Theme VII. CRISIS OF THE OLD, HOME MODERNIZATION
§ 20. English Revolution of the second half XVII.
1. What is manufactory?
2. What is fencing and for what purpose it has been prepared?
3.What role in life of England played a parliament?
4.When there was Puritanism? What were the main views of puritans?
1. Socio-economic development of England before the revolution
Early XVII. England have dominated feudal relations, however, and formed new capitalist. One manifestation of this process were the creation manufactury production, trade, the rise of cities, the spread of agricultural commodity production.
First half XVII. marked growth of manufactory, especially weaving. Main their weight was in the countryside and had no guild regulations. Looms were located in buildings of small landowners. In certain time came to their estates buyer who, giving raw order and did for pay away the finished products. This form manufactory, as mentioned, called fragmented.
England was main supplier of raw white fabric on the European market. The main consumers of these tissues were the Dutch, who possessed the secret of sustainable staining.
Significant development reached the coal. In the middle of XVII century. England provided 80% European coal (about 3 million tons).
Rosli trade. For the first 1940 XVII. its volume has doubled. The main role played trading companies, which enjoyed a monopoly on trade in particular region. The largest was the East India Company.
In agriculture developed economy trends, established back in the XVI century. Landlord (Large landowners) continued fencing for sheep or breeding same as the tenant used the rent (tax). As a landlord, and tenant hired workers. These processes indicative of further involvement agriculture in market relations. Such processes were inherent in mainly the South and Midlands. In the north, preserved feudal forms of exploitation: rent in kind (servage) and vidrobitok (boon).
The shift in economy reflected in the social structure of British society. Although it remained feudal in form of a complex system Inequality of rights and obligations`NMUIn behavior, customs, way of some classes walks of life underwent significant changes. So, among landowners vyokremylosya new aristocracy, which unlike the old actively cycling economy: bred sheep, not tsuralosya trade and manufacturing.
Increased rapidly layer due to fencing laborers that he led a new nobility. Hired workers found the factory work in mines ports on cargo ships.
2. Political preconditions Revolution
In 1603 ended nearly a half-century reign of Queen Elizabeth. England for him became one of the strongest states in Europe.
By Elizabeth no other close relatives bequeathed the throne of her son executed Mary Stewart - James. In England dynasty reigned Stewart. They sought to establish absolute monarchy in the country, following the example of Louis XVI in France. His royal authority was seen as given by God's grace, so any attempt limit regarded as an encroachment on her. The ancient right of Parliament considered concessions by monarchs, and that they can take back.
Political controversy had a religious connotation. Sharp fighting was between the Protestant parties, the official Anglican Church and Catholic sympathies Stewart.
James I(1603-1625 biennium) its policies, both internal and external, caused discontent of most citizens. Becoming the side of the Church of England, he made a crackdown on puritans (Protestants) and Catholics on. Recently, in turn, have organized against it "powder plot" (namiryalysya blow up air parliament where there was King), but failed. Against James and Scots were also perturbed by the introduction of the Anglican church. King threw challenge and the Parliament - Standing violations of constitutional legality, Recovery of illegitimate taxes, foreign policy aimed at supporting Catholic countries.
Fig. James I
After James And throne by his son Charlemagne(1625-1649 biennium), which was the best personal qualities of his father, but continued his policies.
Charlemagne needed funds to continue the wars against Spain and France. During the first three years of his He called the board three times and rozpuskav parliament: the first gave him a small amount, the second general refused, and the third was ready to provide funds if the King will sign the "Petition of Rights, which confirmed all and restore the obtained British rights, namely:
King was not entitled collect taxes without the consent of Parliament;
could anyone to expose the death penalty without the consent of Parliament;
must not create extraordinary courts;
had no right arrange military outposts and more.
By signing this document, Charlemagne, however, was not going to implement it. Once allocated funds, he ignored the conditions of the contract for 11 years and never called Parliament. To cover his expenses he extended to the whole of England Ship Tax (shield money) - the obligation to keep the coast fleet. For suppression of dissatisfied was increased activity of emergency courts (supreme Commission, star chamber ").
