§ 28. Russian Empire in the second half of XVIII Art.
1. What changes occurred in the socio-economic development of the Russian Empire in the first half of XVIII Art.?
2.Name main directions of foreign policy of the Russian Empire in the first half of XVIII.
1. Socio-economic development of the Russian Empire
In the history of Russia in the second half XVIII c. .- controversial and difficult period.
The vast majority (95.9%) lived in villages, where almost half (48.7%) was in serfdom from landlords. Russia remained agricultural country. However, were achieved significant progress in industrial development, although it was based on prevailing labor of serfs.
Quickly growing number of manufactories: end XVII Art. there were about 30 to 1725 by - over 200 in mid- century - almost 600, and at the end - About 2300 of them to 1200 large industrial enterprises.
Special merit in the second half XVIII Art. become Metals: end of the century, Russia came out on top in the world of production and exports of iron factories. Another important branch of industry was shipbuilding.
Growth bridge, crafts, industry, breaking away from a large number of arable farmers who were employed in industries and manufacture, conversion of some villages to industrial centers - All This has created conditions for the intensification of trade. Total foreign trade has increased fivefold, while export prevailed over importation. Commodities Russian exports were grain, iron, wood, fur. Imported sugar, silk, layers. Take effect huge fairs - Makar'yevskyy, Irbitskyy, Svenskyy et al. In the 60's he XVIII Art. Russia fairs at all going over to 2 million people in the 90 - More than 7.5 million
2. Reign of Catherine II and her domestic policy
Second half XVIII Art. characterized by a further development of absolutism in the Russian Empire. The internal politics of autocracy this period was called enlightened absolutism. Enlightened absolutism was a phenomenon pan. Such policy options came under the direct the influence of the Enlightenment. In key policy of enlightened absolutism was pereustroyu idea of state "at a reasonable beginning." From this it appeared that existing structure of state power system in the society were to be reviewed and amended where necessary in terms of appropriate new terms. led this entire process as stand "philosopher-king." In practical type of enlightened absolutism was expressed in conducting administrative reforms that reduce the impact of the church, the implementation of the education system to organize tax system, changes in the status of some segments of society and so on. The most vivid manifestation of this policy Russia acquired during the reign Catherine II (1762—1796 years), this period was called the "golden age".
Fig. Catherine II
Figure in history
Sofia-Augustus-Frederick Anhalt Tserbtska came from a wealthy family of German princes. Her father was general in the army the Prussian king Friedrich II. By patronage of the King issued married Peter F. (Peter III, Elizabeth's nephew and a grandson of Peter I). After the Orthodoxy princess christened Catherine A.. Unlike its man, intelligent and ambitious Catherine soon learned the Russian language and peculiarities of the mentality (of national character, way of thinking) people. The activity of the queen was so active and clear "that soon forgotten German past "hosudaryni-Mother."
Seizing the throne June 28, 1762 was due to the Palace coup and murder of Peter III, Catherine IIcontinued reforms aimed at further strengthening the sovereignty of the country and preserve feudal serfdom inviolability of the system. Receiving power from the hands nobility, she was acting solely in their interests, including strengthened privileges and meet the requirements of participation in state administration.
The most striking manifestation of enlightened absolutism was calling Ulozhenoyi Commission, one the objectives of which was to replace outdated collection of laws (Articles) 1649 Summer 1767 new legislative committee began its work. But produce a real document failed committee, and Catherine II ceased its work (decree of 4 December 1774). Empress finally took a publication of the laws (edicts).
His decrees Catherine II prohibited the serfs, the landowners to file complaints to government bodies; allowed landowners banish guilt peasants to Siberia, to sell their without land distributed in 1783 Serfdom in the Left Bank of Ukraine and others.
Peak noble privilege was the manifesto of April 21, 1785 about brevet nobility and cities. For nobles legally fixed the peasants of immovable property; nobles liberated from taxes, duties, bodily punishment, the obligation to bear the military and the civil service and more. In cities created municipal councils, and the commoners were divided into 6 bits per property qualification.
There were further centralization and bureaucratization of the state apparatus. In 1763 Empress issued a decree to divide the Senate for 6 departments with different functions, thereby weakened his influence as the highest state body. Catherine II established a private office - "Her Majesty's Cabinet and concentrated in the hands of the whole fullness of the executive. In the 60's was carried reform of local government under which all power locally concentrated in the governor. There were also secularization monastic lands. In 1775 by the regional administrative reform where Russia peredilyly 50 provinces (instead of 23) who, in turn, consisted of the counties. In the provinces the power belonged to the governors appointed by government and in counties and county towns - captain ispravnykam and "Horodnychym.
