§ 24. The Age of Enlightenment
1.What were basic ideas of humanists?
2.What processes in the life of the church took place on the eve of the Enlightenment?
1. Home Enlightenment
In the second half XVII. among educated people was confirmed desire to find a reasonable explanation of all phenomena of nature and human life. In their study, they have not were based on religion. For human reason recognized ability to end explore and explain the world. Ideology, according to which the means of knowledge and the criterion of truth is the mind of man, not divine revelation and experience called rationalistic.
Domination rationalism in the minds of educated people gave a powerful impetus to the acquisition knowledge. Science XVII. have not yet had a narrow specialization: scientists are not divided into mathematicians, physicists, philosophers, etc. They worked simultaneously in many areas. They were formulated new principles of scientific research, science knowledge gained from the experiment and spoke the language of mathematical formulas.
Popularity Science increased so that in England have created a special partnership under the guidance of the very King and the French government initiative - the Academy of Sciences. Support was provided scientific publication.
Growth authority of science is increasingly convinced in the power of the human mind. In XVIII century. belief in the mind of a dominant: people believed to be around just listen to it. Mind, thought was they must develop for using mental exercises, learning science and art. This will help man change the world around us, make it reasonable and fair. Enlightenment became known as the spread mind. A considerable number of educated people was convinced that the Enlightenment will lead humanity to happiness. The main umonastroyem society was encouraging. People believe in progress in that history is moving towards a better, growing from unjust system to a just society. Man of the XVIII century. As Never in the past, considered himself the master of its own destiny.
Homeland Enlightenment was England, where capitalist development has stimulated the progress of science and knowledge. Famous english thinkers scientists Isaac Newton, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, along with of Dutch Benedict (Baruch) Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz German laid the foundations ideas of the Enlightenment.
2. Human Nature and the natural right
The Age of Enlightenment reaffirmed in people's minds the notion of "natural law". Illuminator thought that all men are by nature endowed with natural rights, including the right to life freedom and equality. From this it appeared that all existing in the society differences (between rich and poor, rulers and ruled, nobles and ordinary people) were not established by God, and most people, in view of this they had to change the things themselves created.
Intention to change State and Society in the Age of Enlightenment did not look as an encroachment on world order, but as a legitimate human right. Society was considered fair only provided that it fulfilled the natural human rights. According educators to make people happy, first of all they should provide natural rights, using open mind. Illuminator in the implementation their ideas pinned hopes on the monarchs, who had set a "reasonable" order in countries supported by the natural law.
An example of transcribing in the ideas of Enlightenment reform were "enlightened monarchs - King of Prussia Frederick II, the Austrian emperor Maria Theresa and her son Joseph II, Russian Empress Catherine II (in the first period of her reign) and others.
3. Enlightenment and the church
By Religion church educators usually treated indifferently, or even hostile. Theological their problems are no longer interested. They thought that was worldcreation or deistic (God created the world and later no longer interfere in human history), or atheistic (complete denial of the existence of God).
The response of the church these new attitudes was the belief that should dominate that of the faith, rather than formal rules of the church. However, the church could no longer adequately respond to the criticism of the Enlightenment, for religious exaltation XVII. fail.
With the fall authority of the church of its wealth and privileges are subject to harassment by state. Open secular schools. Pope Рymskomu even had to disband the Jesuit order (subsequently renewed it). In most countries stopped the Inquisition courts.
The Age of Enlightenment gave a strong impetus to education. Yes, King of Prussia, Frederick II and the Austrian Emperor Joseph II introduced in their country elementary education. France during the XVIII century. number of illiterates has decreased from 79 to 63% of the population. However, despite significant progress in education, added to the Enlightenment social division in society culture and education. A small part educated people sometimes could not communicate with the rest of the population. Thus, Enlightenment ideas covered only a small of the population, mostly educated. Illuminator arrogant thought Only true knowledge, learned science, their own minds, not those that based on tradition and folk wisdom. People's beliefs were considered prejudice, and national life - a manifestation of backwardness and zashkarublosti.
