§ 14. Spread Baroque art in Europe
1.What do you know about the features of Germany, Netherlands, Spanishth in XVI-XVII centuries.?
2.As these features were to influence the development of art?
1. Features of Baroque art
End XVI Art. Born in Italy style Baroque (From the Italian. barocco - Freakish, bizarre) that in XVIAnd art. spread elsewhere in Europe and America and existed until end XVIII art. Baroque art, keeping the humanistic principles of determining the day Renaissance has changed in content. It was the focus on the passions and feelings of a person to combine real and imaginary. Erotic nature of this art in which the artist ignores the size and rate, depicts contrasts that create an illusion of reality, makes a great impression on viewer. Baroque art is distributed as the Catholic Counter-Reformation art. At the same time during the XVII century., This "century Baroque, the scientific Revolution, which ended the medieval vision of the world.
Great masters Baroque paintings were Dutchman Rembrandt van Rijn, Fleming Peter Paul Rubens, the Spaniard Diego Velazquez.
1. Rembrandt van Rijn(1606-1669). Among the many Dutch painters of the XVII century. he adequately naychilnishe takes place.
In the 30 years XVII Art. Rembrandt was the most popular painter of Holland. Known for it's made picture "Dr. Tulpa Anatomy" - a group portrait of Dr. Tulpa with students. Rembrandt first time, creating a group portrait, he decided to abandon traditional song, where all persons are near one, posing artist. In his picture of students surrounded the table in anatomical theater where lies the corpse, and listen to the explanation of Dr. Tulpa. The artist was able to show different responses each of the faces of students. Some, though concerned about the appearance of spectators, watching im just in the eye. The painting was a huge success. Rembrandt received a commission to write portraits and works on biblical and mythological themes.
He wrote many paintings, but ever more insistently tried to depart from established norms, amazing contemporaries unusual artistic style. In 1642 Rembrandt executed for order group portrait of officers Amsterdam small mouths. Each They paid the master of one hundred guilders, hoping to take a picture of an honorable place, posed standing for hours ... However, when the portrait called "night watch" was completed, the officers had no resentment limits: instead of haughty nabundyuchenyh soldiers who have long forgotten how to carry military service, the artist painted shooters, who were the alarm to protect their city. The artist recreated scenes from real life, but customers do not vtoropaly. Died in 1642 wife master. Home and studio of Rembrandt, that thrift is stood out, sold for debts. The artist settled in the hotel. His misfortune continued: second wife died, and later - the only son. Epilogue life and work great master was the painting "The Return of the Prodigal Son - Bible story of hooligans, who lost everything in life, returned to home to father.
Death of Rembrandt Nobody noticed. Only a few centuries his name became world known, and paintings adorned the best museums and private collections.
2. Peter Paul Rubens(1577-1640) was the central figure of Flemish art XVII. Joint feature, which united with the Dutch Flemish art, was his love for life in all its forms. However, if the paintings of Dutch masters prevailed domestic scenes, portraits of burghers and townspeople, the Flemish artists had paint that satisfy the Catholic Church and nobility.
In the work of Rubens these features are manifested most clearly. Court Painter Spanish governor in Flanders, he was constantly overloaded orders of nobility, church, but found time to diplomatic missions. Rubens wrote hundreds of paintings in bright colors uslavlyuyuchy strength, courage, beauty, human feelings and actions.
In Rubens was many of the paintings on historical themes. One of the most famous series "Life of Maria de 'Medici" consists of 21 work, where he depicted and real historical figures, and mythological characters, recreated the realities of contemporary historical epoch.
Works of Rubens had a huge impact on the formation of the Flemish school of painting, and his works are known worldwide.
3. Diego Velazquez (1599-1660). Contemporaries called it the Spanish master painter of truth. " D. Velazquez of 1623 the rest of his life was a court painter Spanish King Philip IV. The leading place in his work sat portraits. Spanish aristocracy does not demand that it drew more beautiful than it was really - she was proud of their origins, and not changeable beauty. Therefore, Spanish painter of portraits - cool, calm and balanced. Velazquez wrote portraits of royalty, nobility and their Spanish wives. But he never gave up an image of truth sketched person as it was. Pope Innocent, seeing how he described the Velazquez, after reflection said: "Too similar. Admired his and portraits of the king, saying that they he, "as live", not noticing that mediocre, weak and spineless described its author.
