§ 27. Moscow state at the turn XVII-XVIII centuries.
1.What events have occurred in the Muscovite state in the early XVII century.?
2.What internal policies to guide the first kings of the Romanov dynasty?
3.What was characteristic of the foreign policy of the Moscow State in XVI-XVII centuries.?
1. Economic, domestic and international position of the Moscow State
The victory of Revolution in Holland and England, dragging most European countries in world trade were of great importance for Europe. Began to grow rapidly manufactury production, trade. Feudal economy in vtyahuvalos world market, composed, formed new social strata - the bourgeoisie and salaried workers.
This new phenomenon is could not touch the Moscow State. New in the development of emerging countries during the reign of Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich. However, their establishment was accompanied by a long and bloody drama and sharp political struggle. Largely Europeanization was carried violent means, which accounts for its superficial - it touched only the ruling elite.
End XVII. Russia has not kept pace in the development of European states. Lack of convenience outlets to world trade routes effects included natural nature of the economy Muscovy. In minor exports carried out through single port - Arkhangelsk, not dominated or manufactury handicraft products, and raw fur. In addition, Muscovy had neither commercial nor military fleet. Manufactury production also does not actually exist. Of iron plants gave only 2,5 thousand tons of metal per year, while Sweden produced 30 thousand t
End XVII. Muscovite state in the European part had a common border with Sweden, Poland, Turkey, the Crimean Khanate - its traditional rivals Eastern and North Europe. War against Muscovy led these countries to varying degrees of success over the centuries.
Internal life late XVII century. court noted the acute struggle for power groups. After the death of Fedor Alekseevich in 1682 the royal throne claimed by two brothers - John and Peter and their older sister Sophia, who herself has tried to master throne. In the end, victory in this fight won Peter (1689-1725 biennium).
Not evidenced that within a few decades Russia will become a significant factor European policy and one of the mightiest military in the context of countries.
2. Home Board Peter
Having reached the age and becoming king, Peter faced problems that remained to him a legacy of Sofia. The long war against Turkey. In 1695 Peter, collecting large army, made a trip to Asia - Turkish fortress at the mouth of the Don and surrounded it, however, failed to capture, because the Turkish garrison received all necessary sea, and Muscovite army could not resist this because had no navy. Realizing that without the Azov Sea Fleet not to, Peter launched a vigorous activity. Winter at the Voronezh shipyard was built fleet. In 1696 Peter made new campaign to Asia, this time successful. Under the terms of contract with Turkey Asia truce went to Russia together with the part of the Azov Sea. But this success did not solved the problem of way to the Black Sea - for this had to master the Strait of Kerch and the Crimea. But this would not be enough to penetrate into the Mediterranean Sea, which sought to Muscovy. Besides Russia's allies in the war (Austria, Poland, Venice, Malta Knight order) have already made peace with Turkey. Thus, a union with Catholic countries did not bring desired result.
Finished war against Turkey, Peter radically changed the direction of foreign policy and priorities - decided to establish contacts with other European countries. From this end was sent abroad "Great Embassy " (1697-1698 biennium), composed of officers under the name Peter Mikhailova and became king himself. Path embassy mainly prolih territories Protestant countries - Courland, Brandenburg, Holland, allies that refused to continue the war against Turkey.
Travel had to Peter the great impression. The young king designed to turn Russia into civilized countries, to build a powerful fleet and expand trade. However, for this had to fight against Sweden. Were found and Allies: Saxony (Saxon Elector Augustus II, who was at the same time and the Polish king) and Denmark.
Complete the "great embassy "Peter did not have to. Retrieving an uproar shooters, he immediately returned to Moscow and arranged a brutal massacre on the throat skaravshy nearly a thousand rebels. Rifle army was abolished on the eve of war against Sweden. In 1689-1699 he Peter formed the regular army for future wars (Shelf "new type"). Military costs that laid a burden on the population, exacerbated social contradictions and conflicts Moscow State з Ukrainth and Donом). For suppression performances population also needed the army. So reforms started by Peter I, largely forcedWithout advance thought-out plan. But their leading idea Muscovy was converted into a powerful advanced countries.
3. Roosters-old warswell. Nishtadtskyy peace
Swedish-Russian conflict brewing a long time. At the beginning of the XVII century. Sweden, using a Troubles, dominated the coast Gulf of Finland, Karelia, has strengthened its position in the Baltic States, which claimed the Muscovite state. Tries in the last middle XVII. conquer these territories was unsuccessful.
