§ 15. European Literature
1.Which literary genres existed for Middle Ages?
2.What are you medieval literature remember? What was told to them?
Humanistic ideals culture of modern times have received a decent implementation of European Literature XVI-XVII Art.
Traditional Folk culture and ideals of the High Renaissance combines the outstanding French writer Francois Rabelais-humanist. In the works of two great Renaissance humanists, theorists Englishman Thomas More and Niccolo Florentine Machiavelli Europeans saw two opposing concepts of state and two different system of moral values. Doba became baroque creativity Miguel Cervantes Spanish Golden Age literature, and at that time in England come "Shakespeare." The works of these authors are known far beyond their countries. So embrace the world of European literature XVI-XVII centuries., acquainted with the works that are admired by Europeans.
1. Francois Rabelais (1494-1553). This French writer of the XVI century. their creativity answered questions: How to write books, to eat of world fame? Rabelais wrote only one - "Gargantua and Pantagruel," but that it was a book! This satirical novel contemporaries called the greatest work of French literature XVI century.
"Gargantua and Pantagruel "- a book of fairy-tale in which characters act-giants, well known in France children and adults. However, in ancient tales and legends of Rabelais has put new meaning. It mercilessly ridiculed feudal customs and life, spoke out against Catholic church and the authority of the Pope. In contrast to the Catholic feudal society he invented the country of dreams that never existed - Telem. "Do what you want" - The chief law of this country. Each had to perform the work, which he liked, and work for mutual benefit. Along with this country there another - Papomaniya. There lived zealous Catholics, who fought against Papofihiyi, residents showed a portrait of Pope fig. In such a bold and Rabelais sharp jokes mocked over orders that existed at that time in Europe.
After the appearance of parts Rabelais was the book against the Catholic Church. The book was banned, but nothing could stlumyty its towering popularity in Europe. It read secretly transferred each other and laughed, laughed, laughed ... It is said that humanity, laughing,rozstayetsya of his past. Reading the book by F. Rabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel " Europe farewell of his past and entered into new times.
2. Thomas More (1478-1535) was Chancellor of King Henry VIII of England at a time when the country held major changes have seen the suffering of people during the fencing. In the novel-treatise "Utopia" he sharply criticized England since Henry VIII, where the "sheep ate people, peasants were turned into beggars and nobles and church darmoyidstvuvaly.
In this novel T. Moore outlined his vision of an ideal society. On behalf of the traveler who visited the island of Utopia (translated from Greek - non-existent place), he spoke of a society. All inhabitants of the island to work, busy craft, and pocherezhno - agriculture. They had rich and poor, there was no use. Worked all utopiytsi to 6 hours per day. Through their work they had enough food that were distributed by needs of residents free from public warehouses. In the houses were not locks, because there was no private property, because every ten years utopiytsi exchanged houses and things. Money they do not admit of gold forged chains for criminals or night did the pots. Criminals were those who violated the laws of Utopia. Led the Society of Citizens elected up to a year, with the exception of Prince, selectable by the end of life. All most important cases decided by utopiytsi National Assembly. On the island there and slavery. Slaves were criminals, they performed the most filthy and cruel work.
This was the perfect society in mind Thomas More, although he did not believe that a society be created in Europe. Rather, it was not a new project society as a protest against the existing.
3. Niccolo Machiavelli(1469-1527) - one of the most famous scholars of political thought of the XVI century. The controversy surrounding Machiavelli views have not ceased since its appearance Works. Some consider him an unprincipled scoundrel, the other - hard realist, who dared to depict the world as it actually was.
Throughout Life Machiavelli Italy was torn by dozens of small principalities and attracted to this lasyh profit rulers of neighboring countries. Constant internal strife, attacking his foreign forces pushed the Italians to reflect on the fact what the ruler is able to unite Italy and a strong hand to clean up the country. Thought on this issue and Machiavelli. On this occasion, he wrote several books, including the most famous book is "Sovereign" (1516) dedicated to Lorenzo de 'Medici ruler of Florence. In his work Machiavelli raised the question of how exactly should the governor exercise power in the state and How do morality and authority. He believed that power belongs to those who able to take it. Sovereign, which is a combination of talent and tricks, must constantly reckon with reality and forget about any remorse. Conscience can only interfere with the governor in his work. The main idea of this book is that if the governor wants to succeed, he must reject moral principles and rely on force and cunning.