At the end of life artist created the painting "spinner", which showed the beauty of ordinary working women who wove the carpet, and along with them - the court ladies who dealt with the finished work. This was the last major canvas by Velasquez, who dedicated his life to serving truth brush artist.
2. Masterpieces of Western Architecture
Italian Renaissance Culture and contributed to great changes in the architecture. It was at that space-time builder craft a highly ranked architect who embodied the his thoughts based on the experience of ancient masters and scientific knowledge.
Development Architecture Italian High Renaissance period associated with Donato Bramante (1444-1514), who determined the direction of its development XVI Art. His work is connected with Rome. When Pope Julius II set about rebuild Rome, he became chief architect Bramante. For his project in 1506 began construction of the Cathedral of St. Peter's in Rome - the main temple Catholic world. But to build a cathedral Bramante did not have time. On behalf of the pope Paul III doopratsyuvav Michelangelo project on which construction was completed 1590 Cathedral of St. Peter is now the largest churches not only in Italy but worldwide. Height Cathedral - 132 m, area - 15 thousand square meters. m (area Cathedral of St. Sophia in Constantinople - only 800 square meters. m).
Prominent architectural monument of the sixteenth century Spain. was Eskorial - Palace Monastery built a brilliant Spanish architect Juan de Herrera (1530-1597) for King Philip II. Built middle of a desert plateau to the northeast of Madrid, the Spanish palace King strongly differed from the architectural monuments of the era. External appearance of the palace - the strict and gloomy, without any decorations - personified restrained and inaccessible character of Philip II, who tried to conquer all world. However, the majestic and austere beauty of gray granite built palace and now attracts many Spaniards, who proudly called Eskorial eighth wonder of the world.
Baroque City was In XVII century. Rome. That there have been built world-renowned architectural ensembles, numerous churches and palaces in the Baroque style. The prominent architect and a new era sculptor Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598 - 1680). He completed the ensemble of the Cathedral of Saint Peter creating a huge area outside the cathedral with a colonnade, fountain and obelisk center. Bernini was also the author of many sculptures for inner coat assembly. It had always kept him a great sculpture impression on viewers due to the surprising combination of frank sensuality religious inspiration.
For the European architecture of XVI-XVII centuries. were time of great change: the old buildings yielded place new architecture, which, inspired by the ideals of humanism, has evolved from craft into art.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Art critic V. Berezin on picture of Rembrandt's "Night watch"
"Drawn in 1642 big picture subsequently named the "night watch" was to be the group portrait of members of small guard. Rembrandt, however, refused to recognized units at the time of static shapes, and placement of equal image of all participants showed a scene full of movement. He stopped for a moment, when the alarm hurry and go out on a messy area of the arrows to move straightening arms. Ahead group solemnly acting captain and his assistant. Flare sheds a group, reinforcing the impression of rolling crowd. In the end, turned out not familiar group portrait, full of vitality and conviction stage. That this did not Customers perceive, extremely dissatisfied with the fact that one person can see well, but others almost hidden from the viewer ...".
What features Songs distinguish paintings by Rembrandt?
2. The Art of M. Alpatov creativity P.-P. Rubens
"He enriched his rare art ability to play all the diversity of each phenomenon of nature ... Painting Rubens exceptionally colorful impression of wealth and generous luxury. In human faces and naked bodies are transmitted color and fullness, almost same movement blood blond hair and gray women - old shines like gold and silver, silk fabrics and shine vylyskuyut semitones most thin, velvet thickly poured in the twilight. Rubens had a gift of bringing the varied and complex of art in harmonious unity.
What features Rubens distinguish creative method?
3. I. Levine of the Art D. Velazquez portrait art
"The top portrait art Velasquez - Portrait of Pope Innocent X ". Pope sits in a chair. His gaff, with gross featured appeals to the viewer, and a piercing in disbelief, watching closely black eyes from the swollen eyelids, a large fleshy nose, mouth firmly stulens, great ear fluid bristly beard, that does not hide heavy chin painted with such perfection, that the person who sits in the chair, it seems alive. Velazquez was able to show for his dad inelegance external iron will be hidden passion, energy ... "
Which means Velazquez reached peaks in art portrait?
1. What qualities were inherent creativity Rembrandt?
2. Describe the work of Rubens.
3. Think of something interesting work Velazquez.
4. Prepare using the additional literature, the story of one of the painters of the Baroque era in Europe.
5. What made the development of new art masters Baroque?
6.Describe the masterpieces of Western XVI-XVII architectural art.