At the beginning of the XVIII Art. international situation was favorable for Russia: European nations vtyahlys conflict in the Spanish Succession. In 1700 died without heir to the throne, the Spanish king Charles II. Launched a war for the Spanish land, which lasted from 1701 in 1714 Russia decided to start a war, named the North. The main actors in this war, which lasted from 1700 till 1721, were Russia and Sweden.
The fighting began Danish King Frederick IV, who besieged the fortress of Stralsund in Swedish Northern Germany. Meanwhile, another ally of Russia, Augustus II (simultaneously Saxon Elector and King of Poland) moved to Riga. Russia entered the war a little later - she expected to completion of peace negotiations with Turkey. Once peace with Turkey (Constantinople peace) signed a 34-man Russian army moved to Narva, which was one of the main castle in the Baltics, and surrounded it.
Swedish King at the time was Karl XII - young, energetic, with the ability commander. First he caused by kick of Denmark. Вso suddenly Copenhagen surrounded and forced to capitulate Frederick IV. After this victory, not wasting time, Charles XII directed the army (18 thousand troops) in the Baltic States and unexpectedly for the Russians appeared at Narva Zabdi them scorching defeat. The Russians lost almost all combat-ready army and artillery. Having decided that with Russia finished, Karl XII moved to Riga, where Augustus defeated II.
Fig. Karl XII
Defeat is not withdrawn Muscovite state of war, and only encouraged Peter to immediate holding reforms. Began a regular army recruiting method. From a number of peasant households and posadskyh was one of 25 recruits years. Education was the principle: "Seven kill, but one explored.
When was needed guns, Peter I ordered to remove the bells of the churches and pereplavyty them. In short cast was 300 guns. Also started construction in the Urals and Tula manufactories, which provided the army with all necessary. For continuous operation manufactories are attributed to whole villages in serfdom which replaced the factory work.
Many emphasis on organizational learning and building the army. Special attention was paid to artillery. At the end of the war Russia had 15 thousand guns, more than any country in Europe. Large number of army was brought to 340 thousand (80 thousand of them regularly). Finally, These measures gave the desired result - 1701 was Russian army won its first victory. During the period 1702-1704 he Russians captured large swathes of territory in the Baltic States (Derpt, Narva) and Karelia (Oryeshek, Niyenshantse). May 16, 1703 was construction was completed on one of the islands at the mouth of the Neva Paul Fortress. Thus began the construction of St. Petersburg future capital of the Russian Empire. Through Petersburg received six first foreign-owned vessel. To protect the city from the sea on the island in the Gulf was laid naval base Kronshlot (later Kronstadt). To connect the central parts of the country from St. Petersburg has begun construction of a wide channels. Construction of St. Petersburg and channels cost dearly: here on the marshy banks of the Neva Lake Onega from cold, disease and convict Labour killed tens of thousands of people muchpart of which were in the Ukrainian Cossacks and peasants.
When Russia won the victory, its ally, II Augustus suffered defeats. Karl XII Warsaw and took the throne of the Commonwealth put his henchmen Stanislaus Leszczy
In 1706 Karl XII spoke with his army toward the Russian border. Swedes Attempt encircle the Russian army near Grodno was unsuccessful. From the Baltic to Charles XII aid went 16000th Levenhaupta Corps general who was deliver the main Army forces are needed. In the battle near the village of Forest in September 1708 This corps was defeated and lost all the camp.
Meanwhile, it became know that to Charles XII passed with his supporters and 4 thousand Cossacks Hetman of Ukraine Ivan Mazepa, promising all manner of Swedes support in exchange for help in the fight for independence of Ukraine.
Fig. Ivan Mazepa
The army of Charles XII moved to Ukraine. But people did not support Mazepa, who did nothing to To prepare the ground for such a foreign policy of rotation. Besides previous social policy Cossack not seem enthusiastic population. Peter, concerned about such developments, moved with his army in Ukraine, has destroyed the hetman capital Baturin, where the slaughter was arranged population, and held elections for a new hetman. There have been demolished and Zaporizhzhya Sich.
Meanwhile 30000th treated the Swedish army in Poltava, where there were large stores military supplies and food. Siege began.