An important element administrative reform of Catherine II was the elimination of autonomous entities that existed within the Russian Empire. Empress abolished "special Baltic Order, reorganized the management of Don edge. But lost most of the administrative reforms of Catherine II population Ukraine. November 10, 1764 announced the manifesto of the queen Elimination of Hetman of Left Bank Ukraine. Instead, a new Little Russian Collegium, led by a President, Governor-General P. Room 'yantsev. In 1765 eliminated in order Cossack Sloboda Ukraine: Cossack regiments turned into the regular part of the Cossacks transferred to the state of the state peasants. August 3, 1775 royal manifesto announced the destruction of Zaporizhzhya Sich. In 1781-1783 he on Hetmanate held the administrative transformation: skasovuvavsya Regimental centesimal-administrative system and introduced county instead Hetmanate formed Little Russian Governor-General. Сamobutnyu Ukraine was turned into a commonplace of the Russian Empire - Little Russia.
3. Peasant war by O. Joe and its suppression
Strengthening serfdom oppression, arbitrariness of landlords, Plight of the Ural workers caused a wave of popular uprisings.
One of the greatest expressions of the growth of social tension in the second half XVIII Art. 1773-1775 was the peasant war he led a simple Cossack stanytsyas Zymoveyskoyi on Don Omelyana Ivanovich Pugachev (1742-1775). War engulfed the vast territory - South and Central Urals, Western Siberia, Bashkortostan, Perm Region, Prykam'ya, Volga and Don.
Fig. Yemelyan Pugachev
In addition to these, causes of war and oppression were laik Cossacks: the introduction of state monopoly on fishing, extraction of salt, vetch selling, collecting fees, etc.. The dissatisfaction of the Cossacks led to several uprisings 1771-1772 biennium, which were front war.
In September 1773, distavshysya border river Yayik, O. Pugachev removed the name of Emperor Peter III and he stooped over to their side band local Cossacks. Under the banner of the rebels were coming from everywhere peasants, Cossacks, workshop people Ural. Joined them and a group of Bashkir, Tatar, Kalmyks, who suffered from the king's oppression. But insurgent failed capture the fortress of Orenburg, near the walls where they were defeated. Detachments Joe moved to the Urals. Here a lot of defensive Ural workers have sworn allegiance O. Pugachev. The population of Bashkortostan and Udmurtia also rise.
Expelled king host of the Urals, the army O. Joe appeared in the Volga region. In July 1774 rebels attacked and captured the city of Kazan (Kremlin remained in the hands of government forces). But even here the rebels were defeated soon. Of detachment in several vidchayduhiv O. Pugachev was forwarded to the right bank Volga, where the majority of the population were serfs. The retreat by rebels Villagers who joined them, grew into the invasion. July-August were worst months for officials and nobility - they robbed, tortured, killed. Rebellion swept hundreds of villages burned the landlords' estates. At the time issued orders and manifests O. Joe.
Host Joe moved south, the Don steppe, with the hope to support the Don Cossacks. Butfall 1774 near the Black Yar on the Volga зagon O. Joe was broken, and the very wealthy leader seized Cossacks and handed government.
January 10 1775 O. Joe, and other leaders of the uprising were executed in Moscow stagnant street.
Government ruthlessly members of the Peasant War. Thousands of rebels were tortured in the cities and villages were the gallows, and they floated on a raft down the Volga. Royal torturers punished people hot iron, tried to dig his nostrils, sent to penal colonies, mercilessly beaten whips, burned entire villages. Native stanytsya Joe was Zymoveysku smoothed with the world. Disobedient Yayik river was called the Urals.
4. Major Trends and purpose Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire
In foreign policy of the Russian Empire by Catherine II, distinguished two phases, separated French Revolution the XVIII century.
In the first stage foreign policy goals of Catherine II was the spread of influence in Europe, where the main rival at the time uvazhalasya France - the most powerful European state, as well as accession of new land by neighboring countries. King French Louis XV aim of their policy towards Russia has expressed thus: "All in able to drag this empire in chaos and force her to return to the darkness, meets my interests. " To this end, the French government led policy creation of "Eastern Barrier" - the support of Sweden, the Commonwealth, the Ottoman Empire. Weakest link of this barrier was the Commonwealth, which was tired internal contradictions and that became the object of attacks by Prussia, Austria and Russia. Therefore, the main directions of Russian foreign policy around which concentrated efforts of the imperial government were:
struggle against Ottoman Empire to seize the Black Sea coast of Crimea, go to Caucasus range. Addressing this problem provided an opportunity to develop Black Sea steppes, to develop trade ties across the Black and Sea, eliminated the danger of attacks of the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire;
opposition attempts Sweden to reclaim lost ground;
in the fight conquest weakened by the Commonwealth, joining Russia Right Bank Ukraine and Belarus.