One of the first Machiavelli put forward the idea that the state is not created by God and people. As people's interests are diverse and often even contradictory, talent ruler is the ability to understand the needs of society and take into account human psychology.
In his work Machiavelli advised the governor to take care of support of people because otherwise If the onset of danger he would not like it. He understood and that to safeguard its authority and the governor has to take unpopular measures. So Machiavelli advised the winner, who captured the state, immediately take such measures not to return to this later.
On human nature nature Machiavelli looked very sober. He claimed that people lustful, cowardly prone to treason, and when going into the crowd - and can immediately smilyvishayut act recklessly. To successfully manage a governor use these human qualities in its favor: to attract people to himself promises and gifts zishtovhuvaty opponents to keep them united. If killing or bribing the governor can bring to realization the goal - he also must not stop before.
Few people so icily accused and criticized, as Machiavelli in his book. Strongly his work condemned the Catholic Church as incompatible with Christian ethics. Most of the rulers of European countries were also angered by the principles proclaimed Machiavelli. But in reality and the Catholic Church and European monarchs have long operated in accordance with the principles of "sovereign". Florentine only the first thinker expressed what was political reality of his times.
4. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) - the brightest British author of the XVI century. His life and work Related to the theater. At first he was an actor, later - co-owner London's Globe Theatre, then began to create pieces for the theater. In general W. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays and 154 sonnets.
Most popular the audience had Shakespeare "The Taming of the Shrew, Comedy of Errors" "As You Like It, Twelfth Night," "Two Gentlemen of Verona, A Midsummer Night Dream." In these plays uslavlyuvalasya beauty of man and his feelings, and respect it was not for money or origin, and the behavior in different situations and personal qualities.
The world-famous became Shakespeare tragedy "Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, King Lear, Otello.
People first tragedy, the young Romeo and Juliet, passionately loved each other, but an obstacle for their feelings became longstanding feud families. Not stand the fighting, young heroes died. The tragedy became a hymn of love that knows no boundaries and does not want reckon with family traditions and laws.
In its historical dramas ("Henry I, Richard III, King John, Henry IV", "Henry V") W. Shakespeare recreated a fascinating panorama of the history of medieval England. But he not only described the events of the past, but also gave them their own assessment. Shakespeare censured autocracy and tyrants, defended the ideals of humanity, affirmed the right people to equality. Lips of the hero of one of his plays Shakespeare said: "What perfect humanity. " These words could be the motto not only for creativity Shakespeare, but all writers of the Renaissance.
5. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra(1547-1616). His work became the top Spanish literature XVII. The story of this writer reminded adventure novel. After Hidalgo Young University (nobleman) Cervantes recruited to the army, and He took part in naval battles against the Turks at Lepanto. Grievous retrieving injury, Cervantes was forced to leave the army. When you return to Home and his brother were captured sea pirates. Long five years Cervantes spent in captivity in Algiers, several times tried to escape but failed, and only large ransom he was released. In Spain he returned poor and with no means of livelihood, went to work tax collector. This work he really did not like, but there was no other choice. After one of the regular Cervantes was trouble in prison, where worked on the novel "Dodgy Hidalgo Don Quixote Lamancheskyy.
Protagonist novel nobleman Alonso Kihano that imagines himself wandering knights, dreaming revive knightly times when they are long gone. He may not understand one this and, as the last knight, was a ridiculous and inappropriate figure. Don Quixote intention himself personally to change the existing order, to protect widows and orphans prosecute the perpetrators of their suffering. In fact, he only created confusion. Nevertheless, the motives behind his actions - very human and noble. Hero Cervantes - true humanist. "Let the poor man's tears - said Don Quixote, - shall make you with equally strong sense of justice more sympathy than complaints rich. These words - echo the views that were very bold, even Dangers in Spain XVII.
Next to Don Quixote in the novel - his faithful companion Sancho Panza peasant. It is often inappropriate, ridiculous, but it also is a carrier of folk humor, character and mudroschiv.
The novel "Don Quixote" became a great big book writer, who with all his heart he loved people.
Moreover, Cervantes created short stories, plays, sideshow, but in world literature forever remained as the author of the novel about the last knight of the earth - Hidalgo Don Quixote.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Excerpts from "Utopia" Thomas More
"Repeatedly and carefully watching flowering of modern states, I can say with conviction that they are not that other than God 'conspiracy rich who, hiding behind the name of the state concerned to their advantage.
