§ 31. Features of Civilizations East (textbook)



§ 31. Features of Civilizations East


1. What East major religions do you know? In what countries they dominate?

2. Reason civilization of the East Europeans had to do exhausting struggle?


1. Orient

The term "East" in historical science is not taken to understand the society only Asia but also Africa and Oceania. In this section you are familiar with most typical of the Orient, which actually determined, and further define its image. In deals with the period scholars distinguish three main Orient: Middle Eastern-Muslim, Indo-South Asian and Sino-Far (Taken and other names). They are in many ways but have in common and that gives can claim to be implicated in the Eastern model of social development. All of them phenomenon inherent power of the state bureaucracy as directly subordinate peasant communities and over private owners (Traders, userers, craftsmen). State structure is headed by the governor, the power which was given him by God and consecrated by religion. This phenomenon has defined almost all features civilizations East. This state did not have internal contradictions that resulted in its stability. The only counterbalance to the state-owner could be only private property, but it completely obeyed the state.

Penetration East Europeans after the great geographical discoveries and the beginning of Colonial empires have become external invasion of private property, which destroying the relations that have traditionally formed. But while we are considering, Europeans are just looking for approaches to the penetration of the East, to its wealth. For valuable and coveted for Europeans spices and other goods (dishes, silk, etc.). Europe was forced to pay in gold and silver, of which vykachuvalos Latin America, not in goods,  that East did not need. Break in this trade came only in the nineteenth century. Tim sometimes lived East-sufficient life, and income per capita, ahead of West. Thus, in 1800 per capita income in China in 1960 prices equal $ 228, while in Western Europe - $ 213.


2. State - Supreme holder

In every country Staircases entity organized under the scheme. Anyone cultivated land, had a guaranteed right and obligation to handle it and used for farming all the necessary resources: water, pastures, forest and so on. However, the right to own and dispose of land and its resources in the hands of a floating production apparatus of power. Recognizing the power state apparatus, the producers (farmers community) paid in various forms (vidrobitok, of the crop) excess product. This kind of tax is then distributed to maintain power structures. Thus, one who had authority in the state, had access to the distribution of manufactured products. Received, he became the owner. Therefore we say that the feature was the presence of eastern civilization government owner.

Strength and power state depended on the strength and power performance state mechanism (Officials), and finally - on the regularity of the amount of taxes. His turn, depended on the amount of tax efficiency of agriculture and productivity artisans. It started to act opposite mechanism: the state was interested in promoting the development of agriculture and handicrafts. So work of Indian or Chinese peasant was more productive than work European peasant. Any weakening of power led to the collapse great powers and violation of traditional life, what most people do not want. Such a negative effect on the system described actually rendered exceed the limit possible tax. This has happened or when the rulers were basically an unrealistic goal, undermining the resources of the state (aggressive campaigns, grand building), or in the weakening of government structures, resulting to abuses by tax collectors, large owners. Then farmers ascending the struggle that sometimes poured in long peasant war (Especially China) to restore the traditional system.


3. Rural Community - the lowest level Society East

A characteristic feature of Eastern civilizations has been to preserve rural communities as a basis social and state organization.

The community generally consisted of residents of the village. Most villages thrown off each other: in Temple was the center around - houses of peasants. Each community has used For centuries certain lands, forests, pastures, etc. Dimensions plots each family or member of the community over time varied depending on number of relatives and able bodied. This ensured approximately equal financial status of the community. Besides farmers, the community consisted of artisans who meet community needs in handicraft products. Allocated for their maintenance some part of the harvest. At the head of the community was mayor, who was elected or administered.

The most robust and strong Indian community were entirely subsistence agriculture. Level self in them was so high that with the change of state, government, etc. others. they remained intact, even while the state did not attempt to interfere with their lives.

Thus, rural community was the foundation of Eastern civilization, which made it stable, conservative and one which had subjected to external influences.


