§ 11. England
1. What were features of England in the late XV century.?
2. What is Reformation? How to spread ideas to reform economy Europe?
3. Which country took the largest number colonies by great geographical discovery? What is a "colony" and "Metropolis"?
1. Features of economic development in England
In the XVI century. England stepped on a small territory. Possession of England in Ireland were minor, Scotland also came in to join it. The population of England beginning of the XVI century. amounted to about 3 million people, and the end of the century increased to 4 million (excluding Scotland).
On beginning XVI Art. England, unlike the Netherlands, was not City country: in cities lived no more than 10% of the population at the end of the century number of burghers rose to 20%.
England remained a predominantly agrarian country. Land owned by noblemen, landowners and the King. The vast majority of peasants own land was notBy use of the paid cash rent.
On beginning XVI Art. agriculture in England occurred significant changes. With the advent of manufactories in England and abroad increased demand the English wool. Many landowners, neglecting agriculture, admired breeding sheep. This process had far-reaching implications for the development of England. Wool turned into the main wealth of the country. From that time until now to bag hair as a symbol of prosperity in England, is in the British House of Lords Parliament and serves as the seat for the Lord Chancellor.
Hereby shock for England was the "price revolution". Due to her great landlords increased the rent money of peasants in three, five and sometimes seven times. Farmers lost their farms, and with them and the only means of livelihood, becoming beggars.
The main branch of industry was cloth production. Instead of hair in the XVI century. England began to export Other cloth from wool. In 60-ies of the XVI century. cloth constituted 80% of all British exports. It is a growing demand for cloth spreading due manufacturing.
Due to the large geographical discoveries of England found itself at the crossroads of trade routes between Europe and America. This was the impetus for the growth of foreign trade.
Alone merchants sutuzhno was sent to travel to distant shores. They watched storms, pirates, a danger of loss of goods and even death. To reduce risk, merchants united in the company. The first such company was established in 70's XV.
In the XVI century. English merchants began to establish new capitalist joint stock company. Merchants united their capital and become shareholders receiving benefits according to donation. Names of companies described the main directions of the English trade. After opening in 1553 north-eastern sea route to Muscovy emerged Moscow company. In 70-88 years of the XVI century. Ostzeyska have (or Istlandska) company, which led trade on the Baltic Sea Levantska (or Turkish) to trade in Mediterranean and Guinea Company (later it turned into East India), which concentrated in the hands of trade with India and Africa.
In the XVI century. quickly growing economic importance of London, which gradually developed into the largest port in the world, the center of trade and financial transactions. Began forming London City - downtown, where concentrated banking offices, and large trading companies.
Feature agricultural development of the XVI century England. was the beginning Agricultural Revolution - Installation market relations in agriculture. For the development of sheep land owners (landlord) to turn the land in the manors of suburbs. Increasing the area of pastures, they zhanyaly peasants from their land and obhorodzhuvaly them. This process was named fencing.
Because of obhorodzhuvan of England, new social strata - new nobles and rural laborers. New nobles lived not how old they otherwise receive profits - from growing sheep and selling wool. Farmers who left without means of livelihood, were forced to seek employment in cities or work on the new nobility. They were hired who had no personal farm, and worked on the new nobility for pay. The emergence of new social layers was evidence of agriculture in England market relations. Money turned in capital, that his new nobles invested in the development of its economy in order to obtain profit.
Changes occurred in agriculture in England in the XVI century. become a prerequisite distribution manufactury production in industry.
2. "Bloody legislation"
Agrarian revolution and development of market relations of production in agriculture caused great changes in English society. Manufactury enterprise and economy of new nobles could not provide jobs for a huge number dispossessed peasants. Cities filled with beggars, huge masses of people looking for work and, not finding her, stolen or startsyuvaly. At the beginning of the XVII century. London there were 50 thousand beggars. King Henry VIII began to legislate, against startsyuvannya. Gather alms and allowed only weak old, those who could work a whip and beat obliged to return home. If detained for the second time - again beaten and cut off half the ear. Who stayed third time - executed as a criminal.
King Edward VI "Improved" these laws. Anyone who is not working, dedicated himself into slavery so that at told him. The owner had the right to force him to any work, sell, give more. If a slave escaped, in the first escape he fired on the forehead or cheek stain and gave up a life of slavery. For the second flight set second stamp, for the third - executed as a criminal state. English chronicles say that by during the reign of Henry VIII was executed 72 thousand vagabonds and beggars. To history of these laws are included under the name "Bloody legislation. "
Fig. England in the XVAnd - the first half of XVII art.