... Fail me on the spot if I find they have at least some traces of fairness and impartiality ... What it is justice, if all these people out doing nothing, or their activities is not necessary for the state and their life ends among the glitz and luxury ... From the other people inhibits sterile and non-profit work and kills the idea of miserable old age.
... I am fully convinced that the spread all equally and fairly and safely manage all human affairs generally possible only destroying property. If it remains, in most, best of people will always burden of care and begging.
1.What T. Moore saw the injustice of the existing order in society?
2.What do Mora believes, should do to change the situation?
2. Excerpts from the works of Niccolo Machiavelli "Sovereign"
"Operating in some cases severely, sovereigns do more charity, than when from excessive indulgence allow to develop disturbances, which are the result of looting and violence. Riots - trouble the whole society, and death affect individuals only ...
Sovereign should equally worrying, to excessive credulity is not caused short-sighted, and yet not be intolerable because of their suspicion.
From this contradictory necessary for sovereigns, question arises: what prince is better - cause fear or love? What it more useful - to his love or fear?
I believe that it is desirable to achieve the former and second, and make it as difficult and rulers, usually have choose, you say that keep useful subjects in fear. Generally people ungrateful. Stable, false, cowardly and sultry, and if the rulers give them good, they support them, but soon will be danger - are willing to betray.
Causing fear itself, the rulers should try not to cause hatred.
There are two ways of action to achieve its goal: the way the law and by violence, the first way - the human, the second - way wild animals and as the first method can not always achieve the desired purpose, people use the second. Governors should be able to use both ways ...
... Prince must possess great the art of bluff, because people generally are so blind and captured its nearest needs that a person who can lie well, always find enough gullible people who are delusion ... Also very important for the rulers seem merciful, faithful to his word, humane, religious, and honest, be the only really bad then, if, if necessary, Sovereign will be able to suppress them and show completely opposite qualities.
1. What qualities Machiavelli believed necessary for the ruler?
2. Machiavelli said: "The end justifies the means." Explain how you understand the basis of document.
3. From the book of Miguel Cervantes' dodgy Lamancheskyy Hidalgo Don Quixote "(Tips Sancho Panza Don Quixote)
"... Look inside yourself and try know yourself, this knowledge is the most difficult of all, that may be. When you know themselves, cease to pride oneself like a frog who wanted to dorivnyatysya ox ...
... The people of humble origin who occupy high positions, shall be soft and forgiving to others. This together with reasonable care, would avoid the evil of slander, and otherwise from them or which position is zahystyshsya ...
Remember, Sancho, if you go by namahatymeshsya virtue and doing good works, you do not have to envy the affairs of princes and seniors, as inherited nobility and virtue acquired, and it has its own value, unlike the nobility that such value is not. Never in my actions keruysya personal laws arbitrariness: the law was always popular among the ignoramuses who consider themselves reasonable.
Let the poor man will bring tears to you by equally strong sense of justice more compassion than the rich man's complaint. Every possible way try to find out the truth, whatever he promised and gave the rich and at least as a poor man cried and cried. In cases where might be indulgent, not punish the guilty in the highest degree of punishment, because punishment does not judge strictly Better than a compassionate judge.
If ever justice rod zihnetsya in your hand, let him not laden with gifts and under pressure compassion. If you ever have to disassemble the complaint of his enemy, the far away from him any opinion about the injustice committed by you and think only about how to which side the truth ... If you punish someone to act, do not punish him also word, because with enough flour guilty of corporal punishment, and add to this strict speech there is no need ... If you, Sancho, dotrymuvatymeshsya all of these guidelines and rules, then your life will be a long, long thy glory, reward you will receive great ...".
1. What features M. Cervantes of view, should be inherent in a perfect ruler?
2. Compare opinions of Machiavelli and M. Cervantes of the role of governor in the state.
Questions and Tasks
1. What were famous French writer, humanist F. Rabelais?
2. Think What looks T. Mora is formed in England in the XVI century.
3. Which saw T. Mor the ideal society?
4. Describe basic principles of the ruler, N. Machiavelli formulated.
5. Who do you think he knew human nature better - T. Moore whether N. Machiavelli? What value of the two thinkers?
6. Describe work of Shakespeare.
7. Tell the life and work of M. Cervantes.
8. Define basic social problems as reflected in the works of outstanding European writers XVI - early XVII century.
9. Fold Table "Prominent figures of European literature XVI-XVII Century." scheme:
Years of life
The basic idea is works