The philosopher Denis Diderot (1713-1784) saw his task do modern knowledge as possible available to all. The idea was to conclude an overall picture of knowledge that have accumulated in the middle of the Europeans XVIII., Combine them in a special dictionary. Such attempts have taken place and before, but they did not have such scope. The publication was called "Encyclopedia". Organizers conceived D. Diderot and Jean D`Alamberu (1717-1783) managed to put to work all great philosophers and writers of the time: Volder, Montesquieu Holbah, Rousseau et al. But most of "encyclopedias" was written by less famous people but no less enlightened. So where Zhokur wrote 17 000 articles.
In the introduction, to write Dr.`Alamber said that the reader has to think independently and seek truth.
Publication supported the royal favorite Pompadour Marquis, that facilitated the publication of exit to bypass censorship in 1751 However, in 1759 issue "Encyclopedia" was forbidden. Existing volumes were withdrawn and nyschylysya. However, the publication continued to go underground. Despite all the efforts Police, the way it has done so and there was Plundered. In 1782 came out in 1922 articles and 13 volumes of illustrations and tables.
This extensive work has had a huge impact on the then society.
6. Public opinion. Masons
In an era Enlightenment, a new weighty force in society - Public opinion. It has significant influence on government policy that limited the discretion of the monarch, and proved a powerful weapon in the hands of those who could manage it. Instrument through which public opinion is formed, there were rumors of the newspaper.
Wednesday expression Public views are secular salons. XVIII century. was a century cabin hurtuvaly fans of art, scientists, writers, artists. In the salons was done talking about science, philosophy and politics. You learn about the news wove intrigue. Organizers of the salons were nobles or rich person. In some salons exist clear rules of conduct. Illuminator regularly visited salons, a large share of their works written in the form of conversations.
In salons, emerging literary, philosophical, scientific societies and clubs. They asked task is to influence public opinion and promote progress education. These groups and companies played a role similar to that of current political parties. Feature clubs and societies was that in society, a split formed the privileges they united people regardless of origin.
Masonry (Freemasonry) its objectives and nature of the activity seemed to Philosophical Society. But, unlike companies, it was secret fraternity, closed to the uninformed. Mason translated from French - "Mason, freemason - freemason. The first Masonic lodge (so called Masonic organizations) in the XVIII century. founded the English educator who borrowed names and ceremonies medieval guild of stone.
Freemasonry was fashionable, even influential stream. By lodges joined those who sought to change existing unjust world. They preached freedom and brotherhood of all people, spread ideas of the Enlightenment, not avoided charity. Members Masonic lodges were many famous people of that time (Voltaire, Goethe, Mozart and etc.)..
7. Theatres, concerts, exhibitions
Earlier theaters were mostly court, theaters, open to the public, acting only in London and Paris. In the XVIII century. they open even in small European cities. Comedy Jean-Baptiste Poklena (Moli
Changed and the role music. Previously, she was assigned to escort service, court holidays, performances, and in the XVIII century. sounded alone. Harpsichord, piano, violin, Flute concert became instruments. Composers and performers find themselves in focus of the secular public, their kings and princes were invited. Y.-S. Bach, J. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven healed world fame as a composer and performers.
Accessible to general public was painting. Were held an exhibition of paintings, which then discussed in the salons and the press. Paintings Nicolas Poussin, Jacques-Louis David enjoyed the greatest popularity.
8. Baroque, Classicism, Rococo, Neoclassicism
In the second half XVIII century. in most European countries - Italy, Spain, German states, Poland and others. - The dominant artistic style more remained Baroque. But in France utverdzhuvavsya new style - classicism. Arts Classicism get into the ancient samples. Playwrights wrote plays on subjects from Greek and Roman mythology and history. Artists represented in their paintings of ancient gods and heroes. Architects followed triangular pediments colonnade and ancient temples. Unlike the masters of Baroque writers and artists Classicism in his work consciously sought to follow established rules beautiful. Classicists have developed a theory of what should be the work art, as it should write poetry, plays, draw pictures. Classicists believed that a work of art must be great, clear, rigorous, clear comply with the rules. No extremes, crude, false, nonexistent.