Implementation of these areas was to undermine France's plans to weaken and isolate the Russian empire.
Revolution in France 1789-1794 biennium made significant adjustments in Russian foreign policy. The revolution has not only destroyed the French absolutism, but also forced the other monarchs of Europe think about how to prevent the spread of its influence on their country. Change the situation in Europe has turned Russia into a stronghold of absolutism. Catherine II took an active part in the struggle against revolutionary France.
5. Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774 and 1787-1791 biennium
The first Russo-Turkish Catherine II during the war decided to Turkey, which powerful strikes planned go to Kyiv, Smolensk, Astrakhan, pounce on Caucasus.
Spring 1768 Crimean Khan troops devastated parts of Ukraine. Under the blows of the Russian krymchane troops retreated, taking large prey. The following year, hostilities unrolled in the Black Sea steppes, the Balkans and Caucasus. Russian tisnyly troops throughout enemy. In 1769 Russian army led by outstanding general Pyotr Rumiantsev defeated the Turks under Khotin and won Khotin, Iasi, Bucharest, Taganrog. In 1770 Russian troops took three brilliant victories: two on-shore (near Largo and Cahul) and one at sea (in Chesmenskiy Bay).
In 1774 war advantageous for Russia ended Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhiyskym peace (signed in Bulgarian village Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhi). Russia went to the territory between the Bug and Dnipro including seaside fortress in Crimea - Kerch Yenikale and the land to the Kuban. Crimea and Kuban became independent from Turkey. Russia received the right to control the situation in the Danubian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, who were at that time vassals of Turkey. Russian vessels have the right freely swim the Black Sea.
In April 1783 Catherine II issued a manifesto which declared that the Crimea and the Taman Peninsula "All parties to adopt the Kuban during the All-Russian state." In the summer of that year in Crimea started building the base of Russian Black Sea Fleet - Sevastopol.
Suffered defeat, Turkey began to prepare for a new war against Russia. Since most northern Black Sea coast remained in the hands of Turkey, the government of Catherine II also did not consider the conflict closed. Both countries have been active diplomacy with allies searches. Russia has signed an alliance with Austria.
Military action again Turkey began, which were England and France. The Turkish fleet with Troopers went to one of the main points of the Russian Defense Black - Kinburn, who commanded the garrison Alexander Suvorov. Fight October 1, 1787 ended almost complete annihilation Turkish troops: from 5 thousand Turkish ship returned to no more than 500.
Russian troops 1788 Sturm possessed strong Turkish fortress Ochakov. In this and other operations successfully acted young Black Sea fleet under the command Admiral Fyodor F. Ushakov.
In 1789 Rimnicu river (a tributary of the Danube) combined Russo-Austrian housing (7 thousand Russians under the direction of Alexander Suvorov and 18 thousand Austrians) interrupted the path of one hundred thousandth the Turkish army and won the September 11 brilliant victory "is not the number and skill. And in December 1790 Suvorov and managed his troops reached a new, unprecedented success, winning Turkish Ismail fortress at the mouth of the Danube.
Obtaining and Ishmael Victory at Sea (1791, in the Kerch Strait, the island Tendra, near Cape Kaliakriyi south of the Danube, near Varna) fate War.
In 1791 in Jassy was signed peace treaty between Russia and Turkey. Russia received land between the Dniester and Southern Bug. Turkey renounced its claims the Crimea and recognized his knowledge of Russian Empire. All Black coast from the mouth of the Dniester River to Crimea appeared within Russia.
Georgia and Russia Subordination Kazakhstan. Catherine II paid much attention south-eastern borders of their state. The weakening of the Ottoman Empire as a result Russian-Turkish wars enabled Russia to intensify its activities in Transcaucasia. South Caucasus nations of the sixteenth century. fought against Iran and Ottoman Empire. Russia helped the Georgians, Armenians, Azerbaijanis in this struggle to gain a foothold in the region. An important step was the signing July 24, 1783 George treaty between Russia and the king of the united East Georgia Irakliy II. Under this agreement, Georgia has recognized the power of Russia. Both sides in the event of an attack on one of them committed to provide assistance. Russia left for Georgia the right to independent foreign policy and guarantee their non-interference in its internal affairs.