Since England started Mass emigration to North America. Concerned about this Charles I forbade it under threat of cruel punishment.
The impetus for public speech against the king was an attempt to impose Anglican Scotland church. The first church service in Edinburgh was interrupted by believers, and in some time (1637) Scots were to arms to defend their own church (Presbyterian). King decided to suppress this speech power. The war came protracted. Resources Charles I quickly used to the end and he had 1640 convene parliament to get consent to collect new taxes. This parliament went into history as long as its members King achieved an agreement that will not disperse until themselves deem it necessary.
Parliament put King number of requirements which Charles I had to do. Emergency courts and Ship tax was abolished. King pledged to convene the parliament is not less than three years. It also rejected the Crown in right of Leading army, which set out to suppress the rebellion in Ireland, fearing that these troops were used against the parliament.
Parliamentarians achieved imprisonment and death of Archbishop LOSA most influential advisor of King Count Stafford.
3. Start the revolution. Civic war
In January 1642 Charlemagne was left London and went on north, where it was most supporters. August 22, 1642 , the king declared war on Parliament. The country erupted into civil war.
Military Kings consisted of nobles (knights) and supporters of the Church of England. Parliamentary army (which was called the "roundhead" in the form of hair) consisted mainly of puritans and supporters of Parliament.
At first army Parliament suffered defeats, but thanks to determined action Oliver Cromwell, Who headed it, the situation changed.
Fig. Oliver Cromwell
The figure in the history of
O. Cromwell was dribnopomisnym nobleman and belonged to the sect Independent (independent), which advocated the complete independence of church and state, and politically defended a republican form of government. He scored the fact that Parliament is sharply opposed the king. When launched civil War, Cromwell, with the consent of parliament on their own expense dressed two cavalry shelves, which dobyrav people with persistent religious beliefs (Independent). The sample disciplined, brave, dedicated leader, combined common religious and political beliefs, Cromwell's armies launched new parliamentary army. This army was called the army "new model", its soldiers as "zaliznobokymy.
Reformed Cromwell army inflicted defeats the royal troops in the Battle of Morton-Moorea (1644) and Nesbi (1645). Having lost all support, Carl fled to the Scotland, but Scottish parliament of King sold for 400 thousand pounds.
After imprisonment King parliament passed a series of laws. The whole land was declared private property of its owners (except farmers), trade and industry groups societies have achieved full freedom of establishment and destruction monopolies; earth king, his supporters and the church was sold or given to soldiers as payment for service.
Cromwell, being booster republican ideals, played a crucial role in the fate King. Parliament was inclined to keep the royal power, of Cromwell committed his troops came to London and removed from Parliament supporters of the monarchy. Over time, a court which sentenced King to death. January 30, 1649 Charles I was beheaded. Then in Parliament House of Lords was abolished, England proclaimed a republic. Legislative power transferred to the Long Parliament, the executive - the State Council. But the actual Cromwell became ruler of the country.
Fig. English revolution
4. Of England
After the death of King and the proclamation of the republic to power in the country came Independent. Being fanatically believing, they started building state according to their interpretation of Scripture as they understood it.
The state, in their opinion, be based on the same terms as the community of believers, ie the idea of social contract which provided for mutual recognition of rights and obligations team members or citizens.
In addition, The Independent did not tolerate any other interpretation of Scripture and therefore immediately launched reprisals against other religious sects. The most affected dyhery ("Real urivnyuvachi") that rozoryuvaly heath, believing that they can not be proprietary, and thus are common. Dyhery believed that in society all have to work on joint good, led by elected supervisors. The state should not be money, but the sale should be punished to the throat.
Cromwell, of course, did not share the views dyheriv. He was firmly convinced that private ownership is an inalienable right of every person and property set equality - is violation of British traditions.
