§ 32. Ottoman Empire. Persia
1. What seizure made by Osman Turks in the fifteenth century.?
2. Who are janissary?
1. Wars of the Ottoman Empire
XVI century. was sometimes the greatest military and political power of the Ottoman Empire. In the first half of the sixteenth century. it annexed to seize large territories in the Middle East and North Africa. Sultan was carried out Selim and terrible (1512-1520 biennium).
The figure in the history of
Selim was born 1470 He was extremely ambitious man. Once said that wants, as Alexander Macedonian, conquer the world. To inherit the throne, he forced to renounce his father, and then, before his older brothers had recover, captured the championship. Then he ordered them to kill. Violence Selim I zhahala and enemies and friends. During the war against the Iranian Shah, he ordered destroy 40 000 persons, whose only fault was loyalty to chess.
In winning the war against Iran Selim I conquered country Caucasus - Azerbaijan, part of Armenia, Georgia, Dagestan, and Kurdistan. Thereafter began the conquest of Syria and Egypt. Been connected to the lands of his empire, he proclaimed himself Caliph - the head of all Muslims. His son, S
The period of highest heyday of Ottoman rule believe Suleiman I PERFECT(1520-1566 biennium). He was perhaps the most powerful of the Turkish sultans for time during the period of Ottoman Empire.
Fig. Suleiman the Magnificent
The figure in the history of
Suleiman was the only son of Selim I, and its still in his teens began to involve in decision public affairs. One of the main activities Suleiman And the War to conquer the Middle East, Eastern Europe and the coast Mediterranean Sea. Suleiman also become famous and that created a large fleet. Turkish ships in the XVI century. sailed all the seas and oceans, ranging even the shores of India.
In the conduct of wars of conquest in Europe Suleiman and found himself not only an outstanding general, but also a man who perfectly oriented in the complexities of European policy and the contradictions of the Christian world. Christianity as a religion Suleiman and generated interest, but he perfectly understood the great benefit of religious schism in Europe. The main obstacle to conquer Europe was the Habsburg Empire, the sultan was so strongly support its religious enemies - the Protestants. In Hungary, for example, he helped expand Calvinism. This attitude toward Protestants was the reason that fans Protestantism looked at the Suleiman and as their protector.
Suleiman the many focussing on the development of their country. When it was sorted legislation Empire. The main feature of the laws of the Ottoman Empire remained the country's citizens divide into two groups with different rights and obligations - Muslims and non-Muslims. Having regard to legislative activity Sultan, the people respectfully called him "Kanuni" ("legislator"). Was a huge contribution Suleyman I and the development of culture, which by its board had reached a much higher than in most of contemporary Europe.
Huge impact on And Suleiman, according to contemporaries, his wife made an Roksolana by legend - Ukrainian, captured by the Tatars. Mysterious Roksolana repeatedly depicted in historical works of writers (one of the most famous works - Roman P. Zagrebelny Roksolana).
And Sulaiman was killed 1566 during the siege of the fortress in Hungary. After that, the Ottoman Empire began a long period of decline.
Under the rule Suleyman I the Magnificent Ottoman Turks penetrated into Central Europe. One of his first victories was the capture of Belgrade - the city which for a long time hindered the advancement of Turks in Europe. After that Turkish troops moved in Hungary, where the Battle of Mohachem (1526) defeated the Czech-Hungarian army. During the battle killed a young Hungarian king. After this victory Turkish army ravaged the country. Hungary has been redistributed between the Austrian and Ottoman empires.
In 1529 Suleiman I besieged the capital of Austria Vienna. His army ten times larger than forces defenders. Over Europe was threatened with invasion, which she did not know of hunniv times. Vienna, however, survived with the help of the Polish king in the army which were Ukrainian Cossacks. Winter, who approached, forced the Turks lift the siege.
Fig. Turkish siege of Vienna
Thanks to aggressive war, were created powerful and aggressive Ottoman Empire, which lay in the possession of three parts world - Europe, Asia and Africa.
After the defeat in Vienna Ottoman Austria began to consider their main enemy in the fight against it used any means - from diplomatic to military. Yes The Ottoman Empire signed an alliance with France against the Austrian Habsburgs. This Union showed that the Ottoman become an instrument in the European struggle, not threat to Europe. After all, that they no longer posed a real threat for Europe, witnessed the defeat of the Turkish fleet in the battle near Lepanto (1571) and failures in the war against Venice, Austria and Poland.
