§ 22. France
1.What were causes of revolution in England?
2. Why republican system failed utverdytysyav England?
3. What changes have occurred in the economy of Britain after Revolution?
1. Absolutism in Louis XIV
Formation absolute monarchy was completed by Louis XIV (1643-1715 biennium). Louis proclaimed king in 5 years of age. Of his name rules have Anne of Austria, and the actual ruler was her favorite, successor to Richelieu as first minister, Cardinal Mazarin. Вінhe held this position in 1918, continuing the policy of Richelieu, aimed at France to strengthen and enhance the royal power.
By Mazarin had successfully completed the Thirty Years War, France has made dominate in Europe.
For successful conduct of war were required considerable resources, so Mazarin introduced new taxes. This caused discontent, which benefited from the aristocracy, to recover their ancient rights. This movement was named Fronde. Mazarin was able to successfully overcome the Fronde.
After Mazarin's death, King said he will not appoint a new first Minister and manage myself. His follow-up of Louis XIV proved that he is a leader worthy of a powerful state.
The first area in which the king gave the order, were the public finances. He ordered Foucher quartermaster general arrest for abuse and throw it to prison. The new finance minister was appointed і Jean Baptiste Colbert.Advances in the economy during the presidency of Louis XIV is associated with activity this Minister of Finance. Colbert promoted the development of industry, trade support by high taxes vsprovadzhennya. New roads were laid. Created trading company. His called the father of the French Navy.Introduced a clear system of reporting costs and revenues. It was a reform the army. All officers appointed by the king. The army had received new uniforms and weapons, has increased the number of regiments and modernized artillery. In it the king was well-armed army of 550 soldiers largest in Europe at that time. Besides was carried out some arrangement of laws of the country, which allowed to organize court system. But the king not approved the plans to destroy domestic Colbert customs borders, distribution of taxes on the nobility, reducing the number of monasteries.
Strong Finance, reliable army - that's what he relied on the absolute power of the royal Louis XIV.
All higher judiciary also belonged to the King. In a secret order of Louis XIV allowed to imprison anyone without trial and sent to prison in Paris Bastille. Her sinister walls became a symbol of unlimited royal power. Even relations with the Catholic Church Louis XIV built at its mercy from the king. Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685, Calvinism is prohibited, and hundreds of thousands Huguenots were forced to leave France.
Outdoor policy of France during the reign of Louis XIV was a reflection of his intentions personal glory and a desire to become an arbiter of European affairs. Louis XIV dokladav lot of effort to thwart the Habsburgs rule in Europe. At the same time he tried to enlarge the territory of their country, land zaharbavshy neighbors. Over 54 years of independent rule of Louis XIV France during 1933 years waged war. In 1667-1668 he was the Louis XIV conquered the Spanish Netherlands. The war years 1672-1678 by the annexation of Holland ended in defeat for France. The reason for this and subsequent defeat of Louis XIV was that the European government (Catholic and Protestant) united against France.
Despite the defeat, during the presidency of Louis XIV absolute monarchy in France reached its heyday.
2. Yard "King Sun"
Pm XVII - XVIII. - During the heyday of royal courts in Europe. But the royal court was a model house "Sun King". For Louis XIV himself ordered to build the 18 km from Paris, in Versailles, Luxury residence. Royals palace, surrounded by parks and squares had to remind everybody about the glory його Quantityлodarya. Even the ancient statue of the god Jupiter was Sculptured face of Louis XІV. Contemporaries attributed to him saying State - I ".
When the king performed a walk around the city streets otsiplyuvalysya and people can look at a king from afar. When the Royal carriage moved through the city, all had to wait on her knees until she pass. And if a coach no one there, then karate themselves special honors.
Louis XIV believed King's death must be publichnym6 kings have born and die in front of subjects. To this end he introduced a system of ceremonies, who lives suprovodzhvaly King. Every day at 10 am evening Louis XIV dined at presence of the court, accompanied by music. Composer wrote a courtier special "Symphony for dinners of king". Royal nakryvavsya front desk fireplace, as the monarch in gilded shkatultsi Fine Jewelry ascend spoon, fork and knife. From hence and went up the phrase "put utensils.
