§ 19. Moscow State in XVII century.
1.What were Policy implications Ivan IV Grozny for Moscow State?
2.What were main features of birth of the monarchy in Western Europe?
3.What is autocracy? In whom it was made based?
1. Getting sad times
At the beginning of the XVI century. Moscow State swept severe crisis, which became known asTroublous times (1598-1613 biennium). Then Moscow State situated on the edge of death, and only through decisive action Russian people she stood.
After the death of John IV took the throne is simple, his son Fedor(1584-1598 biennium). He could not lead the country, and gradually all power concentrated in the hands of the boyar Boris Godunov, with her sister who was king Fedor married. Continuing the policy of Ivan IV, Godunov strictly dealt with the enemy his representatives Boyar nobility, while relying on the wider nobility.
The figure in the history of
Ambitious and clever politician, Boris Godunov for 10 years headed the government of Tsar Fedor. He achieved considerable success in strengthening the international authority of Moscow state. Godunov signed 15-year truce with Poland, forced the Crimean Khan conclude a peace agreement with Moscow. As a result of a successful war against Sweden Muscovy got out in the Baltic Sea. Founded in 1584 in the north, in the mouth of the Dvina Arkhangelsk city became a center of trade of the Moscow State with England and Holland. Diplomatic efforts are associated primarily with Godunov personality. He received a good education for his time, possessed several languages, had the best library in Moscow. His desire Muscovy was converted to a European state. But he never reached.
In 1591, with the unexplained circumstances in Uglich Moscow died heir of the throne last son of Ivan IV of Tsarevich Dmitry. According to official announcement at Tzarevich the game fell on the knife and zakolovsya. However shyrylysya rumors that he was killed by by order of Boris Godunov. In 1598 the king died, and Theodore. He had no descendants, and His passing ended a long dynasty of Rurik dynasty in the Muscovite state. Began the first period of sad times - age dynastic crisis (1598-1605 biennium). In history of any of the monarchy is a very dangerous time. With support nobility to reign in Zemsky Cathedral elected Boris Godunov (1598-1605 biennium). He supervised the development of handicrafts and Trade, launched the construction of new cities in the Volga region. However, it is fruitful activity went down to nothing, when during the famine of 1601-1603 he was the government does not able to change things for the better, although organized distribution of food to the hungry.
In those terrible three years people were eating tree bark, cats, dogs, thousands died. Villagers fleeing crowds from their masters. With runaway peasants formed bands of evil that robbed merchants and nobles. Peasant uprising began. All sides were heard accusations address Godunov, who died suddenly. Then Muscovy embraced the second phase of the crisis - social (1605-1609 biennium) Growing tensions in the society developed into a civil war between forces that sought to seize power in the state. Suddenly there was a person who declared himself saved from death the son of Ivan IV Dmitri. Since, According to the majority, he was an impostor, locked him name Lzhedmytriya I.
2. From Lzhedmytriya And the start of the Romanovs
Crop failures and famine beginning XVIII Art. in the minds of most Muscovy population connected with dynastic problems of the country considered God's crust for the murder of "the legitimate king. All this helped Lzhedmytriyu I. impostor victory was secured, in the words of Russian poet Pushkin, "popular opinion". supported him unhappy his peasants, Cossacks, commoners and nobles, which does not satisfy the Board Godunov.
Lzhedmitriy I relied on the assistance of Polish magnates who hoped through him expand its influence in Muscovy. Gathering in Ukraine 4000th Army, more part of which were Cossacks, he moved to Moscow. Thanks to the support Cossacks Lzhedmytriyu I fortunate to capture Moscow and sit on throne under the name of the king Dmitri Ivanovich.
The figure in the history of
I ruled lzhedmitriy almost a year (June 1605 - May 1606), being supported not only Poles, but also part of the Russian people. The first steps of the new king testified that he Muscovy intention to convert to the European manner. Under pain of death, he forbade to take bribes, and both increased salaries for civil servants. Every day, surprising everyone, took part in the Boyarka thoughts. Lzhedmitriy I cared about, to give people education urged boyars of the need to visit European countries and send their children study abroad. He said that Moscow should open university hosted debates between the Catholic and Orthodox clergy. Indeed, the was unusual for Moscow State man. What did he really was? Known that on the eve of his wedding kingdom lzhedmitriy I met with the mother Tsarevich Dmitry, and she recognized in him her son. Perhaps those who dropped Dmitri king, it was beneficial to depict ordinary impostor, who seized the throne.