Still, Turkish sultans continued to debilitating war. The direct result of wars that needed more resources, was deteriorating internal situation of the empire. As a result of military defeats decreased revenues spoil tribute from the captured lands and slaves. The Turkish government increased taxes on the population of the empire. In response to this in the 1591-1628 biennium country a wave of peasant uprisings.
Since Sultan had not only to fight wars for land, but also "calm" peasants within the empire. As one Turkish politicians XVII., The Ottoman Empire "... created a sword and sword only it can refrain. The crisis of the empire became pervasive. Its expression has been declining Turkish army. According to Suleiman the Magnificent, the Board it was 200 thousand soldiers, and in late XVII century. - Only 20 thousand weakened Turkey and compared with its main rivals - the countries of Eastern and Central Europe. In most of these countries formed the market, have developed new social strata. In Turkey, the prerequisite for this was not, and it was on side of the new Europe.
Worst defeat Kafirs in the seventeenth century. become the Sultan Mohammed IV hike with 100-thousand army in Austria. Trying to capture Vienna after two-month siege ended in full disaster: September 12, 1683 Turkish army utterly defeated the combined Polish forces and the Ukrainian Cossacks under the command of Polish King Jan Sobieski. Shame to defeat the Turkish army added a shame because in this battle the Turks lost their symbol - the flag of the Prophet. At the end of XVII century. The Ottoman Empire still maintained a huge knowledge on three continents, but their loss to a weakened empire remained a matter of time.
2. The struggle of peoples against the Turkish conquerors
During the invasion Turks did horrible devastation. To keep the captured territories large city turned on heavily fortified fortress, and the best land to resettle Turk. All male non-Muslim poll tax levied. In addition, they performing duties in the construction of roads, forts, bridges. They were forbidden ride, bear arms, build houses higher than the Turks. Ottoman Empire only by force of arms held in humility conquered nations, waged against it armed struggle.
In Bulgaria and Serbia has spread Gaydutskiy movement.Hajduk attacked the Turkish officials, soldiers, burned and slaughtered Muslim settlement. Hajduk hiding in the mountains, forests and nearby countries. Their actions would not have success without the support of the Christian population treating them as folk heroes. However, fearless in battles often Haiduk showed extreme cruelty committed robbery and violence.
Christian Church support and dedication of the people's revolt against Turkish oppression, but non-European countries, they suffered defeats.
Despite the severe oppression, Slavic peoples preserved their culture, customs and language. The struggle of oppressed peoples undermined power of the Ottoman Empire and weakened its pressure on Europe.
3. Economic and socio-political Position of the State
Ottoman Empire was, as historians believe, the only military country of the Middle Ages. " Its State structure and administrative structure that in fact the collections Laws of Sultan Suleiman I (were 21) were subordinated to the needs of war. Provinces divided into districts, their rulers carried out both civilian and military functions, they are led by local militia and garrisons sypahiv janissary.
Each homeguardsman (Sypah) received for use of land and it had to take part in military Land. In peacetime, he had resided only in your county where performed police functions and duties of tax collector. Sypahy received material support from the state tax on the population size which was clearly regulated. In the future, the decay of the Ottoman Empire and ruin farmers sypahy could no longer perform military duties.
Officials of the central Staff also received land for service - large ownership that are forbidden share in inheritance. To save the property once they transfer their land in possession of Muslim religious institutions (in vakf). This practice negatively impact on the sultanate and therefore - on its treasury for the church, which did not pay taxes, one third of all land owned by Empire.
End XVI century. the Ottoman Empire has come a wave of "price revolution" which triggered the financial crisis. This crisis has hit most strongly sypahah that up the bulk of the military and administrative system. With the demise of militias has increased janissary role. But this army needed more resources, which already was not. The one that saved the Ottoman empire of great crisis, remained aggressive War. With the termination of inevitable conquest and a decline of empire, which began in the mid XVII. She found herself the power of the weak and foolish sultans, gradually turning into an object invasions of other countries.
4. Development of Turkish culture
Turkish culture XVI - XVII century. developed under the influence of Islam. Religious norms of Islam forbidden to acquire secular education (all schools in the Ottoman Empire existed only in mosques). Koran did not allow artists to depict people and animals because painted image might seem to require a shower. However, despite these and other prohibition of the Ottoman Empire emerged and interesting scientific work, and literary works, and very beautiful monuments of architecture and fine art.