In support garrison town left main force of Russians (42 thousand soldiers) led by the same king. July 27, 1709 at Poltava was the decisive battle in which Swedes were defeated.
Fig. Battle of Poltava
After Poltava fundamentally changed progress of the Northern War. The fighting had moved beyond Russia. Denmark and the Commonwealth again spoke against Sweden. In 1710 Russian troops captured by Ryhoyu, revel (Tallinn). That same year, after the siege of land and the sea fell Swedish fortress of Vyborg, which opened Russians the way to Finland.
Growing power of Russia was European countries worry. The Ottoman Empire also sought to take revenge. In autumn 1710 the Turks declare war. So they pushed and Charles XII that after ukryvsya defeat at Poltava in the sultanate. Peter, being in euphoria of the previous victories tried one blow to defeat Turkey. But his Prutsko campaign in 1711 ended a complete defeat. That redeem Peter was forced to return Azov and refuse to Kiev and struggle for the Black Sea (Prutsko peace). The final peace was signed in Adrianople in 1713 war, the Ottoman Empire and Russia decided skorystannya P. Orlik, who after the death of Hetman Mazepa was elected, but his trips to the Ukraine did not give the desired result.
Win out over Swedes Peter helped to deploy active efforts to consolidate Russia Baltic coast. He made several treaties with the rulers of the German States, which led to cooling of relations with allies. Charles XII, vlovyvshy These trends suggested that Russia Union. Parties close to an agreement, but Karl XII died during the siege of a small fortress in Norway.
The new Swedish government stopped the war against Prussia and of Denmark, gave them all their possessions in Germany. Released forces were hurled against Russia. The main theater of war was the Baltic Sea.
To secure the win and reach the main goal - an outlet to the Baltic Sea, Peter I needed a navy. By order of the king began the construction of bahatoharmatnyh battleships, frigates, galleys, etc. easy. Leadership Navy took over Peter I. In the sea battle in 1714 near Cape Gangut (Hanko) Navy won the newly created first victory over Sweden. Soon after the Russians occupied the Aland Islands and began to threaten Sweden itself. Advances Russia alarmed England, who sent to the Baltic Sea his squadron. In July 1720 the island was a critical Hrenham battle in which the Russians inflicted a crushing defeat on the Swedes in the eyes of English squadron has not ventured to join the battle.
After defeats at sea and several Russian landing troops on the coast of Sweden was forced to agree to negotiations. August 30, 1721 in the Finnish city Nishtadti signed peace treaty by which Russia went to Estonia, Liflyandiya, Inhermanlandiya, part of Karelia, a number of islands in the Baltic Sea.
After winning the Great Northern War Peter October 20, 1721 was proclaimed emperor, and RosI was andmperiyeyu.
As a result Northої warsи Russia opened the way to the Baltic sea. After earning a weight in European affairs, Russia targeted aggressive aspirations in all directions.
Victory costly cost of Russia: it has lost about a quarter of the population. But as Russian Czars in the past and future not only followed the subjects for the simple life achieve its goals.
4. Public administration reform
The main and King fondest dream was to transform Russia into a powerful state. This purpose it subordinated all its activities. When this purpose had to be war against Sweden, he started the war without hesitation. When you win it depended on the new army, industry, trade, he is not wasting time introduced the necessary innovation. Implementation of reforms took place without premeditated plan, but ultimately he wanted to give all measures perfect kind of put everything in one system. Measure of all its activities was a benefit for the state. This policy had disastrous consequences for Ukraine. In empire created by Great-only model did not fit autonomous structure of Ukraine. This led her to a chauvinist policy, ie policy based on the ideas of Russian nationalism.
One of became the most important reforms in the system of governance. However, the system of new institutions established immediately. King more rarely sought the services Boyarka thoughts. Providing boyars by Peter stopped. He charged the most important affairs of state committed individuals almost regardless of their pedigree and valuing abilities first assistants.
In 1711, it was created the Senate - the highest legislative, regulatory and executive authority at king. Introduction of the prosecutor-general with a staff of officials on the ground strengthened the supervision of the supreme power over the all parts of the state apparatus. Peter called the General Prosecutor Majesty's eye. "
In 1718-1720 biennium finally eliminated the network of former government agencies - orders. Instead, Peter organized board.The advantage of the boards was that they are completely ignorant of certain areas government and its activities spread throughout the country.