Dissatisfied with the board new king of the boyars, led by Basil Shuya made conspiracy. Against the night on May 16, 1606 they secretly released from prison in Moscow criminal criminals and handed them a weapon. As riot Lzhedmytriya I was murdered.
In Zemsky Cathedral stead chose boyar Basil Shuya (1601-1610 biennium). However, he not only failed to stop civil war, and whose actions worsened the situation in the country. Dissatisfied Shuya policy Cossacks, peasants and nobles united around "Voivod Tsarevich Dmitri " John Bolotnykova,who went with detachments at Moscow. The rebels tried to capture the city, but failed. Shuya ruthlessly with them. Hundreds of rebels were drowned; Bolotnykova very first blinded and then utopyly.
Not yet finished Shuya fight against the rebels, as is Bryanschiny moon, which stated that he is king and Dmitri escaped miraculously from the plotters in Moscow. By was a new cheat, is unknown.
In January 1608 Lzhedmitriy II moved to Moscow. Moscow State was split: some territory recognized Basil Shuya, others - the impostor. Civil war between their supporters broke out with renewed vigor. Get Moscow lzhedmitriy II could not and arranged in Moscow village Tushino sort of second capital of the state. King Basil Shuya, realizing that he will not overcome the impostor, called to Muscovy Swedes. Polish King Sigismund III, who at the time fought against Sweden seen in the strengthening of the enemy and himself invaded Muscovy. In stock Sigismund III troops were 40 thousand Cossacks. In Moscow defeat Sigismund III of troops near Klushina and mastering his throne Cossacks played one of the leading roles.
After the defeat at Klushina group of boyars was a conspiracy against Basil Shuya and forced him give up power. By the time the country elected a new king was to rule Boyar duma of seven people, which people called "Semyboyarschynoyu. Still, for some boyars time decided it best "... hosudarychu (Vladislav, son of Sigismund III. - Auto.) serve rather than from their serf bytymy be. " They signed this agreement with Poles and they opened the gates of Moscow. Simultaneously with the seizure of Moscow Poles north of the country occupied by the Swedes. Before the Moscow State faced with threats loss of independence.
In the fight against interventionists rose people of Moscow State started the third period of crisis - nationalist (1610-1613 years). People's militia units created. The aim was to deliver militias Moscow from the Poles and the Orthodox restore the monarchy. The first joined most of the nobles and Cossacks, who supported the earlier Lzhedmytriya II. It happened murder because second pretender in 1610 and the collapse Tushynskiy troops. But before his militia did not solve the main tasks, attempts to deliver Moscow ended in defeat. In autumn 1611 at the initiative of the Provincial age K. Minin and Prince D. Pozharsky in Nizhniy Novgorod was founded second militia. In August of 1612 it came up to Moscow and, breaking the Polish resistance troops liberated in October 1612 the capital of the state from invaders.
Thus, at times sad fate of the Moscow State decided his decisive action in its people.
3. Start the Romanov dynasty
In January 1613 in Moscow, met a local church - the largest in recent years. Council immediately issued solution - no foreign candidates for the throne of Moscow not to vote.
Most candidate acceptable to all is a 16-year-old Mikhail Romanov, son Metropolitan Filaret Romanov.
Fig. Mikhail Romanov
Old aristocratic family of the Romanovs was a popular and suit many. The young age of the king provided his saintliness before God and non-participation in the events of Troubles. Romanovs Companions were young Tsar Ivan the Terrible and Boris Godunov in times were in too strong. Therefore, the Romanov family was unable to climb high during the Troubles. Finally, Filaret Romanov relations with tushyntsyamy and participate in negotiations with Wladyslaw gave hope to those who also participated in these cases that King does not punish them.
Under the election to the throne in February 1613 р. Mikhail Romanov (1613-1645 biennium) has no obligation to make decisions without the council, or duma Boyarka Zemsky Sobor. So Board started at the Moscow State Romanovs, which lasted more than 300 years.