Another sect - levelery (Urivnyuvachi), led by John Lilbernom, argued: since everyone is equal before God, it should be for all set equal. With this statement followed their requirements: establishment of universal suffrage for men, the elimination chamber Lords, the abolition of "rotten towns (cities, which historically have the right send their deputies to parliament, but later declined) and others. Urivnyuvachi people declared source of power. Levelery his time played a decisive role in death penalty reform in the King and Parliament. But they suffered persecution and persecution.
Victory in Civil War, O. Cromwell with a dedicated army made punitive hiking in Scotland, which recognized their king Charles II, son of the executed Charles I. The next victim was Ireland, where Catholics helped King in the fight against the parliament. Hiking in Scotland and Ireland significantly different from the dynastic wars of the Middle Ages. They introduced a future English colonial empire.
Important for colonial expansion and naval superiority was issued in 1651 Navigation Act, under which all goods are received in England, could only be carried by English ships or ships from the manufacturer. This act, against the Dutch, who were intermediary trade led to war against Holland, the latter was defeated.
5. Cromwell's Protectorate
Since proclamation of the republic supreme power in the country belonged to balance Long Parliament, in which, after various "cleansing" only remaining Independent. Another important force in the state was the army that personally obedient O. Cromwell. It provided the bayonets of all contemporary reforms.
Long Board Long Parliament aroused indignation of the population, especially the army, which for considerable time received no pay, while deputies enriched by abuse in the sale of royal property. Army demanded new elections. Cromwell broke up the Long Parliament and called a convention (Constituent Assembly), which were Independent themselves only. This convention called the "Parliament of Saints" (through Humility deputies). "Saints" received a number of important reforms:
proclaim liberty conscience (faith);
have introduced election priests and laity abolished tithe;
decided to replace old (case-) justice system that relied on the laws of different times, new, based on a single trial ustavi (Code), adopted in 1653
Opposition to such reforms by the priests, lawyers, and army. O. Cromwell dissolved "Parliament of Saints". With the consent of the Army adopted a new constitution ("Tools Management ") of the Commission under the command of General Lambert. Approved December 16, 1653 State council, it passed all the power of Oliver Cromwell - Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. Cromwell concentrated in the hands of all executive, got the right to approve Council of State and the right to collect taxes in amounts sufficient to maintenance of the army. Then, in the hands of Cromwell appeared more power than King on the eve of the revolution.
Legislative authority for constitution was passed unicameral parliament, consisting of MPs from the major cities.
Adoption constitution in 1653 testified that people were dissatisfied as a monarchy, and the republic.
Parliament, elected under the new constitution, expressed defiance of Cromwell. Parliamentarians demanded freedom faiths and political activities. Cromwell, agreeing with the first demand categorically rejected the second. After all, he dissolved the parliament, the country peredilyv 14 military districts in which the full power delivered appointed him general. Proponents of the King was lined with special tax. Celebrating Easter and Whitsun was banned as Sunday entertainment, sporting events. The main classes defined by work and prayer.
So protectorate Cromwell was the military-religious dictatorship. This dictatorship rested on authority of power, Puritan ideas about life and success in Cromwell foreign policy.
Yes, English Army captured the city of Dunkirk in Belgium, that occupied by Spain. The English fleet captured the island of Jamaica and defeated Spanish fleet at Canary Islands, opening the way to the English trade in the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas. "The keys to the continent - said of Cromwell, - hang it Belt.
6. Restoration stewards
In 1658 Cromwell died, leaving his successor son, Richard. However, the latter does not managed to hold on to power long. Unlike his father, he had neither political or military talent, and most importantly - support the Army and Parliament. It quickly turned into a puppet generals, and eventually was forced to abandon the title of the tread. Under this happened more than once changing governments.
Commerce and Industry and aristocratic classes, concerned about possible public appearances, decided to son was executed by invite King - Charles II. Commander of the British army in Scotland, General Monk, reaching agreement on Carl II who lived in Holland, invited him to the throne. In 1660 in England was made a political restoration - restored Dynasty Stewart.
Charles II was handsome, talented and intelligent, but favored entertainment and pleasure. Royal authority considered as absolute.