Working arrangements Senate and the boards were enshrined in legislation edition special instructions and "General Regulations".
In 1708 came decree under which zaprovadzhuvavsya province division of the country. The governors received great power and serve the king.
Major changes situation occurred in the church. In the XVII century. Church occupied an important place in life of the country. But when Patriarch Adrian died (1700), the king is not allowed elect a new patriarch. The huge wealth that belonged to a higher spiritual ranks and monasteries, almost not used in the national interest. Therefore, under Peter the Great have taken steps to remove part of church income and limitation of rights clergy. In 1721 issued a decree by which created Ecclesiastical College or synod, Led by the secular person.
Subordination church state, its transformation into a part of the state apparatus has become an important aspect of strengthening the autocratic power of the king.
Important In formation of the Russian Empire played the appearance in 1722 g. "Tablesі on ranks, which is determinedла system of orders and order promotion public service - military and civilian.
According from Tablespit ranks of "all military and civil works are divided into 14 classes, which made recruitment. Thus, gentility principle, znatnosti origin, who once provided a high official position, regardless of talent and merit, now replaced by the principle personal seniority. Without the service even children noble lords could not getting orders. Вidkryvavsya access of immigrants nedvoryanskyh groups to military and civil works. Dosluzhyvshys certain ranks (To VThird class (rank))Such person received knighthood. The nobility was supplemented come from the "bottom".
Decree edynovolodinnya 1714 Peter virtually eliminated the difference between the boyars and nobility - all had to serve King (sovereign) and the state. sealed transfer a legacy not only estates, still as before, but also estates that are temporarily dovalysya for service. They were called estates (Ymenyyamy). This substance could get only one heir - others had to go to serve.
By Peter was census the village population. This was changed the tax system: Now taxes are not collected from the yard, and with each farmer. This greatly enriched treasury, but formed a new burden on farmers.
Public administration reform, conducted by Peter IContributed to the formation of the absolutism in Russia Empire. King turned to unlimited rights in the autocrat. To maintain order on`appeared a new police authority - Transfiguration commandment, and with 1718 - Secret Chancellery. It checked the authenticity of denunciations. Informant rewarded, and the suspects were tortured.
5. Changes in culture and education
Peter understood that to overcome the cultural backwardness of Russia's first should change the outlook of subordinates; first - at least in the nearest neighborhood, ie he created the apparatus of public administration. This was significantly harder than build factory and lay water channels, re-armed army and a navy.
End XVII. GENTRY teenagers were sent to study abroad. After returning from overseas specialists (engineers, architects, shipyard, etc.) received orders and sat down in the appropriate place society, helped the king-reformers "Europeanize" Generally their countrymen. King was concerned that the nobles assimilated good manners, could fence, ride, dance, to communicate in foreign languages. Great success was the book "MIRROR youth fair" where the matter of rules behavior in society.
For such knowledge required was a secular school type. It should be noted that while education nabuvalasya exclusively at home, and it was limited to the diploma and counting. In the first quarter of XVIII century. there minorities network of secondary and special schools organized by the State Treasury.
Open printing office where books were recruited secular character. This applied easy to read font "civil. We started out the newspaper. Opened the door first public library.
In 1714 in Petersburg was established cabinet of curiosities - the first natural museum in Russia. The development of scientific knowledge and laid the foundation for the establishment of the Academy of Sciences. Its was opened after the death of Peter, in late 1725
Reforms King violated the patriarchal state of society. Nobility, borrowing foreign customs, more and more vidryvalosya from NIH, which did not change touched. In the first quarter XVIII Art. population country split into two socio-cultural group that was in the spirit of the processes that occurred in Europe under the influence of the Enlightenment: smaller (ruling) neglect national interests and focused on Europe, most retained allegiance Moscow's traditional antiquity.
Mechanical revenues cultural stereotypes Activities few adverse consequences for the Russian national culture, which was revived only in the nineteenth century.
6. Age of the Palace coups
In January 1725 Peter died, leaving no legitimate heir to the throne. This gave rise to series of coup. Generally the second quarter of XVIII century. frequently called the Palace era of coups and board favorites.
King Innovation have not yet zakorenytysya. This resulted in a sharp struggle between the new nobles, who gained a title dedicated service to the king and descendants of the boyars, princesAsі soughtи restore former influence and restrict the power of this king. The main executors of coups Guard became part of the noble(Semenivs'kyi shelves and Transfiguration). All these upheavals have not changed assessor traditional life of the population (farmers, townspeople and others.), which suffered from increasing taxes and harassment.