In the eighteenth century. the process of accession of Kazakhstan to the Russian Empire. Kazakh Khanate was formed in late fifteenth century. It was divided into three zhuzy (Horde): Small (Junior), Medium and Large (Old). In the early eighteenth century. Kazakhs situation worse by invading oyrativ - western Mongols. It was the main reason that the Kazakhs of Russian nationality: Small and parts of the Middle zhuziv - 1731, the rest of the Middle zhuzu - in 1740-1741 biennium
Since joining tsarist government started the policy of restricting the power of local notables and distribution General-and-order institutions in Kazakhstan. This caused a wave popular indignation, which assumed the form of rebellion led Baturev Sryma (Sryma Datova). Uprising lasted from 1783 till 1797 Tsarism softened its policy and went to some concessions.
Grand (Senior) zhuz the middle of the nineteenth century. was based on Kokandskoho and Hivynskoho Khanate and was annexed to the Russian Empire in the 60's Nineteenth century.
6. War against Sweden 1788-1790 he
King Gustav III of Sweden decided to take advantage of the fact that Russia fought against Turkey to regain previously lost ground. In 1788 Swedish army invaded Finland, but strong resistance to narazylasya Russian troops forced her to withdraw. The next year the Russian army and Navy attacked and captured a large part of Finland. In 1790 major events unfolded on the sea. Swedish Navy made two attacks on Russian fleet in the area of Revel (Tallinn) and Red Hill, but failed. After these defeats Gustav III offered peace, Russia agreed to.
Russian-Swedish Sweden showed the weakness of the war and its failure even under favorable conditions to fight against Russia.
7. Russia's participation in the division of Poland
In the second half XVIII Art. weakened Polish state through constant noble strife has been the object interference with its powerful neighbors - Austria, Prussia and Russia.
Question Polish land distribution has long been debated by European diplomats. However, resolving the issue not passed into. Accelerated distribution Poltsi victory of Russians in the war with Turkey and Prussia 1768-1774 biennium Austria did not want to further enhance Russia, but can not it prevented vytorhuvaty sought a possession in Poland, in exchange for nevrehulyuvannya in the Russo-Turkish conflict. Russia, which effectively controlled the Poland opposed the developments in this way. But the circumstances of (Was prolonged struggle with Bar confederation threatened Austria intervention and in 1770 began the conquest of Galicia, diplomatic pressure on Russia did France, Britain, Prussia and other States), forced Russia reconsider its position. It zhodylas division of Poland, together with Austria and Prussia.
У 1772 , these states have made the first partition of Poland. Galicia went to Austria, East Belarus - To Russia, West Prussia - To the Prussian Kingdom. The second partition of Poland in 1793 Right-Bank Ukraine was ceded to Russia. The third division of Poland took place in 1795 West, Russia received Belarus, Volhynia, Lithuania and Courland; Austria - Krakow, Sandomierz and Lublin region, and Prussia - Other lands, including Warsaw. As a result, three separation of state independence of Poland was eliminated. Most of its Russia got the land.
Second division in Poland caused a wave of national indignation. Led the fight against the invaders hero of the Revolutionary War the British colonies in North America, Tadeusz Kosciuszko. During the war of independence he become famous for its courage, especially marked during the Battle of Saratoga. Home T. Kosciuszko came back in 1784 general. He was painful to watch as dying Poland. Kosciuszko assembled an army consisting of insurgent peasants. 4 April 1794 Kosciuszko army defeated the Russians under Ratslavytsyamy. Later, the rebels captured Warsaw and Vilnius. However, democratic slogans insurgency has not supported much of the nobility. Russia and Prussia, collecting significant forces attacked. The Russian army under the command of Alexander Suvorov basic forces crushed the rebels and captured Warsaw, which is famous commander gave, like Ishmael, a taunt winners. Kosciuszko was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress.
In the second half of XVIII Art. the process of formation in place of the Moscow State vast Russian empire, which utverdzhuvalas on the European continent thanks to the numerous war of aggression.
8. Development Culture of Russia in the second half of XVIII.
During this period there was rapid development Russian culture. Development needs of the country demanded the establishment of the system as primary education and higher learning. In 1755 at the initiative of prominent Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov Moscow University was opened first. Created network of primary schools.
Without scientific progress was not possible further progress why Russia started a rapid development of science. Center of scientific knowledge was St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, founded in 1725 under her leadership began active learning, boundless spaces of Russia. So sailors V. Bering and Chirikov O. showed that between Asia and North America is shed, called the Bering Sea. Professor G. Miller created a generalized work "History of Siberia. Russian Geographers explore Kamchatka, Alaska. In 1745 he was created by generalizing Atlas of Russia. Began creation and history of Russia. Her father is V. Tatishchev.