In development contemporary Turkish culture can distinguish two periods: from the second half XV. the end of the XVI century. - Inspiration, and XVII. As in the Ottoman Empire general - the decline.
Exaltation Turkish culture is reflected primarily in the development of literature and Art. Particularly popular poetry. Second half of the XVI and XVII. considered the "golden age" of Turkish poetry. A brilliant poet of that era was Moyala Mahmoud, known by the pseudonym Abdul Tanks. Widespread way in the poetry of that time was the joy of praise Environmental life. Ilyas Revani in his writings extolling the benefits of light and carefree life, life and customs of the inhabitants of Istanbul, the joys of love. In times decline of the Ottoman Empire gained distribution satirical genre. Members of this life directly ridiculed the ruling class of the empire, which helped her thoughtlessly decline. In the works of poets who wrote to the sultan and his servants, more emphasis on elegance form than content poems. One representative Ahmed Nedim palace poetry all his works dedicated to celebration of Sultan and his court, court banquets, walks and talks by Halva in Saadabadskomu palace.
In Turkish prose the heyday of empire land spread little stories, jokes, smiles, compound writer Lyami. In their collections Lyami first put the story of Nasreddin Hodja. This village imam with his sharp jokes, coupled with People's good humor in the future become known worldwide.
Scientific achievements was much less. First, it explained a low level of education and domination of Islam over education and science. In the XVI century. most famous scientists were Yevliya and Haji Khalifa. Scientist and traveler Yevliya
Significant bloom achieved in the XVI century. Turkish architecture. Sultan Suleiman I paid a lot attention to the construction of new mosques, hospitals, fortresses, bridges, caravanserai and other buildings in the capital of his empire. He tried, as saying contemporaries convert Byzantine Constantinople in Istanbul - the true heart Ottoman Empire. The development of Turkish architecture at the time was associated with activity Kojo Shimane - Greek architect in the service of the Turkish sultan. During his surprisingly long life (1490-1588) he built 360 buildings. The most famous among them were mosques Shahzad and Sulaymaniyah in Istanbul, Selim mosque in Edirne, and others.
In Istanbul built many famous baths, which have become an integral part of life Turkish capital. The Turks used the baths as a meeting place and recreation where you can spend several hours with friends for a traditional cup of coffee.
Much attention paid to the external appearance of buildings. Palaces, mosques, baths and other public buildings were decorated with complex ornamentation, carved in wood and stone. Barring depict animals and people forced artists to create complex patterns of geometric shapes and plants.
During the decline Empire Turkish culture is distinguished by significant achievements.
5. The kingdom of Persia
History of Persia-like history of the Ottoman Empire. It powerful state that the end of XVII art. actually stopped their progress. At the head of state stood shah, who splachuvavsya tax subjects of land and livestock. However, this present it was difficult to collect because a third of people led a nomadic life. Settled population engaged in agriculture. Were most developed areas where irrhatsiyi system existed. High skill attained Persian artisans, obyednuvalysya are in shops. In Persia also traditionally been developed trade.
In 1502-1736 he was in Dynasty rules Persia Sefevydiv.
The name of the dynasty led Sheikh Sefi al-DinWho founded the Order monasheskyy Sefeviyya (moderate Shiites). It was one of the orders that existed among Sunnis and Shiites. Orders were strict organization, the Templars were fanatically devoted to his Sheikh, who was considered holy. In XV Art. Order sheikhs owned lands in Azerbaijan Most of the Templars were tyurski nomadic tribes. This made quite ordyn militant. Members of the Order were to wear a special wrapper with 12 red stripes, symbolizing the 12 holy imams, for what became known kyzylbashy (Chervonoholovi). In 1499 the Order started to aggressive war. He first conquered all of Azerbaijan, and later conquered Tabriz, where Sheikh Ismail was proclaimed Shah of Persia. Create a public entity monashyskym Order was not uncommon vyschem in the Islamic world in the Middle Ages. But in Persia took a combination of the traditional administrative system, which existed in these lands since the Persian Achaemenid Empire, with structures monasheskoho Order nomads, Persia and it turned to a stable and powerful state.
