§ 29. English colonies in North America
1.What is colony, the metropolis?
2.Which countries colonized the Americas?
1. Creation of the American colonies of England
England later on other European countries began to colonize America. The British, on Unlike the Spaniards, not after the rich deposits of gold and silver, or as Portuguese and Dutch, markets for the purchase and export to Europe and rare valuable goods. They were looking for vacant land suitable for cultivation. North America has become exactly what the British sought. Local climate resembled the European one, there were rich land and forests. Mississippi River Pools and St. Lawrence gave to large vessels to reach areas of the continent, distant from the coast to 1000 km. In addition, there was not much stranger native population, as in the Spanish colonies. British had to meet few (200 thousand persons) tribes whose main occupation was hunting. Therefore, English colonists with their jobs and not robbery, as did Spaniards settled the natural riches of the new continent.
The first permanent English settlement founded 1607 in the mouth of the James (Virginia). Subsequently, new any settlement on the north and south along the coast of Spanish Florida to New England. Each of these colonies formed independently from their access to the sea.
Founders colonies were at first trading company that took over the transportation and resettlement of colonists to new territories as well as large owners who bought or received a gift of land from the king.
Companies and holders appointed governors, collected taxes. Colonists used rights of British citizens.
2. Socio-economic and political development of colonies
Being English citizens, the colonists felt freer than in England itself. Here, on the new lands, there were those traditional practices that oplutuvaly normal life Englishman. Anyone can rent for a small plot of land or obtain settle in undeveloped areas. Any gains were the result of colonists their hard work, because very quickly they became independent of companies and holders of Lords. In solving any problems they gave advantage of self rather than hoping for the intercession of the governor, of others. This situation quickly led to the democratization of all aspects social life. Meeting, representatives, discussion of orders of the governor, laws passed by British Parliament, were the norm.
If such common trends, each colony had its order and customs. In Southern colonies had a significant layer of Negroes slaves that were brought back to work on large plantations. In the northern free labor prevailed, but Puritan morality strictly regulate the behavior of the colonists: banned gambling strictly following the observance of religious norms, arranged executions sorcerers, witches and more. Still, there were colonies, where the church was separated from the state and all citizens have equal rights.
Different it was attitude of the colonists and the local (indigenous) population - Indians. In some colonies, especially Puritan, there was a process of complete destruction: Puritans, believing themselves bohoobranymy and looked at the natives as a people infected with the spirit of Satan, which must destroy. In other colonies attitude was loyal to the natives: of them concluded trade agreements, alliances, etc. others.
In economic development of the colony also differed significantly. Yes, the southern colonies, where natural conditions allowed the development of plantations, mining, steel suppliers tobacco, sugar cane, rice, cotton, etc.. In the northern colonies evolved farm and various crafts. Economic development of colonies restrained metropolis. The British government, starting with the Navigation Act consistently led the policy of mercantilism. This led to the English colony turned into a resource appendix metropolis. For example, products with colonies were allowed to export only to England, and all colonies had the necessary receive or metropolis, or its mediation. Forbade colonists to handle iron and skins. England held back the development of manufactories.
Trade with colonies gave huge profits metropolis. It has become the main engine English growing industry.
3. Formation North American nation
In the middle XVIII Art. in British colonies in America began forming a single internal market, exacerbated trade links between southern and northern colonies. From the South colonies were brought north cotton, tobacco, brought from the north to the south grain industrial products, fish.
Population before the War of Independence in 13 British colonies was about 2.5 million persons (not counting the local population - Indians). During the life of American soil in colonists formed a kind of common culture and everyday life, different from European. The common language was English. The vast majority colonists defined their nationality not by country of origin and by new homeland, they proudly said of himself: "We - the Americans."
New Nation composed as a community of enterprising business people who have succeeded by working hard. Became a popular "American Legend" on someone who arrived on the continent with a few coins in his pocket hard work, performed most difficult job and ultimately succeeded - became rich and respected. Not every American, of course, turned into rich man, but this was the legend of a young American capitalism.
Formation of new ideology promoted the activities of American educators. Based on the idea European Enlightenment, they created new ideals for the American nation. Life and work of the American educator - Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson became an example embodiment of these ideals. Outstanding statesman, enlightener, brilliant self-taught scientist Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) called a great mentor of young American capitalism. "The man - claimed Mr Franklin - blacksmith own fate, too much depends on itself, its spirit, will, aspirations ... "
Fig. Benjamin Franklin
The figure in the history of
Father Benjamin Franklin was an advocate of Protestantism and came to the Americas in search of religious freedom. Family settled in Boston. My father was artisans produced candles. Out of the 17-year old Benjamin began independent life. He worked in New York, Philadelphia simple worker, from personal experience learned what misery, failure and frustration. To earn money, he went to England, where he worked in the printing. After returning to America he settled in Philadelphia and opened a shop where selling books and paper. In Europe and America, after work at night, he studied hard - studying alone basis science, philosophy and economics. Later, Mr Franklin wrote in autobiography that he - the man everyone is obliged to himself. "
In 1731 on proprietary funds B. Franklin founded the first public library in Philadelphia. It was only the beginning of the great American enlightener. He then published their own newspaper, founded the University of Pennsylvania, U.S. Philosophical Society. Around 1754 Franklin fascinated by politics. He was a supporter of the struggle for independence of British colonies in North America. Thanks to his work, France and other European countries supported the struggle for independence the British colonies. After gaining independence he became the first U.S. ambassador to France. His last political act - Signing a petition banning slavery.