Fig. The election of Mikhail Romanov to the throne
By new king of the territory of the Moscow State was finally liberated from interventionists. For peace Stolbovsky 1617 Sweden returned the Moscow State Novgorod, but retained all the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
In 1618 Vladislav, the prince again tried to start a war against Muscovy. In the village Deulini (near Trinity-Sergius Monastery near Moscow), where it stopped, it was armistice signed at 14.5 years. However, Poland abandoning claims to the throne that in 1610 boyar duma has signed with Poland on Vladislav election Ruthenian king. Moscow State gave Poland Smolensk and Chernigov-Sivershchyna.
During the Polish-Muscovite War in 1618 the Commonwealth has used, as before, the Ukrainian Cossacks. Petro Sahaidachny at the request of King of Poland led to the rescue Prince Wladyslaw, who caught a small army of spaces Muscovy 20000th army. In Moscow he broke Filled to the Muscovite forces. King yet once tried to stop the Cossacks, the boyars sent to meet them with all available forces. However, they barely noticed the Cossack army scattered.
Sahaidachny Vladislav united with the troops and began preparing for the assault on Moscow. But the time of the assault became known to the enemy. When it learned Sahaydachny, he ordered to stop preparing for the assault - for the long siege of a well-fortified Castle in the winter cold forces had Cossacks. There's another version of denial Sagaidachnogo of assault: he allegedly heard the bells of the Orthodox churches, wept and turned back. After signing the truce Deulinskoho they returned to Ukraine.
The system of Moscow's control in significant changes in the XVII century. not experienced. All important matters of public life were resolved in an order that there were over 80. They relied king in implementing the decisions discussed with Boyarka Duma (Advisory body of representatives of the king Boyar aristocracy) and zemstva Cathedrals (Birth-central general state representative bodies). Direct subordinate king was only one commandment - Secret affairs. It existed ... to the king's opinion and the right performed at his request, and the boyars and Dumnyi people about anything they did not know "- wrote a contemporary of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
Local governments Moscow State headed by magistrates appointed by the king of the nobility.
4. Formation of absolutism Tsar Alexis
In the second half XVII Art. in various spheres of political life of the Moscow State underwent changes that finally showed end of absolute monarchy in the form of autocracy. The very title of king "Grace of God Great Sovereign, the King and Grand Duke of All the Great and Little Russia czar "to emphasize the origin of royal power from God and its indefinite nature. King enjoyed this title Alexis (1645—1676 years).
Fig. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich
Figure in history
Alex M. - Michael Romanov, son - for his temper got the nickname "Tyshayshyy" (Pacific). He was a gifted man, he loved books. Tried to make myself poems, published a book about the Falcon's mind. In his palace on a full maintenance dwelling elders, cripples, beggars. Alexis was a good man. Every morning get up at 4 o'clock and prayed with short intervals to meet the queen and the boyars to 10 o'clock in the morning. The king was impulsive man, easily angry, but anger did not keep long. His negative feature was, perhaps, that it is easily exposed to outside influence (Eg, Patriarch Nikon). Do not know how many and did not wish to work was indecisive, but also extremely fond of power over people. In everyday life grandeur of imperial power stressed sheen, fabulous wealth of the royal apartments, the advent of special rituals - from taking messengers to the king's washing.
Legal fixing of absolutism were adopted in 1649 р. Sobornyj Code - Collection laws. His two chapters were specifically concerned with protecting the royal power and punishment for insulting the king.
Evidence absolutism was making and reduce the value of county councils. Provincial cathedral 1653That decided on accession of Ukraine to Russia, was the last cathedral, convened at full strength for years of Alexei Mikhailovich. Zemskov cathedrals were to concede Boyarsky Duma, where the growing role played nobles. Representatives of those states where opinion wanted to know Boyarskaya thought now only invited to the meetings.