First check the new dynasty Ismail (1502-1524 biennium) and his successors conquered in a short time except Azerbaijan and Iran, part of Armenia, Iraq, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. Quick Sefevydiv helped extend the authority that they violated the traditional Islamic form of government and tax collection. Even reduced the tax yield and cities up to 1 / 6. However, the authority of government over stuck to the authority of the Shah than unity of the country and any errors rulers felt and led to the secession of part of the state. In the 80 years ХVAnd art. State finds itself in a very Sefevydiv difficult situation. People's revolt weakened the power of the Shah, the once skorystalyysya enemies: Ottoman imperiyaa invaded Shirvan and Azerbaijan; Uzbek khans Bukhara - part of Khorasan and Herat; Mughal - most of Afghanistan. The external difficulties added to the economic crisis: actually stopped traffic on the way of the caravan was destroyed irrigation system rozoryuvalysya artisans, people fled from cities, etc. nasyzhenyh.
Exit from the predicament created a check Abbas (1587-1629), who subsequently pryzvisko got big. Stashy governor in 17 years, he quickly got rid from their guardians and concentrated in the hands of all power. Prydushyvshy rebellion and ending mizhusobitsi, Abbas has focused on solving foreign policy problems. In 1587-1588 he took it important victory over the Uzbek khans Bukhara in 1590 - made a disadvantageous peace with Turks, but this solution`yazalo his hands for domestic reform. The aim of these reforms was to strengthen centralized power. It was formed rozhpluzhenyy device management established a regular army that was armed with rifles and guns, held financial reform, including some important city and capital of Isfahan, were exempt from taxes, and taxes are generally much smaller. Assisted in the development Crafts and Trade (trade in silk was the state monopoly). Conducted reforms strengthened the power of the Shah and allowed to take on the solution`Liabilities foreign policy issues. As a result of three wars the Turks, he resumed power over the contract vtrachynymy 1590 territories vydvoyuvav in Mughal Afghanistan by the English East India Company slew of important Portuguese transit port at the mouth of the Gulf Ormuz. Maintained diplomatic communication`relationships with most European countries, repaired to Italy to study Iranian masters. It is for Abbas and Iran Sefevydskyy reached the peak of its power.
Successor and Abbas were not as successful as governor. Early XVIII. internal turmoil and the defeat of foreign enemies again put Iran in a difficult position. The country has lost possession of significant favor of Turkey and Russia, the Afghan tribes even captured the capital. But warlord Nadir Khan was able to defeat all enemies and restore in Persia former range. Becoming Shah, Nadir(1736-1747 biennium) continued the conquest and annexed much of the Caucasus and Central Asian khans admitted their vassalage. The most successful was the campaign Nadir-shah against Mughal in 1739 he captured Delhi and moved into their possession of untold riches. Loot helped reduce taxes build large military enterprises restore system IRRIGATION, develop trade. During his tenure in Iran dominated tolerance (Shah himself was Sunni and the majority of Iranians kept shyyizmu). All these positive measures Shah had crossed actions in later years. Over the years he has developed suspicion he was shot`Play. After a series of defeats, he again increased the taxes and even began to collect those that are not paid for the benefits introduced by. Any performances are brutally prydushuvalysya. He is suspected of the plot and even wanted destroy all of their relatives. Consequently mature discontent, a conspiracy, Shah were killed. After the death of Nadir Iran disintegrated five vorhuyuchyh hanst. Finally in 1758 Karim Khan resumed the unity of the country made reforms to restore economy. But the Shah did not declared. In foreign policy, he took rate restriction on relations with Europe, not wanting to repeat the fate of India. After his death, again began internecine strife, which culminated establishing a new dynasty in Kadzharskoyi 1796
6. Culture of Persia
Culture Persia XVІ-ХVIII. evolved mezhan Islamic culture, keeping the Persian tradition. Highest level development reached in the reign of Shah Abbas I. obvious embodiment rzvytku culture of that day is the capital of Abbas and Isfahan, which was inhabited by 600 thousand people. At construction did not touch old town and near a new city built on a clear plan. In it there were 162 mosques, 49 madrasas - the highest religious schools, 273 public baths, central covered market and many caravanserai and pews merchants. Through all the city was Charbah Avenue (garden), which had wide 58 meters long and 5 kilomentriv. The city was built up grand Dvirtseva ensembles. Especially allocated shahska Nakshi Jahan Square area (image Universe) (500 meters long) with two mosques and palaces Ali Capua. No less refined had bridges over the river Zaenderud. These buildings have been preserved to the present day and belong to the best svitovoyh architectural designs.