Franklin was a man of action who was proud that succeeded his own work. That is what he advised and his countrymen. One of the favorite Franklin's sayings was: "In God hope, and the attendance." A person should work, Franklin thought, rather than lament their misery. Similarly useless is also The quest for the honorary post - it makes people laughing. Works for itself, and thus - for their state. Will wealthy citizens - will be prosperous and state. Yes, Franklin has formulated a new ideology that became the basis world view the American nation.
So, before the War of Independence British colonies formed the North American nation. It had all signs of the nation, except independence.
4. Causes of conflict between the colonies and metropolis
That bahatolyudnishymy became richer and the colony, it was difficult to hold them in economic dependence. Bypassing the British colonial laws to illegally imported to the way 9 / 10 needed goods. Fromtoping England colonists recognized only because the English considered nationals and protect their metropolis against external enemies (the French, Spanish).
In middle XVIII Art. situation has changed. First, after Seven-year war that results in England with the support of its colonies captured French colonies in North America (Quebec), the colonists disappeared outside threat. Second, loyal metropolitan policy has changed tougher. Yes British Parliament decided to move part of public debt that arose during a seven-year war on the colonies. The first step was the introduction to this small stamp duty. All documents in the colonies belonged to draw in British officials a special stamp paper. This innovation was to create a precedent that later on colonists could impose new taxes. Also been established tight control restrictions that were introduced earlier: not open Manufacturers, the production and export of wool products, trade with other countries and so on.
Introduction stamp duty has led to the explosion of discontent of the population. Stamp paper not even allowed to unload, and English officials expelled from the colonies. Then the British Parliament yielded and abolished stamp duty, but long. Soon the parliament enacted a tax on some goods that were imported to colonies.
This resulted in new explosion of discontent. Colonists refused to buy goods brought from metropolis. In response to the governors by the British army began repression, which led to armed clashes.
Finally, Parliament abolished and the law, leaving only a duty on tea. Still, it caused resistance colonists. In Boston tea riot broke out, which became the pretext to fight colonies for independence and entered history as "Boston Tea Party". The colonies were regarded as a manifestation of the metropolis despotism, against which most Englishmen fought 100 years ago during the English revolution.
Colonists explained the failure to pay taxes innovated that did not have their representation in the English Parliament, which makes these decisions. They were under the slogan "No tax without representation."
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Massachusetts Governor's Letter F. Military Minister Bernard to Lord Barrington
"It would provide that the measure as Parliamentary taxation would cause great concern and energetic opposition in many parts of America ... The Americans claimed that they would not obey (stamped) act even before the parliament approved, it was evident that for his life in the colonial governments should concentrate maximum power in their hands. And while they were strikingly weak and weak ... Or should have been at such times to resort to measures like the introduction of internal taxes in America, by decision of parliament? "
1. What explains Governor failure with the introduction of stamp duty?
2. Why Americans opposed a tax?
2. Address of the Legislative Assembly Massachusetts to the Long Parliament
"... Orders that are sent from England, violation of our rights guaranteed by the Charter, as well as our prosperity. Courtesy of our fathers the freedom which they enjoyed despite the hostility prelates (the representatives of the Pope. - Auto.) and other powerful enemies, and now we lose it when England recaptured the very freedom itself? We went through the danger at sea, and now we die in the harbor? Your decision, no matter how all of us prevailing wisdom, the poor, grew up in the wildness men, could not be applied and they are not suitable here.
1. What presents this document?
2. What basic requirements of the colonists?
3. What Freedom fathers had in mind authors appeal?
Questions and Tasks
1.What are the main differences English colonies in North America from colonial Spaniards, Portuguese, Dutch, French?
2.Who was founder of the English colonies?
3.What life colonists differed from the normal life of an Englishman in the metropolis?
4.What are the main differences existed between southern and northern colonies?
5.Point facts that indicate the formation of the North American colonies American nation. (Use a paper material 2 and the third item).
6.As comprising relations between colonists and the native population?
7.What economic policies led England on the colonies?
8.What role colonial trade played in the development of English industry? A reason.
9.Find main causes of the conflict between the colonies and mother country.
10.What was push to open conflict with the colonial metropolis?