§ 16. Development Education and Science in Europe
1. As developing scientific knowledge in the Middle Ages?
2. What should have been promote scientific knowledge in new times?
The development of scientific knowledge XVІ—XVIAnd art. played a great role in the formation of a new society in European countries.XVIAnd st.stalochasom, kolybulozrobleno crucial steps in the knowledge of rights and laws of the universe, which laid the foundations new natural. During the XVII century. true true scientific revolution that ultimately changed the picture of the medieval world.
1. The development of medicine and mathematics
Considerable progress was achieved in the development of anatomy. Began to be carried out systematic anatomical section, which made it possible to create new theories about the nature of human body and to invent new treatments for diseases. Italian medic Andreas Vezaliy (1514-1564) issued in 1543 was a major work on the structure of the human body. " Notwithstanding persecution of religious and secular authorities, led Vezaliy human autopsies cadavers, studying human anatomy. After the appearance of his work by scholars has follow Inquisition. It took the false denunciation showdown in living human and sentenced to a pilgrimage to Palestine, during which his ship crashed. Academic stranded on a desert shore, where he died of starvation. However, his name remain forever in the history of medicine, as the person who ruined age prejudices about the building of the human body and created modern anatomy.
Spanish scientist Miguel Servet (1511-1553) opened circulation of man. With courage and independence of scientific views in his mind was burned in Geneva, by order of Jean Calvin.
Circulation Rights was confirmed during anatomical studies Vezaliya and English physician and anatomist William Harvey (1578-1657) completed a study of this feature by creating a theory of human blood. Harveya considered one of the most educated people of his time, his discoveries were a true revolution in medicine. Later, Harvey began investigating how nascent human life. The essence of his experiments he concluded in the statement: "All lives - from the egg. Medical luminaries of the time Europe did not take his discoveries and began to persecute and ridicule a gifted scholar, but he did not seemed. Contemporaries understood and recognized its merits only at the end of his life.
Italian Girolamo Frakastoro (1480-1553) explored ways of spread of infection and determine what remedies are necessary for fight against infectious diseases. Amateur Scientist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) invented the microscope, which allowed him to make many important discoveries. Most of them were made in 1674 , when he first explored and proved the existence of microbes. In the drop of water Leeuwenhoek opened a whole new world.
As a result of these discoveries was laid foundations for a new natural science.
At the end of XVI century. developed almost all areas of mathematics. Gotten a modern look algebra. French mathematician Francois Viyyet (1540-1603) initiated a code and laid the foundations of general theory of equations, so is considered the founder of a new algebra. Another French mathematician and philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650), setting the relationship between theory and equations geometry, has opened a new discipline - analytic geometry. Basics of his theory he outlined in the work of "Considerations on the method. New methods of calculation infinitely small velechyn invited professor of the University of Bologna Cavalieri (1591-1647) in the work "Geometry indivisible." In developing this method also played a significant role Johannes Kepler and Rene Descartes, who made his term variable magnitude.
2. Development of Astronomy
Rapid development Shipping in new times promoted the formation of scientific astronomy. It is in Astronomy was a discovery which caused a devastating blow the old system views on the structure of the universe. Under this system, based on the views Aristotle and Ptolemy, situated in the center of the world unshakable ground around which revolving moon, sun and stars.
Man, that his scientific conclusions from astronomical studies proved false old theory, was a Polish scientist Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543). As a result of research, he concluded that the Earth together with the other planets revolve around the Sun and around its own axis, and created a heliocentric (Sun with the center) system. He outlined his views in the famous work "On the rotation of celestial bodies. Copernicus created his work over 40 years, realizing that it would cause the reaction was afraid to print. The book was published the day of death and accompanied by careful scientist foreword by the publisher in which he presented the theory presented in the book as interesting hypothesis. Work on the rotation of celestial bodies was sentenced Catholic Church and from 1616 until 1822 mentioned in the Index of books forbidden.