Appearing in France, classicism has spread to other European countries.
Plays are written in This style had a logical and understandable plot and language. At the heart of the play always was an idea that plays over and showed the osvichuvalasya from all sides. Events depicted in the play, always held in one place in one day. No secondary story lines are not permitted.
In literature and art classical hierarchy of genres there. The tragedy was higher than the comedy. Heroes tragedies could speak only elevated language.
Founder French classical tragedy was Pierre Kornel (1606-1684). He wrote plays and works of art theory. Fate heroes of his plays was closely associated with political struggle. Plot rozhortavsya against the backdrop of historical events. His plays Kornel tried to prove the necessity consolidation of absolute monarchy. But Jean Racine (1639-1699) devoted his play world of human feelings. Although Comedy in classicism, as we just noted, was considered less genre, famous comedians Jean-Baptiste Poklen (Moliere; 1622-1673) succeeded his works prove otherwise. His Comedy remain popular to this day.
Artist Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) believed that story work of art must be noble, majestic and sublime, and composition - a logical and simple.
Worldwide prominent example of classical art was the residence of French kings in Versailles. Over its creation worked best architects, artists, gardeners.
In the first half XVIII century. spread a new style - Rococo(Decorative motifs as shells). This style is especially evident in decorative and applied arts. He is peculiar intimacy and comfort. Wizards Rococo create subtle way, in an environment where man and nice to live comfortably. This style is characterized by richness of decoration and sophistication unusual forms. Especially popular was all unusual, especially Chinese painting, Chinese pavilions in the parks.
In the second half XVIII century. again returned to capture ancient classical forms. This style called NeoclassicismIe new classicism. New seizure was the result of archaeological excavations of Roman Pompeii and Herculaneum Bridge who died from the eruption of Vesuvius.
The severity of building Roman bridge inspired architects XVIII century. the idea that the city should built on the simple and sensible plan. An example of this architecture is the ensemble the square of Louis XV (now the Concorde Square) in Paris.
Artists neoclassicists believed that art should educate and ennoble man. They searched hero, ready to exploit and worth emulating.
The new style brought with itself and changes in clothing: curvy women dress the previous century, took the light, similar to ancient Greek tunic.
9. The ideas of the Enlightenment in the literature
All large educators skillfully owned pen. Their works are read and admired them, their discussed. Most educators, especially French (Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau), their views sought to convey to people through a literary work.
Daniel Defoe (1661—1731), Jonathan Swift (1667—1745), Pierre-Augustin Beaumarchais (1732—1799), Friedrich Schiller (1759—1805), Johann Wolfgang Goethe- (1749-1832) ... Through their creativity, you can trace the whole evolution of the ideas of the Enlightenment in the literature - From the emergence of a new positive hero, who acts according to his mind (Robinson Crusoe of Defoe's novel) to Goethe's Faust.
Defoe affirmed in literature of the new positive hero, who reached the diligence and understanding everything. Another English writer J. Swift in his novel "Gulliver's Travels tried show the shortcomings of Enlightenment ideas. Heroes Beaumarchais and Schiller - ordinary people who their hard work, intelligence, humanity protystavlyalysya aristocrats. These authors ideas of natural rights. Goethe's own literary works tried educate people courageous, strong and kind, able to challenge existing unjust system.
The most famous representative of the German Enlightenment was Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), son of fine craftsman. All my life, unlike other educators, he lived off-site in Konigsberg (now Kaliningrad). It was educated, became a university professor and later rector. Kant lectured on philosophy, philology, geography, law, mathematics, physics and other Science. He developed the concept of the origin of the solar system giant nebula, which until now remains one of the key scientific ideas astronomy. He also holds the idea of law. But the main problem that worried it was connected with human capabilities to know the world.
Kant came to conclusion that a person can acquire knowledge only a limited number of surrounding things. Beside them, there are "things in themselves, that they know impossible, because it is impossible to prove their existence, and vice versa. It follows that know the world is not the end. In this way the thinker criticized the idea of about the boundless power of human reason.