5. Muscovy and Ukraine
The most important landmark reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was the decision Ukraine's accession to the Moscow State. In the middle XVII Art. Ukraine flame burned at the National War against the Commonwealth. During the war in liberated territory was created Ukrainian Cossack state "Army of Zaporozhye. Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky, who led it during the war nalahodzhuvav relations with neighboring states, sought assistance in dealing with the Commonwealth. Repeatedly contacted by the hetman to Muscovy, but in the state tsar was a lot of their problems. Her shaken popular uprising, not enough money for the king initiated the reorganization of the army. Alexis understood that assistance to Ukraine will mean war with the Commonwealth, of which 1634 by Moscow signed an agreement on "eternal peace". But gradually the idea of unification the two countries became increasingly a real. Zemsky Sobor, held on October 1 1653 in Moscow, decided to start a war against Poland and decided: "The army and Cossacks from the cities to take land under its sovereign high hand. A few days later to sign the agreement with Moscow to Ukraine has left embassy led by boyar Basil Buturlin.
8 January 1654 Pereyaslav held in council, on which most participants their attitude to the alliance with Moscow has expressed: "The liberty under the king of the east, Orthodox. Then Buturlin Brussels gave the royal charter of Ukraine during the taking of "monarch" hand with a promise to defend it from enemies. Ukrainian went to this agreement with sincere belief that Ukraine will remain in the conquered Liberation War statehood.
However, as subsequent events showed, by signing the agreement, each party invested in it your content: Moscow king believed that Ukraine is becoming dependent on it, Ukrainian is counting on broad state autonomy close to independence. The main purpose of the war with Poland, which began after these developments, Moscow State was to return land lost in the troublous times. In Ukraine was sent only auxiliary forces, while the main army led by king of summer 1654 began the siege of Smolensk, it took two months.
Because War with Poland Moscow State returned the land captured by the Poles in the period Troubles. However, Ukraine Andrusiv truce in 1667 was a disaster: it been dismembering the Commonwealth and Muscovy. The war started by the Muscovite tsar supposedly in the name of liberation Orthodox Ukrainian people, ended section of Ukraine.
6. Reform of the Nikon. Church split
In sad times authority of the church significantly reduced. Most clergy understood the need reform of church life, but among the shepherds of the church was no unity. The debate about faith and rituals are a prerequisite for church split.
In 1652 a new was elected Patriarch Nikon, personal friend of the king. Nikon launched Reform of the Moscow church. The need for this reform was associated with that by attaching Ukraine, Moscow king in the future expected unite under his authority all the other Orthodox nations of Eastern Europe and Balkans. To create such an empire needed a religious unity. But Moscow ceremonies differed significantly from widespread throughout the Orthodox world. Nikon concluded that the Moscow church should learn from more Kiev and educated Greek monk.
By order Patriarch began to correct worship book for the original Greek, and later made changes in the ceremonies. Knowing the difference with the Moscow ceremony Greek, Nikon firmly sided with the Greeks and their sole decision ordered all believers baptized three fingers (instead of two, as in Muscovy), because so the Greeks were baptized. It also reduced the ordinances of baptism and penance, restricted icons, written not in the Byzantine and Western European in style.
Nikon performed change in a hurry, despotic, immediately demanded that all out of the old ceremonies. Staromoskovski ordinances patriarch was a taunt, forgetting tact and respect, and it is even more offended supporters of the old traditions.
Many Moscow clerics opposed innovations. Those who supported the old rites, Habakkuk led by archpriest. His supporters formed the "staroobryadskyy" direction in Orthodox Church. By Archpriest Habakkuk calls thousands of people fleeing to forests, formed there staroobryadski community to live in the old faith.
Meanwhile, in midst of the struggle, Patriarch Nikon began to make what caused increasingly displeasure of the king: put forward a claim to a higher spiritual power, which had a secular subject, ordered to call himself "the great sovereign, and in the decisions Boyarka thoughts began to appear as follows: "The Patriarch pointed, boyars and sentenced. Agree with this overbearing, Alexis could not. King began an exhausting struggle with the patriarch. Eight years it took Alexei Mikhailovich to deprive the rank of Patriarch Nikon. In 1666, with the decision of the Council of Churches in attended and eastern patriarchs, Nikon sent to a simple monk Ferapontov monastery. The main advocate of church reform was declared king, and all opponents of reform was anathematized and cast on the court. In 1682, after years of suffering, the leader of "Old Believers" Archpriest Habakkuk burned at the stake.
