Subject VIII. TIMES Enlightenment
§ 23. Life Europeans in the second half XVII – XVIII Art.
1.What features Europeans living XVI-XVII centuries. you remember?
2.What's new manifested in the lives of Europeans in the XVI-XVII centuries.?
1. Population of Europe
In XVII-XVIII centuries., as before, the population grew. At the beginning of the XVII century. it amounted to 95 million souls at the beginning of XVIII century. - 130 million, and the early nineteenth century. - 190 million in various countries, population growth was unevenly. For example, in England for almost 150 years it increased to 1 million (30%), while in Prussia - from 1 million to 5,5 million
The vast majority people still lived in villages. But with each decade of steadily growing number of citizens: trade, construction, manufacturing manufactury, service the needs of urban residents - all it needed workers. Agricultural transformation, especially in England, drove villagers to towns in search of better fate.
Number of urban residents in England and Prussia reached a quarter of the population. The largest cities in Europe XVIII century. were London (675 thousand inhabitants) and Paris (600 thousand).
2. The life of Europeans in the second half XVII-XVIII centuries.
Despite all change history, human life lasted, people marry, give birth and raised children. In XVII-XVIII centuries. Men marriage is usually taken at age 25-29 years. Was a normal marriage with calculation, since most families were not love unions and management. Low level of production would not allow young families to gain ground quickly, because of this marriage was only when we had farm. Families were mostly large, large. Survived an average of 7.5 children.
In the XVIII century. was important changes in family planning. During the Middle Ages of children procreate as much as God sent. From the number of children and dependent status women. Now the number of children in the family determined the possibilities of their fathers nurture and educate. But this dominant tendency became later.
Total Although life expectancy has increased, but not much. Only a quarter of the population reached 50 years of age. Life expectancy depended on social origin.
As in previous century, plague, typhus, cholera, measles took a large part of life population. Contributed to the spread of epidemics War antysanitariya, overcrowding and irregularity cities.
However, some terminal illness aside: rabies has disappeared, which cited the fear of the Middle Ages; syphilis epidemic has lost character; last plague in Western Europe occurred in 1720
The epidemic of attempted fight: the patients were isolated, clothes burned. In houses conducted disinfection, Provided quarantine. Began organizing cities that were centers diseases. When to prevent epidemics of Paris city government has organized cleaning streets, in honor of this event made up songs, even two vidkarbuvaly commemorative coins. In the second half of XVIII century. Police banned the cast dung on the streets of Paris.
Life as in cities and in rural areas depended on the length of daylight. With the sunset of life and towns and villages faded. Buildings lit candles or oil lamps. Street lighting has appeared only in late XVII century.
3. Food, life, habits of Europeans
With the development of world trade on a table with the Europeans, new products and dishes. Changing food occurred not only in higher segments of society, but in the burghers, peasants. Yes, the potato became the "second of bread in the diet inhabitants of towns and villages.
Most receptive to new food products were well-off segments of society. Sugar, coffee, tea, chocolate became a symbol of Enlightenment. In coffee shops, shops for a cup of coffee, tea or chocolate discussed reasoning to solve political problems.
The custom of drinking coffee afternoon borrowed from Turkey. Fashion Coffee started at court French King Louis XIV. The first coffee house was arranged like Turkish or Egyptian.
In addition to new food was imported to Europe tobacco. Smoking started as ritual. Rather spread smelling tobacco. Of all the Colonial goods was the most expensive tea - he brought from India and China.
Spread Colonial products has caused acute controversy. Some attributed the new products enormous medicinal properties, while others argued that the use of them harmless, and even ban their import demand. A lot opponents were in coffee, chocolate and tobacco. Yes, the chocolate lie, that he burns the blood and through him are born black children.
Thus, in the XVIII century., by inventing Christian Huygens, watches have become commonplace (Pocket). The wide spread mirror, umbrellas, china.
Excellent Chinese china getting to Europe was still medieval, but it was very expensive. Development of stable relations with China after the great geographical discoveries opened wide access porcelain to Europe. Europeans repeatedly attempted to establish manufacturing porcelain in Europe, but they ended unsuccessfully - the product quality significantly inferior to the Chinese. On beginning of the XVIII century. in Saxony alchemist invented a method of Bother porcelain, not worse than the Chinese. In 1710, a new direction in Mayseni launched the first European porcelain manufactory to produce. Subsequently, such factory appeared in other European cities.
Growth welfare, hygiene and the dissemination of ideas of individualism has led to final approval, at first among the ruling class, custom eat and drink individual dishes, not hands, and using table sets (Knife, fork).
Were formed, the rules of decent behavior. It was believed soromitskym undress in the presence of outsiders, yawn at all pascheku, itch, spit and blow one's nose to the floor.
In the wardrobe Europeans appeared nightgowns, robes, underwear, handkerchief.
And indeed, most people (villagers) lived by tradition. Thus, social stratification posylyuvalosya population because of the difference in the life, customs and attitudes of a other. Ruling strata of society were considered noble, unlike "Muzhvy.
4. Agriculture, manufactories, trade
The vast majority population was employed in agriculture (80%). People's lives as still depended on the mercies of nature, climate change, bad harvests and yields. In XVIII century. in agriculture have been significant changes: the main one - increase its marketability, production for sale. Changes were ahrotehnitsi negligible. In Eastern Europe, gaining strength large estates (Filvarky) based dependent on the labor of peasants (serfs). In Western Europe, dominated by economic coercive methods of peasants (rent, tax money, the employment of mercenaries).
In XVII-XVIII centuries. the leading form of commodity production were craft guilds and scattered Manufactory. At the same time increasing the number of centralized manufactories. At the end of XVIII century. began to equip their machines. With the development of manufactury of the urban population grew. Increased and farmers involved in commodity-money relations.
Age of opening gave a powerful impetus to the development of trade, which grew steadily and in XVIII century. Trade has become an important factor in foreign and economic policy States. War of output and control of trade routes and markets for markets and sources of raw materials have become familiar (North, seven years old, Anglo-Dutch). In order to protect its own industry and trade from foreign competition, governments resorted to a policy of mercantilism.
The largest gains provided the colonial trade, especially - the sale of slaves. Export of slaves from Africa has reached such proportions that it negatively affected the demographic African condition, and a significant percentage of the population of Latin America and southern United States became Negro.
These common features had features of each country in Europe. In the XVIII century. to lead England came out of European development, which gradually turned into the main carrier, merchant, and eventually to "shop the world".
Documents. Facts. Comments
From the book by M. Karamzin "Russian Letters traveler "
"... Once we went out into the street, I had to pinch the nose of the stench: canals here are filled all uncleanness. Why would they not clean? Is there no sense of smell in the Berliners? - D. took me through Lipova famous street, which is really lovely. Planted to the middle of the alley foot and the sides - paving. Do you live cleaner here, or lime kill impurity in the air - only on this street I did not feel any unpleasant smell. Houses are not as high as some in St. Petersburg, but very good. In the paths which reach a thousand or more steps, walking a lot of people. "
What new changes life of the inhabitants of Berlin Karamzin noticed? What these changes were caused?
1.What brought to changes in the social structure of the population?
2.What demographic changes have occurred in Europe in the second half of XVII-XVIII centuries.?
3.What helped extinction of epidemics of plague and syphilis in the second half of XVIII century.?
4.Tell about living in one of the cities of Europe in the XVIII century.
5.What changes occurred in food and daily life of Europeans?
6.That led to the emergence of rules of decent behavior?
7.What changes occurred in agricultural development?
8.Describe mercantilist policies. What it was called and what are its consequences?