Next, with huge step in the study of the universe made Italian Giordano Bruno (1548-1600). Unlike Copernicus, which center Sun believed the universe, Bruno explained the idea of infinity of the universe in which There are many worlds Separate from the sun. By spreading these views he was arrested, spent 8 years in prison, but never renounced his views. In a court of inquisition he was accused of heresy and burned at the stake. All works of J. Bruno has been introduced to the Index of books forbidden, where they were the last edition in 1948 In place of death of the scientist in Rome 1889 was a monument with the inscription: "He zdiynyav vote for freedom of thought for all peoples and for this freedom went to die. "
Italian scientists Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) did telescope with an increase of 32 times and started with the help of regular research. He convinced the starry infinity of space, opened on the mountain Moon, spots on the Sun and satellites around Jupiter. All this is confirmed allegiance to theories of the Copernicus and J. Bruno. In 1632 he published work "Dialogues of the two most famous of the world - Ptolemeyevu and Copernican" which gave conclusive evidence of fidelity to the theory of Copernicus. In this book the church arranged for the trial of 70 year old astronomer. After five months of humiliation and interrogation Galileo signed a confession. Legend has it that after he exclaimed: "A Yet it turns. " By the end of his life was under G. Galilei supervision of the Inquisition, he was forbidden to write and publish his work. In recent years of his life he made important discoveries in physics - was opened by modern laws mechanics.
Only 80-90's Twentieth century. Catholic Church acknowledged that the condemnation of scientists was false, and agreed with their views on the structure of the universe.
The value of discoveries made in XVI-XVII centuries. astronomers, is that they created a scientific theory vtoruvaly structure of the universe and the path to discovering new laws of nature.
3. Demonomaniya. Astrology
Grand opening took place on the background to the unprecedented fears of manifestations of acts of the devil. Various prejudices in XVI-XVII centuries. were stronger than any evidence. People believed in it so that real hunt began for those with he dwelt. Everything that could explain the thought and deed hand koduniv witch. This category recorded nearly half of humanity. Faith Healer considered anyone who has anything stood out among the rest - from the mentally ill to bright personalities. Distavalosya especially women, were deemed "vessels devil." Any old woman could run against accusations that it was a witch. Across Europe spalyuvalasya incredible amount of witch. As a Catholic, and reform churches were a real war against witches and witch. Usually the motives of this struggle were different - from fear to use.
Such human fears and fueled the then science. There were plenty of "scientific" works, which "proved" in an example of acts of the devil. Thoroughly described signs Koldun and witches were given prescriptions for combating and dealing with them. The most common such "scientific" work was "Demonomaniya" Bodin.
У XVI Art. are ordering and uzalnennya works the other "science" of astrology. From`is a series of papers, reading them zahoplyualysya educated Europeans. Desire look to the future, predict it at a time when everything was changed and peace and stability, astrologers made very prominent figures. No a European ruler who would not be kept at a certain astrologer. Every action is consistent or ruler checked astrologer. The best known astrologer of that time was M. Nostradamus, whose works are now on leave alone people who currently see a confirmation of his predictions.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. From the book M. Copernicus on the rotation of celestial bodies "
"Compared with the sky The earth is not over point, or if a certain number compared with the infinite. Unable to Earth was the center of the universe. How! Immeasurable pivots 24 hours around worthlessness?
Given the enormous distance celestial bodies, it is difficult to imagine that they could undertake such immense range within 24 hours. And then: why should the boundless universe rotate infinitesimal around the Earth? "
What is essence of the Copernicus theory?
2. Extract from the sentence of Galileo Cardinals
"Because you, Galileo, was charged on this court that consider spreading the truth and lies in the people the doctrine of that the sun is at the center of the world still, and earth moving on the axis daily rotation, that you had many disciples, who taught this doctrine. Finally, a world of your work, a letter to one of your previous student, where you, following the nonsense, Copernicus developed some provisions that conflict common sense and the Scriptures. So, wanting to protect people from harm and temptations that come out of your conduct and threatening the purity of faith .. scientists, theologians decided:
1. The situation that the sun - the center of the universe is Real are thought absurd, philosophically false and utterly heretical, because it is contrary to Scripture.
2. The situation that the Earth not the center of the universe and is not fixed, is the opinion meaningless, philosophically wrong and under theological point of view contradicts the spirit of faith ... "
For that and thereof of evidence on church condemned Galileo?
1. Describe the most significant discoveries in medicine and mathematics. Determine what effect had These findings on human development.
2. Prove that the emergence of new views on the structure of the universe was in XVI-XVII centuries. not random.
3. Compare structure of the Universe by Ptolemy and Copernicus. Why consider opening Copernicus great?
4. What's new on the structure of the universe discovered by J. Bruno?
5. As Galileo confirmed and developed the views of Bruno and Copernicus?
6. On example of the life and work of three great astronomers think, what in XVI-XVII centuries. proved to be the personal courage of man?