The largest contribution to Russian science has Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov(1711-1765). He was the son of a peasant Pomeranian. At 19 thirst for knowledge brought him to Moscow, where he entered the Slav`Yano-Greek-Latin Academy, later to Kyiv Mohyla Academy. Continued his education in Germany. Returning home adopted a bottom job in the Academy of Sciences. He opened his activities in many directions: from literature, art, history to science. He wrote odes, created a mosaic picture of "The Battle of Poltava (restoring recipes smalt). He founded a new direction in science - physical chemistry. Demonstrated that the surrounding world, a constant motion of matter composed of atoms that form molecule. Much attention is paid to studying electricity, proving that the spark and lightning have the same nature. Proved that Venus has an atmosphere. Explained nature of Northern sowing. The full range of inventions, scientific engineering solutions would take more than one page. Concerned the preparation of its own scientists.
Pm XVIII. brought in many new development literature. Military victory, ascension to the throne of monarchs generated celebrations Annie lyrics - odes. Among the authors allocated M. Lomonosov and G. Derzhavyn. Success in chytatsiv D. Fonvizina enjoyed the play "Brihadir", "minor", which were satire of Russian nobility. Great anger in the work of Catherine II, called A. Radishcheva "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow," in which he denounced all the flaws Russian serfdom. For this work and others paid.
Unprecedented scale in this time has gained a stone`yane secular construction especially in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Masterpieces of architecture of that era were in the Winter Palace Petersburg (famous Hermitage), and in the Peterhof palace complexes and Tsarskoe Selo, which created the Italian architect Bartholomew Rastrelli. Also evident talent of the Russian architect V. Bazhenov. For his project was stately home built Pashkova (now the main building of the State Library Russia). Moscow University building was built by another project talanovytho artist M. Kazakov. Most of the architectural masterpieces created in Rococo and Classicism.
Another success was painting of this period. Among the talented Masters allocated two natives of Ukraine D. Levitsky (1735-1822) and V. Borovikovsky (1757-1825). Portraits by them among the masterpieces world level. Depicting figures of the era, artists sought to show inner life of man, not likeness.
In 1750 comes the origin of Russian theater. His father was F. Volkov (1729-1763). Rapidly and musical creativity.
But all these success cultures were not available to the general public population of the empire, but they pidmurok created for the development of Russian culture in the next day.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Excerpts from brevet nobility in 1785
On the personal benefits of nobles
13-rd. Nobleman hands his wife the dignity its.
14 th. Nobleman sends his children the dignity of hereditary ...
18 th. No court surrenders noble their dignity.
12 th. Let it be noble prisoners, than peers ...
15 th. Corporal punishment shall not affect to a noble ...
17-something. Reaffirm to life time ... nobility liberty and freedom ...
22 nd. Noble power and free will ... estate gift or devise, or dowry, or to pay alimony, or transfer or sell anyone who wishes.
26 th. Group is proved right buy village.
27 th. Group is proved right wholesale sell that beauty in their villages, or will be produced.
28 th. Group is allowed to have factories and plants in the country.
29-something. Group is allowed in the patrimony establish their town, and bids fair ...
32 nd. Group is allowed sell ... overseas product that they was born ...
33 rd. Confirmed the noble Ownership ... and subsoil of land and in water ...
35-something. In rural manor free softw.
36 th. Noble exempt from personally file.
How can I explain of noblemen such broad privileges?
1.Describe the socio-economic development of the Russian Empire in the second half XVIII century.
2. What was Catherine II's domestic policy? Compare it with the internal policies of Peter I.
3. Expand consequences of the policy of Catherine II to Ukraine using paper.
4. Tell about the peasant war led by O. Joe.
5.Find purpose and main directions of foreign policy of the Russian Empire in the second half of XVIII century.
6.What are the main consequences of the Russo-Turkish wars of the second half of XVIII century.?
7.Reason was made to divide Poland?
8.Give opinion on the war the Russian Empire the second half of XVIII century. Can colonial name them?
9.Fold comprehensive plan points 4, 5, 6, 7, paragraph and prepare him for the story about the foreign policy of the Russian Empire in the second half of the eighteenth century.
10. Describe the development of Russian kultury that period, provide outstanding representatives.
Note the dates:
1768-1774 biennium, 1787-1791 biennium - Russian-Turkish war.
1772, 1793, 1795 - Partitions of Poland.
1773-1775 biennium - Peasant war by O. Joe.
1775 - Liquidation Zaporizhzhya Sich.