholic Church, K. Tse. condemns waste, advocated thrift, does not recognize poverty as a sign holiness, requires hard work for wealth. Calvinists, as and Catholics, persecuted and destroyed your enemies.

Capital - A term which became known in the period of capitalism money that businessmen invested in the development of their production for profit.

Capitalism - Socio-economic system in which basic social classes are bourgeoisie and employees, Plant and equipment production are privately owned by the bourgeoisie, which uses hired labor.

Capitalist enterprise - An enterprise based on private of means of production, exploitation employees.

Caravel - Quick easy sail, discovered by the Portuguese in the XV century. K. had three masts with square sails and slanting, that allowed to move on any wind and make long journeys.

Cardinal - In the Catholic Church cleric, higher in the hierarchy of bishop but lower than the Pope.

Catholicism - One of the key (along with Orthodoxy and Protestantism) Directions in Christianity. It appeared after the division of the Christian Church 1054 at Catholic (Western) and Orthodox (Eastern). Key features: recognition that the Holy Spirit comes not only from God the Father but the Son of God, faith in the existence of Purgatory (Except hell and heaven), in the infallibility of the Pope as the Vicar of God on earth.

Coalition - Agreement between states to conduct a joint action.

Colony - The territory or country devoid of independence and under authority of another state - metropolis.

Conquistador - Spanish invaders walks participants who journeyed to America after its opening to the annexation of these lands and the enslavement of local population.

Constitution - Basic Law which enshrines the social and state structure, order of formation of government, basic rights and duties of citizens.

Elector - Princes-electors in the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, which was elected for the right of the emperor.

Lutheran Church - One of the ways the Protestant churches that originated in Germany in XVI century. during Reformation. The basis of L. t. is teachings of Martin Luther - denial of papal authority, icons, lush rituals reducing the number of religious holidays.

Tycoon - Large landowner.

Manufactory - A form of industrial production, characterized by the division of labor between employees and the use of manual labor. Preceded the emergence of M. mills and factories.

Mercantilism - Economic Policy period of capitalismWhich manifested in active state intervention in economic life. Wings of a protectionism.

Metropolis - A country that has colonies.

Monarchy - Form of government in which the highest state power is completely (Absolute M) or partially (limited AM) belong to one person - monarch.

Employees - Social group which, having no other means of livelihood, but own work, is the owner that owns the basic means of production.

Nation - Sustainable socio-ethnic community of people characterized common territory, culture, language, traditions, strong economic ties.

Occupation - Temporary seizing the territory of another state.

Opposition - Contrasting views of one or other policy actions.

Oprichnina - System events (repression, executions, confiscation of land) that carried out at the Moscow State in the XVI century. King John IV to consolidation of imperial power, to deal with the opposition remains sovereign separatism.

Educated absolutism - Politics, carried out in the XVIII century. in Some monarchy. Its content was the elimination or transformation from "above" the most outdated feudal order. Monarchs who carried out this policy, portrayed his government as a union of kings and philosophers.

Parliament - The highest elected legislative body that is representative main politically active groups of the population.

Patriarch - Head of the Orthodox Church.

Orthodoxy - One of the key (along with Catholicism and Protestantism) Directions in Christianity. Got a division of the Christian Church after 1054 on Catholic (Western) and Orthodox (Eastern) churches. Key features: recognition that the Holy Spirit comes only from God the Father, and belief in hell paradise.

President - Chairman of State Republican form of government or executive authorities in that State.

Industrial revolution (revolution) - In the development process productive forces of society in which the transition from manufactury to machine production.

Enlightenment - Broad ideological trend, which reflected the anti feudal, antyabsolyutystski enlightened attitudes of the population in the second half of XVII-XVIII centuries. Representatives of this current (scientists, philosophers, writers) believed to society human happiness, the way in which - according to society pereustriy mind, were adherents of the theory of natural law.

Protectorate - A form of dependence of one state against another or from any society people, when all the major issues of social and political life decides to tread.

Protectionism - Economic policies aimed at protecting national economy, promoting its own industry and trade.

Protestantism - One of the key (along with Catholicism and Orthodoxy) Trends in Christianity. It appeared as a result of the Reformation in the XVI century. He expressed the desire bourgeois society to facilitate a religious cult ("cheaper church"). The main forms of manifestation of P. were Lutheran, Anglican and Calvinistic church.

Puritans - Followers of Calvinism in XVI - XVII century. in England, which required cleaning Anglican Church from the old Catholic ceremonies.

Revolution - A fundamental revolution in society, the mode of production, science.

Republic - Form of government, where people recognized source of power, State authorities are elected for a term, and state power is divided into legislative, executive and judicial branches.

Restoration political - Recovery old, tumbled down the social order, religion or dynasty.

Reform - The gradual transformation to improve anything.

Reformation - Socio-political movement in Western and Central Europe XVI century. Directed against the Catholic Church.

Terror - Implementation of extrajudicial killings of opponents through violence.

Goods - The product of labor, not goods for personal consumption, and sale.

Union - Associations and unions. W. may be public, personal, religious.

Constituent Assembly - Executive Meeting, convened for the purpose of elaboration and adoption of constitution new social order.

Factory - Industrial enterprise based on the use of machines; form a large machine production.

Farmers - Category of entrepreneurs in agriculture. F. - the owner or tenants of land, which trace their family farm or the means of using hired labor.

Christianity - One of three world religions. Got up and art. district. BC in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire (in Palestine). Principal at J. - the doctrine of God Man - Jesus Christ, who accepted suffering and death for the redemption original sin. Gradually H. vyriznylosya in three directions: Catholicism, orthodoxy, Protestantism.

Civilization - Community of people who for some time (the origin, development, destruction or conversion) covers a separate territory, has special features in the stable socio-political organization, economy and culture, common spiritual value and ideals and mentality.

Nobility - Social status, whose main occupation was military service, for which nobles received land and other benefits.

Chauvinism - The extreme form of nationalism, preaching national exclusiveness contrasting interests of one nation to another.