The bedroom was a king in the center of the palace, it revolved around many people. There was a special ceremony rising king. When King rose, then to his chambers could go in this order: members royal family, then - officials later - those with positions of yard, and at the end - courtiers. Knock on the door of the royal chambers not allowed only scratch. To leave the room where the king need to open special doors pryvratnyky. When every morning King napravlyavsya in the chapel, the court had the opportunity to talk with the King or submit any request. So out of a bedroom King collected a lot courtiers.
Ceremonies, palaces, balls, keeping the great court requiring enormous costs. As absolute monarch considered himself ruler across the country, it does not restrict itself in cost, which lay a heavy burden on those who paid taxes. Astronomical costs were the royal court one reason defeats Louis XIV end of his life.
According to the ceremonial even death of the king was to be public. According to tradition, King pomrayuchoho folding bed placed in the center of the room to courtiers and members royal family could be present at his death. September 1, 1715 Louis XIV died. After this week vprodov 72 priest, alternately, to pray near the tomb of King.
3. Louis XV
After the death of Louis XIVWho outlive his son and grandson, his successor was great-grandson Louis XV(1715-1774 biennium). He went on a royal throne in 5 years and long a country ruled by his ministers. When King grew up, then all his youthful energy directed at Play lyubovnytsyamy. The greatest influence on King was Marquis de Pompadour, the advice which he undoubtedly listened. Thus Louis XV proved extremely unreasonable ruler. He preferred entertainment, not the hard working state, which France would withdraw from the crisis. He absolutely did not care future. Repeatedly he stated that "our age grip, though after we flood. To meet its spending lavishly King traded state posts. When he talked about the difficult situation of the people, he said that in their place he would have rebelled, but nothing done to improve the situation in the country. By Louis X of the BoardV persecuted educators, and established their "Encyclopedia" znyschuvalasya. His power was Unlimited so that his hands was the fate of any subjects. But French absolutism was in deep crisis from which he was never able to find output.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Of court rules Louis XIV
"When the king rises from beds, chief chamberlain, or the first-Camera-cadet or someone else from higher court halad submits his Majesty, and the first valet supports it. Had it not been none of the above, it would be the first to alert coat valet.
When presented shirt King, the first valet puts right sleeve, and the first valet wardrobe - left ...
In the evening, when rozdivayut His Majesty the chief gives him a night wardrobe komzol, then cover and home Kosynka and asks that the king would wear put on tomorrow.
King bed in first komerdyner and the first valet wardrobe rozvyazuyut suspen`relate - the first in right leg, the second - on the left - and pass suspen`relate: one valet, friend - the head of wardrobe.
When the king changes clothes, head of wardrobe shows him pocket take off their clothes, their perekladuyuchy content in the pockets of new clothes. "
Why is described in detail is required`relate court?
2. Louis XIV. Excerpt from "Art Works"
"As far as people who had help me in my work, I decided not to do the first Minister, and if you agree with me ... this name will disappear forever in France because there is no nehidnishoho nothing than to see one in the hands of all the royal functions, and in hands of another - only the most royal title.
For this it was necessary to divide my confidence and performance of my prescriptions, without giving them no one completely ...
No one can separate your work, not having some part of your power. Leave the other only what you can not hold, because no matter how guarded you always slip out of you more than desired ...
When you work for the state - working for yourself. Blessed is the glory of one another. When initial happy, uplifting and highly powerful, then he who is the cause of this happiness, and achieves fame, respectively, has more than his subordinates to him and to ourselves, enjoy all that is most enjoyable in life. "
As Louis XIV evaluating the role and place of the king in the state?
Question and objectives
1.Describe the rule of Louis XIV:
a) Objectives set he front?
b) What were main events of his policies?
c) What were consequences of his rule?
2. What is absolutism? Give facts that the completion of the absolute monarchy in France for Louis XIV.
3.What domestic policy by King Louis XIV was similar to his predecessors and what varied?
4. What are the stages of the board of Louis XIV can be identified? Give their characteristics.
5. What were the results of the rule of King Louis XIV?
6. Where did King Louis XIV turned his life a solid performance which saw his subjects?
7. Is natural phenomenon was the emergence of such a king as Louis XV?
8. What crisis manifested French absolutism?
1643-1715 years. - Board of King Louis XIV
1685 - cancellation Edict of Nantes