After the death of Peter Prince Oleg Menshikov and others close to the king with the support of Guard planted wife of the late emperor's throne Catherine And (1725-1727 biennium). At what he Menshikov became the actual ruler. But the struggle for power developed. For reconciliation of different groups of nobility created the Supreme Council's secret, which limited the power of the empress. The appearance of this organ system crashed Administration, created by Peter I, picked because of the power in the Senate and gave them "verhovnykam. Catherine And almost all cases gave the Supreme secret council. In the first six months of 1726 she never attended its meetings - which is not found in the empress of time: daily banquets during her directorship lasted until 5 o'clock in the morning, most of the invited "Pryhoschalasya" to the point that she could not stand on his feet.
Death of Catherine I led to a new phase of struggle. Ancestral nobility domahalosya climbing throne grandson of Peter I - Peter II(1727-1730 biennium). It is immediately reflected on the fate of A. Menshikov: it was arrested, expropriated and deported to Siberia. But 15-year old king ill with smallpox and died. Supreme Privy Council after lengthy discussions niece gave the throne of Peter I - Anna Ivanovna (1730-1740 biennium).
Fig. Peter II
Figure in history
Anna was the daughter of John - his brother Peter I. Becoming the Duke of Courland wife, almost immediately widowed. Being unable to state activity, it Duchy of donated nobleman E. Bironu. Its cherishedth dream was to return to Russia and the fate unexpectedly gave her this opportunity.
Figures Supreme Privy Council, seeking to restrict the power of the empress, with invitation sent to the throne to Anna Ivanovna sensitive conditions (the "quality requirements"). Only after Anna signed them, she was allowed to take the throne. However, before the reign of Anne's question about restrictions autocratic power of the king became a subject for discussion among nobility. Modern researchers have found at least seven projects that were alternatives "condition." All of these projects did not include any fundamental changes in society and the nobility did not conflict with the desire autocratic power of the king. Ulovyvshy these moodsEntering the throne, Anne I. publicly expressed outrage "condition" and broke the document. Its Supports Guard, and members of the board was announced by state and criminals subsequently exiled to Siberia.
Having to power Anna addresses the need of the gentry. Was abolished by the Supreme Privy Council. Number Senate was given to 21 persons, but they are not elected, as required noble projects. Life-time was limited to 25 years. To nobles immediately attacked the service of officers, was established aristocratic cadet building (school). There have been allowed to crumble noble estates between heirs.
Together with Anna moved to Russia Courland and her court. State authority was given Bironovi. Most married queen of entertainment. Court costs have increased у 6 times.
Decade of Anna was named "Bironovschyna, named for the queen's favorite. Biron, who officially never held any public office, actually concentrated in the hands of all domestic and foreign policy. His board seen mass arrests and torture, bribery and embezzlement.
At the same time there came to Russia many foreigners (Mainly from the Baltic German)That began to oust the Russians from the state apparatus and shamelessly plundered the country. In last year of Anna Ivanovna, appointed his successor John Antonovich (John V, 1740—1741 years), son of his niece Anne Leopoldivny. However, the baby, which of kind of had a few months, soon belonged royal throne. At the time of his Board fell short during the most zealous power struggle, sacrifice which was the greatness of Biron.
Preponderance of foreigners caused the rise of patriotic Russian nobility, which has proclaimed Empress daughter of Peter Elizabeth(1741-1761 biennium).
7. Reign of Elizabeth
After joining Elizabeth to the throne of sovereignty of the monarchy finally stabilized. Empress proclaimed allegiance to the precepts of Peter, which contributed to its popularity.
Fig. Elizabeth I
Elizabeth was shuttered and intelligent woman. Too liked nice clothes - in her wardrobe saved 15 thousand gowns, two boxes of silk stockings, a few thousand pairs shoes. Another weakness was balls, fireworks, carnivals and other entertainment. On the start of it not quite care of state affairs, but with time became serious about his duties. This field has proved reasonable and wise governess.
The first years of its government gave rise to thoughts about the limitations of the monarch absolute power. Count II Shuvalov even drafted pereustroyu government.