As a result of fighting that unfolded between secular and spiritual authority in the second half XVII. at Moscow State kingship preserved and reaffirmed its absolute character.
Uprising led by Stepan Razin. All these changes occurred against the backdrop of a dramatic struggle between different sectors of the population Moscow State. To clean up the country in 1649 was taken Conversations Articles. Almost a thousand articles of this collection of laws regulating all areas of public life. F finally turned the peasants to serfs allowed villagers to seek permanent runaway and return their owners. But peace have brought new laws. In the second half XVII. in Moscow state became the largest in its history of uprisings of peasants and townspeople.
Converted to serfs peasants fled to the Don to the Cossacks. Don Cossacks were free people, bearing the Border Service. The Government of Moscow State tried not to interfere with them. Usually the times of Don give a fugitive. It started here most in the history of the Moscow State XVII. rebellion (1667-1671 years), which was called the "revolt Stenky Razin.
Stepan Razin (1630-1671) was average height, broad, brave, but cruel. Among friends enjoyed respect. Under the leadership of S. Razin in the 1662-1663 biennium Cossacks participated in the campaign against the Turks and Crimean Tatars. Trip was very successful, Don Cossacks returned with rich spoils of war and prisoners, before praising all of their chieftain. In 1665 the king's governor Prince Yuri Dolgoruky Razin hung older brother - John by unwarranted departure from the Don Cossacks during the war against the Commonwealth. This event, and attempting to royal power Cossacks away in their old freedom, contributed to rebel by S. Razin character began fighting against imperial authority.
Fig. Stepan Razin
In May, 1667 Stepan Razin, despite the request of the king "to stop theft, moved in another predatory campaign. Detachment razintsiv merchant robbed on the Volga caravan and released prisoners who went with him. Instead, the tsarist government sent a large army headed by the palatine I. Prozorovskogo. Razintsi managed avoid clashes with government troops captured the fortress laik, where perezymuvaly. Then Stepan Razin to join a large number of people heard about his bravery and luck. With new large army chieftain in 1668-1669 he made a successful raid on the Iranian shah possession.
In August 1669 Razin fleet with many trophies back to Astrakhan. To Astrakhan Prozorovskogo governor allowed him to return to the Don Ataman shytruvav - admitted their guilt, and gave part of the captured guns and prisoners.
In May, 1670 Razin called for a new campaign - this time to dismiss the common people of Boyar captivity. By order of the commander spread "pryvadlyvi letters" in which He stated that the fight against treacherous boyars for great ruler. Together with razinskym army sailed two ships: one covered with red velvet, was unknown, who pretended to be the king's son, on the other, covered with black velvet, carried the effigy that symbolizes the Patriarch Nikon. Yes Razin tried to law for his actions, stressing that goes on Moscow to restore justice.
Collected in the Don 7000th troops in spring 1670 he moved into the new campaign. The rebels took the city, killed the boyars, did the trial of royal officials and introduced Cossack System. Revolt covered a vast territory, but the plan further action Razin, of course, did not. Perhaps he thought that after install Cossack government victory, like Don ... Meanwhile, the tsarist government gathered a large army.
Decisive Battle razintsiv against government troops occurred in October 1670 under Symbirs'kyi. Insurgents have been broken, and wounded himself Razin. S. Razin back on Don, to raise a new army. All enemies that happened on his way angry defeat chieftain ordered to burn alive.
During Symbirs'kyi Government troops have committed a brutal massacre of the rebels. The whole coast was covered with a gallows on which hung the 6 thousand vidchayduhiv. Executions took place in other cities. Only three months Arzamas was executed 11 thousand rebels.
At Don collect S. Razin new army could not. Cossack officers April 14, 1671 caught commander and his brother and gave them government forces. Stephen bound him in chains and carried on the cart under the gallows to Moscow. June 4, 1671 Razin delivered to Moscow, where after two days of torture it was strategyChengо.
Rise and lasted S. Razin after death, but gradually waned. Name Razin was even forbidden to remember, the church imposed on him anathema (curse). However, in memory of the people in songs and tales about rebellious chieftain memory preserved.