Particularly renowned for his works of artisans Persia: Persian fabrics, and especially carpets, weapons and utensils are examples of artistic taste. All these works of voices for export, especially they appreciated in Europe. Iranian masters even Chinese have learned to forge partselyanu.
High level reached a fine art. Stately buildings decorated mosaic, tile murals, rizboyu in alabaster and wood. Iranian miniatures XV-ХVII art. belong to the best of world zrazkyv classics. The most famous authors were miniatures Behzad, Reza Abbas, Sultan Mahmoud.
Artists of the West and East have different tastes. While the European masters interested in the exact restoration immediately, the landscape, the masters of the East sought higher krasok harmony together, lines, same composition. Muslim expected from the picture is not the truth of life and their beauty. All it shows is a natural shozhesti. However, in the Iranian miniature is shown that has symbolic value. Symbolism turns picture of imaginative verse.
The most famous work became world-known miniatures "Tahnaspovo Shahname. Grand poem was rewritten under the guidance and Behzada best kalihrafistamy prekrashena 250 miniatures son Ismail Khan Tahmaspa. Since XVII art. mniatyury become independent genre of art which does not involve`connection with literary work. Exactly Thumbnails are the highest achievement Culture Sefevydskoho Iran.
The main centers of culture were the cities of Herat, Tabriz and Isfahan. They also centers were copied manuscripts. Enjoyed great fame calligrapher Sultan Ali and Mir Ali. In Isfahan in 1641 opened the first printing, has opened its Armenian Jacob Yang. He managed to print a number of Christian worship books in Armenian language.
Continued development and literature. In the Persian language was written traditionally poetry. Created works that describe the rule of a Shah.
Documents. Facts. Comments
Jokes of Nasreddin Hodja
1. "Sermon in the mosque." Somehow Nasreddin, withyshovshy the Department of for the sermon, said: "Believers, do you know what I want to tell you?". Him replied: "No, I do not know." Then Hodge said this: "If you do not know, so I tell you? "With these words he came down from the pulpit and went his way. The next day he again came to the department and offered the same questions, the community he said: "We know." "Well, you know why I say. " Answered and left. The community, shocked, decided that when Hodge come back, answer: "Some of us know, and others - no.
Walking up to the department some time back, Hodge, as usual, turned to your question. He responded as agreed. Hodge, keeping calm, exclaimed: "Excellent! Let those that know tell those who do not know. "
2. Go invited to a dinner. He wearing a dress worn, and nobody paid attention to it. Then Hodge returned home pereodyahsya in splendid clothes, wearing a top coat and also returned. Go respectfully greeted and seated at a table for the guests. Showing on delicious, the owner turned to go: "Please go, try ". A walk, food pidsunuvshy coat, replied: "Oh, fur coat." "What do you doing, Hodja? "- astonished guests. "Once respect fur coat, fur coat and let him eat!" - Hodge announced.
What features inherent in human nature, ridicules jokes?
1. Describe War, the Ottoman Empire in XVI - XVII century. and their role in development.
2. Identify two periods in the Ottoman wars. How are they linked?
3. Describe economic and political situation of the Ottoman Empire in XVI-XVII centuries.
4. Tell against the oppressed peoples against the Turkish conquerors. What value had this struggle for the Ottoman Empire and Europe?
5. Tell the development of Turkish culture.
6. Fold Table "Achievement of Turkish culture XVI-XVII Century." scheme:
7. As the state was formed Sefevydiv?
8. What reforms were Abbas and? What is their outcome?
9. Why Iran during recovery varied periods of decline?
10. What were famous Nadir Khan?
11. What new architectural features have zbudova Sefevydiv capital Isfahan?
12. In your opinion, why Shah Ismail in an emergency hid in a cave Wizard Behzada?
13. Identify the basic features persidskoyi thumbnails?
Remember the date
1502-1736 biennium - Board dynasty in Persia Sefevydiv
1526 - Battle Mohachem, capture by the Turks in Hungary
1529 - Siege of Vienna
1571 R. - Battle of Lepanto.
1620-1621 biennium - Hotinskaya war
1683 , the - defeat the Turkish army at Vienna.