11. Feeling against reason
In the second half XVIII Art. was growing discontent dry rationalism philosophy and neoclassical art, which rejected the sensual knowing the world. People like to dream, worry, think before questions. There were novels and poems that are chanted feelings, dreams and dreams, night landscapes, ruins of ancient castles and so on.
So in the literature and Art was born a new trend - sentimentalism(From France. Sentiment - feeling). Novels of Samuel Richardson, Porsensa Stern Jean-Jacques Rousseau aroused considerable interest in the secular public. Originated in England Gothic novel with fantastic subjects, describing the horrific crime, ghosts, magic, horror.
Changing tastes reflected in landscape architecture. In fashion includes romantic corners of "Wild" nature.
In secular Society became popular mysticism, magic - everything can not be explained and supernatural. Shocked the French public research Mesmera physician, research which formed the basis for the study of hypnosis.
Fashion on the supernatural created the conditions for prosperity and rogue adventurers. These were people who purporting to yasnovydtsiv able to rotate the spirits transform any metal into gold. They argued that the elixir of youth and Philosopher's Stone. They believed they took in a higher world. One of the most famous adventurers was Giuseppe Balsamo, known as Cagliostro.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. From the article Immanuel Kant's "Answer Q: What is Enlightenment "
"Enlightenment - a man with a output of his tutelage in which it is their own fault. Juvenile is inability to use their minds without outside guidance. Juvenile fault of their own - that is, whose cause is not lack understanding and lack of determination and courage to use it without foreign leadership. May the courage to use your wits! - This was the motto of the Enlightenment ...
If you ask whether we live now enlightened century, then the answer is: No, but we live in a century Enlightenment. Yet many do not have enough to make people in those conditions formed in general, were already able to or could be capable of safely and well use their own minds without outside interference. However, there are clear signs that for them the way to improve this, obstacles to path to enlightenment, or emerging from adolescence, in which humanity is their own fault, it becomes less and less. In this respect our age is century Enlightenment, or the age of Frederick.
What Kant calls the "Enlightenment" and "the age of Enlightenment?
2. From the work of John Locke's "Two treatises on Board
On the origin of political societies
"Because people, as already mentioned, of course free, equal and independent, no one can be deduced from this state and more subdued political power without his personal consent. The only way when someone abandons its natural freedom and man takes over bonds civil society - is an agreement with others to merge into society in order to comfortably well and live together peacefully, freely using their property and being safer than someone who not a member of society ...
When a number of people so agree to a community or state, they have merged this and is the only political body in which the majority has the right to act and decide for the others ... "
On the purpose of political society and board
"... Great and the main purpose of integration people in the state and transfer them yourself the power of government is to maintain their property ... "
On the scope of legislative power
"... These are the limits that their credentials, data society and the law of God and nature have set for the legislature any State, for all forms of government.
First ... should be one law for rich and poor, for the favorite at court and peasant for the plow.
Second, these laws should not be administered nor for any other purpose and only for good people.
Thirdly, they should not raise Property taxes on people without the consent of the people, this by itself or through its Representatives ...
Fourth, the legislature should not and can not transfer it to anyone, except those entrusted to its people. "
1. What were John Locke's views on the origin of the state?
2. What is the goal, According to Locke, a state?
3.Describe the state, Locke described.
1.Why XVIII Art. called Enlightenment? What are its characteristics?
2.What is natural rights of man?
3.Why England became the homeland of the Enlightenment?
4.What were Relations between church and state in the XVIII century. and why?
5.What impact Enlightenment ideas had on the development of education and science?
6.What is public opinion? How does it affect human behavior?
7.Why have secular stores, clubs, Masonic lodges? What is their purpose? How are they influence on public opinion?
8.How can explain the emergence during XVII - XVIII century. baroque, classical, rococo, Neoclassicism? Which of the following styles are similar to each other?
9.What are the main features of classicism? Which of the following styles are most relevant ideas Enlightenment?
10.Why end of the XVIII century. Enlightenment ideas into crisis? Try to find out their main weaknesses.
11.What was the significance of the Enlightenment in European history?