7. CultureMoscow Stateи
In the XVI century. in Arts Moscow State finished and began during the Middle Ages formation of a new culture.
In 50-ies XVI century. in Moscow in the house of one of the leaders "chosen council" was created the first printing. The name of the printer of these books is unknown, but it is proved that the book seven titles out there printing from 1553 to 1565 Of course, these books are not enough. So in the early 60's created a new state printing, led by Ivan Fedorov (F.) and Peter Mstyslavets. September 11 1564 they just released the first dated printed book Moscow "Apostle". A year later the book "Chasovnyk. Both books were Church and religious sense, but, despite this activity caused printers discontent, and especially in the church, which held publishing unholy matter. Fedorov and P. Mstyslavets were forced to leave Moscow. After the departure of typography pioneer not stopped, and for the first half of the XVII century. in the Muscovite state was issued more than 200 titles mostly church content. The appearance of printed books has promoted education and scientific knowledge.
In the XVII century. attempts to create in the Moscow state institute of higher education permanent institution. In Moscow in 1687 was opened school in which scientists take the Greeks Lihudy, graduates of the University of Padua in Italy, taught some secular science (arithmetic, rhetoric, etc.).. Subsequently, based on the school was created Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy. In its three classes of about 200 people studied Greek and Latin language, grammar, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, theology in preparation for the spiritual and civil service. In the academy, including educated scholar Mikhail Lomonosov.
In Muscovy in XVI-XVII centuries. spread the ideals of the European Renaissance is acquired. In art evolved traditional styles, though they appeared and some new features.
Prior XVI century. The Moscow Kremlin has lost value and military fortress became a symbol of royal absolutism, the center of Moscow State. Moscow architect Bazhen Ogurtsov with an English master brought Spassky Kremlin tower in its current form. The tower became the front entrance, it set clock chimes that reflect every hour.
Peak architecture that had, for the idea of John IV, uslavyty power of Muscovy, was Michael Church in Moscow on Red SquareErected to commemorate the victory over Kazan Khanate. The Cathedral, known as Basil's house, consisted of nine separate churches, linked by internal transitions. None of these temples tower does not repeat each other, but also creates a unit with others. Ivan IV, according to legend, "Thanked" the masters that blinded them to the temple not built even better ...
Spared vision then, mercy and now the church of the Ascension in the village of Kolomenskoye of Moscow, built in "Hip" style. 60-meter stone temple tent flies like white towers over high bank of the Moskva River, with its unsurpassed beauty potverdzhuyuchy greatness God's grace.
In painting dominant icon in the tradition of past centuries. Still, the Saints began lykam Rice to living people - compassion, sorrow.
New phenomenon was writing "Parsuna - portraits. The most famous portraits of the time the author was painter Simon Ushakov.
The main trend development of painting at the Moscow State XVII. was his "obmyrscheniye - acquisition of secular character, although the church remained the dominant influence.
Documents. Facts. Comments
Description of government Muscovy scientist encyclopedist Oleariyem Adam, who visited her in the 1634-1636 biennium
"As the Russian state system, it is like defining policy, monarchy and arbitrary rule. " Sovereign, which is a great king or prince, who inherited the crown, one directs all country, and all his subjects, as nobles and princes, and commoners, and commoners farmers, is his serf and slaves, which he treats as a host to their servants ...
Nobles shall, without any shame besides that they ... put names in a reduced form, call themselves the servants and suffer from slavish attitude ...".
1.What features of government Muscovy said Oleariy?
2.What Muscovite polity differed from Western countries?
1.Tell about this sad time at the Moscow State.
2. Fold Table "troublous times in the Muscovite state" under the scheme:
3. Tell the beginning of the Romanov dynasty.
4. Point facts that confirm the absolute nature of the government of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.
5. What is the essence of church reform and the split in the middle of XVII century.?
6. Tell the mutiny led by S. Razin plan:
a) causes insurrection;
b) course insurrection;
c) the reasons for the defeat.
7. What is your personal attitude to the rebel leader S. Razin?
1598-1613 biennium - Troublous times.
1613 - The election of Michael Romanov tsar; pochatokdynastiyi Romanov in Moscow state.
1667-1671 biennium - Rise, headed by S. Razin.