First King ordered to commit publicly massacre assassins father. The remains of O. Cromwell was dug from the grave, burned, ashes charged in gun and shot. It was Board restored the Church of England, a small proportion of land returned former owners. However, to rule a country, as before, was already impossible. Parliament, which sat representatives of the bourgeoisie and new nobility, strictly stood on the protection of their rights by setting zhostkyy control over finances, of activity. Any Member of Parliament, acknowledged by the King right of pardon was proclaimed a traitor and infringing the rights and privileges Parliament.
Formation of Political Parties. Parliament strictly followed so that the king had not issued any laws. Forthcoming Parliament formed two political parties: Tories and Whigs. Tori marked adherence to the royal authority, defended inviolability of the royal rights of existing orders. Whigs in all disputes and defending the parliament supported the reform economy, state government, church.
Both parties were active in the fight against the king of parliament. Especially the fight exacerbated in 1679 when the parliamentary opposition (Whigs) was to require deprivation of rights to the throne of the king's younger brother the Duke of York, as he was Catholic. However, Charles II went to concessions to the opposition and dissolved Parliament. Opposition leader was executed. Despite such drastic action, King was unable to establish absolute power and break the back of Parliament.
7. James II. Declaration on tolerance
In February, 1685 Charles II died. The new king was Jacob II. He continued his predecessor's policy of absolute recovery power. Support the fight against the parliament he hoped to find overseas particularly in the French King Louis XIV. Being a fanatical Catholic, he appointed by their fellow believers in public office after the adoption of the Declaration on tolerance, dissolved parliament and began to rule alone. Resented British and foreign policy profrantsuzka King.
Because of this policy King found themselves in opposition as Tories and Whigs. They are united in the struggle for legislative rights of Parliament. Parliamentarians secretly invited to the English Dutch throne ruler William Orange.
Fig. William of Orange
8. S famous revolution
Spring 1688 William landed at the English coast and moved with his army to London. The people met him with joy. James fled to France. So England held in the Palace coup that titled the "glorious revolution". She completed a long struggle and Parliament King. In England, established a parliamentary monarchy.
During the introduction of MPs have handed the throne William III of the Declaration of Rights (Bill of Rights) which was outlined the rights and duties of the legislative (Parliament) and executive (the king and his ministers) of power. Declaration forbade King legislate, collect taxes from the people, convene the army without the consent of the Parliament. It was emphasized that people have the right to remove unworthy King and in its place to plant the next and change the order of succession.
In the period of William III was laid existence of the fundamental principles of English political system. MPs pereobyralysya three years. King formed with representatives of the government party, which had a majority in parliament. So, the king was to rule the state through parliament. Competition for power games laid the basis for two-party system in England.
9. The value and impact of the revolution
English Revolution has become one of the greatest events in history XVII Art. She had a significant impact not only on the development of England, but also in the process of the whole of European civilization, the new time.
English revolution two separate Revolutions. As the first revolution, which historians call PuritanWas brought to an end reign of Charles I, who ruled England in fact as absolute monarch. England was proclaimed a republic in which a crucial role throughout its existence played by Oliver Cromwell. There was actually set up a dictatorship that relied on the strict Puritan ideals. After the death of O. Cromwell English want to restore the monarchy and the throne was the son of the executed King Charles Stewart II.
Second Revolution named the gloriousTook place peacefully, without bloodshed. The desire of King James II to restore absolutism and Catholicism in England prompted the British to find the new king. Their have chosen William of Orange - known throughout Europe fervently defender of Protestant ideals. Parliament declared William of Orange new king of England and took the famous Declaration of Rights (Bill of Rights). This document was one of the most important for the formation of a new European civilization. From this era of freedom, as European historians believe. The next step in this direction were done in a few months when Parliament passed the Act of tolerance, which established a, in addition to political and religious freedom.