Elizabeth fell in love with a court singer, come from the Ukrainian Cossacks AG Razumovsky, which secretly obvinchalasya. Becoming her favorite, he show much kindness and wealth positions, and received the title count title General-field marshal, though the day did not serve in the army. His brother Cyril in 18 years of age became president of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences, and later - Hetman Ukraine. He was intelligent and humane man.
Over 20 years Elizabeth's reign had restored the leading role of the Senate, the city authorities Government - magistrates, made even under Peter the Great, short of Foreigners at court officials.
A significant event was the abolition of internal customs borders in the years 1753-1754, giving significant incentive to trade. Fees gathered only from foreign trade. This step accepted with pleasure merchants who returned thanks to the Empress, giving her big diamond on gold plates and a considerable amount of money.
Simultaneously Elizabeth made a number of measures aimed at strengthening the position nobility. Thus, landowners were allowed to collect per capita, farmers sell their for delivery in recruits. In 1760 he issued a decree that allow landowners without intervention of the authorities and court deport peasants to Siberia. Interestingly, throughout Elizabeth's reign in Russia were not implemented any death, she promised that by accepting the throne.
Svitchennyam strengthen Russian state began its seven-year victory in the war (1756-1763 biennium). Participation in the seven-year war has revealed Rosu as an important factor of European politics. In the military power of Russia has no doubted. Also, Russia prevented rapacious desire of Prussia.
His Elizabeth did succeed Karl-Ulrich Peter, grandson of Peter I and Charles XII. He ruled the Russian Empire under the name Peter III (1761-1762 biennium). Rather fond of military drill and music (bad fiddled). These were his passion a desire to be caught by his idol King of Prussia Friedrich II. Peter IV ruled all 186 days and showed complete indifference to domestic affairs. This sokratylysya his entourage, that office was abolished and the responsibility to bring subjects each other. There have been published decree on religious conversion lands to the state, weakened the persecution of Old Believers. The most important was Manifesto for freedom of the nobility, which abolished compulsory for nobles service. Peter III was removed from power after the last in XVIII Art. the Palace coup.
Fig. Peter III
Events June 28, 1762 complete the "era of the Palace coups. Dvirtsi coups (1725-1762) was a logical step in strengthening of absolutism in Russia. They had certain social consequences. As a result revolutions have changed the situation of the nobility, the expansion of its rights and privileges.
Documents. Facts. Comments
Peter about themselves and their actions
"... Saw (to Neplyuyeva II), I and the king, but I have calluses on their hands, and all of that: to show you an example and at least in old age to see decent aides and servants homeland.
... This sovereign (Abraham Lincoln) is my predecessor and role model, I always imagined it a model rule in civil and military affairs, but has not yet managed to make so much like him. Only gudgeon, that unknown circumstances of his time, the properties of its people and the greatness of his work, called his tormentor.
... I know that I feel ill sovereign and tyrant. Mistaken in that those who do not know all the circumstances. God known heart and my conscience, how much sympathy I have for many subjects and I wish good homeland.
... Ignorance, obstinacy, cunning I have always opposed since the various benefits in the state to implement puritanism and I decided to change. They are tyrants, not me. Decent, hardworking, humble, intelligent children and exalt Homeland awards I and disobedient and bad fixes of necessity. Let the wrath of man brings me to slander - my conscience is clear. God is my judge. "
1. As are statements describing the king?
2. What is your personal attitude to Peter?
1.Describe internal and external situation of the Moscow State late XVII century.
2.Tell Top of the Board Peter I.
3.Define conditions of internal transformation in the Muscovite state.
4.Expand reason Northern War. Tell us about it and start training.
5.As deployed military action after the Battle of Poltava?
6.Using additional literature, make a comparative historical portrait of Tsar Peter I and Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa.
7.Fold Table "Northern War 1700-1721 he was" under the scheme:
Reasons for War
The course of war
Results and consequences of war
8.What are the reform of public administration was conducted by Peter and?
9.Find out the consequences of reforming activity for Peter further development of Russia.
10.Find out the reasons series of coups in the Palace Russia XVIII century.
11.Tell me Dvirtsi coups took place. What role was played in the coup Guard?
12.Describe Board of Empress Elizabeth.
Note the dates:
1700-1721 biennium - Great Northern War.
July 27 1709 - Battle of Poltava.
1721 - Proclamation of Russian Empire.
1756-1763 biennium - Seven-year war.