4. Private property

Full control state over social life did not exclude the existence of private property, but unlike Europe, it played a secondary role. Private Property  been clearly defined place in state structure. Private owner served mainly external and transit trade. He could have a huge property, but its safety and integrity was not guaranteed - at any time the governor could take it in owner. The only more or less guaranteed way to protect your property - it gaining prestige, that is a decent position in the state of power. This position and provided some wealth, property. If the owner did not belong to state apparatus, he tried to invest their wealth in land, although she not bring income and also did not guarantee immunity. Because land ownership - Is prestige. Everything now depended on how he regularly pays taxes of land owned. State ultimately did not care who pays the tax - Farmer or large landowner. But the only land for prestige enough. It was a solid house, servants, slaves, to arrange visits.

The increase in land owners and the size of their possessions were limited because of the danger violation of stability.

Farmers who were tenants, the owner paid tax significantly greater than that it they paid directly to the state. And when the owners transgressed the line that ensure stability, the government limited their discretion, giving land farmers directly, and if the weakening of state power powerful peasant restore the former order of the uprising.

Absence Internal Market and effects included lack of commodity production in estates owners. In the states of the East will not need to create plantations, separation of the lords of the land on which farmers would zhanyalysya for working off. Owner considered for better allocate lease land to peasants in small plots.


5. Cities East

Cities East significantly different from European. Its existence they owed rulers and trade. Most cities were residences rulers, religious centers, or lay at the crossroads of trade routes. In the European notion of the fabulous wealth of cities East. Service yard ruler, hakim, etc. require a large number of servants artisans and traders. All these are usually lodged around his palace. The craftsmen who served the needs of the governor, made things that ordinary people almost not used: Jewelry, expensive dishes, fabrics, weapons and ed. For his work artisans received food collected from the peasants in taxes, or money. The cities were also houses, warehouses, Stores merchants. Their products (mostly prestigious consumption) or bought lords, or foreign merchants. Thanks to concentrate in urban manufacturing and selling goods in the prestigious European impression of wealth East. In cities not produced things that were in use peasants - they were made artisans in rural communities.

Blooming such city depended on the ruler, who lived in it. When the governor changed his residence, city degraded, and sometimes altogether ceased to exist.


6. Rolling

As in Europe, society divided into East states. But the structure of the estate was variegated and confusing. Thus, social groups differ depending on the occurrence of a particular level in the structure of power, forms of activity, the way a means of existence (farmers, artisans, administrators, officials, priests, warriors). Such social groups were closed and hereditary. But that does not mean that the person is could change their occupation and possess a different social level. Also society was divided by legal status in full, and nepovnopravnyh dispossession (slaves).

Two mentioned social divisions imposed another - the system of property inequality. Each the above social strata (state) had its rich and poor. Wealth was unique to the full. Husbandmen belonged to farmers, and large landowners, to craftspeople - both small rural artisans and owners of shops and manufactories, to the officials - a small tax collectors, and officials close to the emperor, etc.

Thus, traditional social strata, legal status, property status and do not overlap was the complicated, confusing social structure. Most preferred states in the East were involved in public administration, and quantity and quality benefits increased with the approach to the supreme person ruler.


7. Role of religion in the East

Religion in the East played a huge role. It is sanctioned and sanctified the political power contributed to the deification ruler, converting it into monthly character did single whole society, contributed to the formation of national character traits. Religion consecrated conservative tradition skriplyala like cement, the state machinery and social structure. But some religious system did it differently.

Yes, in China religion vigorously sanctified political power, which helped to preserve the last for several millennia. In India, by contrast, was indifferent to religion States that resulted netryvkist political power and frequent change of states, but on the structure of society, she was and kept it until today. For the countries of the Islamic world religion uniting factor was the formation of a single Islamic civilization.


FAQ task

1.Find features civilizations East.

2.What essence of the phenomenon of power as property?

3.What role state played in the Orient?

4.Why community has been the basis of civilizations East?

5.Name features of the Indian community.

6.What distinguished private property in the East? What role she played?

7.What are the differences between the cities of Europe and the East?

8.Describe social structure of Eastern societies.

9.What social strata enjoyed privileges?

10.What is the role religion in the Orient?