Historic revolution is that following her in England vstanovyvsya new economic and social and political order. The economy has been destroyed everything that prevented the development of market relations and commodity production. After Revolution of the industrial revolution, due to which England into one of the most developed countries. It became known as "Workshop of the world." Industrial advantage over other countries allowed England take precedence and in trade. The British seized the sea trade routes, created a powerful empire with the huge colonies.
In political life established a constitutional monarchy in which power was limited to the King Parliament, which reflected the interests of various strata of British society.
Was enormous and international significance of the English Revolution. She made an impact on development different nations and continents. Under the influence of its ideals began fighting the North American colonies, which led to the formation of the United States.
Political Ideals English Revolution became a model for other countries of Europe: building on these ideals, they began to create programs for their own political revolutions.
The role played by the English Revolution XVII. development in Europe and the world, gives reason to consider it as event not only English but also world history.
Documents. Facts. Comments
a) From the prosecuting act against the king Charles I of England
Named Charles Stuart, King zrobyvshys England thus took charge duty to rule the country in compliance with its laws and not any other way, with this in mind it should was to use power that was, for the benefit and welfare of its people and to protect his rights and freedoms. However, due to criminal intentions set and keep their hands unlimited power for tyrannical governance, destroy the rights and freedoms of the people, to destroy and make obsolete all of these bases Human ... named Charles Stewart announced treacherous and criminal war against the current Parliament and the people ... Named Charles Stuart was inspired and reason that killed one thousand free people of our nation in many areas of our country as a result of invasions of other countries. All criminal plans and actions named Charles Stewart were conducted for his personal interests.
From the above it follows that the named Karl Stewart was and is the inspiration, the author and continue the brutal and bloody wars, and therefore he is responsible for all treasons, murders, robberies, fires, damages, and misery of our people that were taken during the above wars and were caused them.
b) Answer of Charles I to put forward accusation
There can be no legal proceedings against any person otherwise than on the basis of the social laws of God and country in which he lives. I am convinced that this process can not be justified by God's laws, or vice versa, conquering king very clearly defined the Old and New Testament ... With regard to the laws of our country, I believe that no associate scientist will claim that may be charged to the King for such charges can only go on his behalf, and one of the principles of law says that a king can not be wrong ... Even assuming, though not Agreeing with the fact that people England has authorized you to that power to you pretend I did not see anything that you could bring in proof of this. Because of course, you never asked such questions, even one-tenth of this Kingdom. You obviously are doing injustice to even the poorest to peasant, if not ask his consent ...
1.Compare both documents. Express your attitude to the arguments contained in them.
2.Give historical evaluation of death of the king.
1.Name main causes of the revolution mid XVII. in England. What are the main social strata were against the existing feudal order?
2.What domestic and foreign policies to guide the kings of the dynasty stewards?
3.What was push for an open confrontation between King and Parliament? Which groups Society supported the king, and which - Parliament in the Civil War?
4.Why Army Parliament initially suffered defeats and then began to win?
5.Describe O. Cromwell activity and evaluate his actions in the civil war.
6.What reforms were made by parliament after winning a civil war?
7.What role religion played in the events of the Civil War?
8.Which forces dostupylysya to power in England as a result of civil war? On what basis English republic was founded?
9.Find main ideas and leveleriv dyheriv.
10.Why O. Cromwell's protectorate is defined as a military dictatorship? Whose interests it protected?
11.Describe O. Cromwell's policies under the scheme:
a) internal politics;
b) foreign policy.
12.Fold historical portrait of Cromwell.
13.Find reasons for restoration Stewart.
14.Why was protectorate regime overthrown?
15.Which groups supported the restoration of the monarchy, and why?
16.What political parties were created in the parliament? Whose interests they protect? Why England formed two-party system?
17.What policies to guide the Stewart after the return of its power? Can you believe events of 1688-1689 he was the revolution?
18.Expand implications and significance of the English Revolution.
Note the dates:
1640 - Start Revolution in England.
1649 - The execution of King Charles I of England and the proclamation of a republic.
1653-1658 biennium - Cromwell's Protectorate.
1688 - S famous revolution, establishing a constitutional monarchy in England.