3. The Reformation in England. Anglican church
In the XVI century. England rules of royal Tudor dynasty. It was during the reign of King with this second Dynasty Henry VIII (1509-1547 years) started the Reformation in England.
Henry VIII - most famous and enlightened King, a brilliant and terrifying at the same time personality on the English throne.
Fig. Henry VIII
The figure in the history of
Henry got a great education in the spirit of the Renaissance was the connoisseur of languages, literature, and a good musician composer, was involved in philosophical disputes. After he became King death of his brother Arthur, when he took his brother married a widow Catherine of Aragon - niece of Emperor Charles V. For nearly 20 years of their marriage life proved no heir to the throne of Henry VIII to the frenzy. So just love to rage it in court beauty Anna Boleyn and decided divorce his wife to marry Anne. From King's new marriage hoping to get the desired son - heir to the throne. In general, Henry married six times: divorced with two wives, two accused treason and executed, one died in childbirth, but the latter remained alive (perhaps because the king himself died).
Most wars that led to Henry VIII, were successful and greatly increased international authority of England. It helped a small island nation to prepare for the role it has played in the events of world history during board daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn - Elizabeth.
By the nature Henry was a tyrant - unbearable, repressive, vengeful, irritable, which held their servants in constant fear. However, it strengthened the unity of the kingdom, induced the British belief in belonging to one nation. To his uslavyty reign, he rebuilt the old royal residence. The end of his Board Henry had 55 palaces. London has turned into one of the brilliant European cities. Serve at the court of King wanted the most famous Painters, sculptors, writers from Italy and Germany. King gave the state positions in his kingdom scientist-humanist. Chancellor of England he did renowned scientist and lawyer, the famous humanist Thomas More. But when Thomas Moore refused to accept the Reformation accomplished king, and remained a Catholic, him by order of Henry VIII was executed.
Unlike Germany, where the Reformation was due to people's movement "from below" The Reformation in England took place "Top" - with the active intervention of the king himself.
At first, when Europe launched the Reformation, Henry VIII made against it. He even took part in the polemics against M. Luther, sending his pamphlet to Rome for protection seven sacraments, by which the pope received the honorary title of "defender of faith." But personal interest in the release from custody and power of the pope forced Henry VIII change his views.
The reason for Reformation of the refusal of Pope Clement VII to give Henry VIII permission for divorce from his first wife - the Spanish princess Catherine Aragon. According to Catholic canons to give such permission could only pope. Then enraged Henry VIII forced the Congress to pass the English clergy decision on which King led the church in England. He freely designed divorce and married the beautiful Anne Boleyn.
When Clement VII began to threaten the King by following the excommunication, the parliament adopted Act suprematiyu (Rule) that announced the withdrawal of the English Church from the domination of Rome and its transition under the direction of Henry VIII. All Catholic doctrines that were kept. Done a 1534
In couples Anne Boleyn King again fortunate. Heir to the throne brought the marriage, - Queen gave birth to a daughter and son died. After some time disappointed King Anne Boleyn basely accused of treason, which equaled to the state treason, and ordered to execute it.
Henry VIII dared to break with Catholicism, hoping that the majority country of his supporters. He told me he does not want either Rome or Wittenberg. New - Anglican - Church took place between Catholicism and Protestantism.
By the Parliament in England were closed all the monasteries and their property passed to King. At the time of Henry VIII in England was closed on 3 thousand monasteries, their King gave the land to its supporters or sold, greatly enriching treasury. Land bought new nobles and bourgeoisie to create for them new profitable farms. Thus, the reform of the church contributed to the development of market relations in England.
Reformation methods was carried terror. Tens of thousands of monks found themselves homeless and punishable by "bloody" laws against beggars. From all Englishmen demanded complete subjugation Anglican church. For a waiver of its recognition as corrected treason.
Next King Edward VI (1547-1553 biennium) continued reforming the church. All liturgies conducted in English, was simplified religious ceremonies. Catholicism remained supporters of the old nobles and large number of peasants, which linked the church with a new fence.
For the Board Queen Mary Tudor (1553-1558 biennium) - Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, which took hold of Catholicism in England had made an attempt to return to the old Catholic faith. Maria Tudor restored Catholic church, Protestants began to execute, for which it called bloody Mary. However, the Anglican church is deeply rooted in English society. Return of land to monasteries nobody wanted.
After the death of Mary Tudor crown passed to the daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII - Elizabeth I (1558-1603 biennium). Elizabeth I restored the Anglican church, because Rome did not recognize its rights to the throne.
Fig. Elizabeth I
It issued stringent laws against Catholics. Go with the Catholic Church of England was considered treason. Activities of the Jesuit Order was banned. In 1571 adopted English "Creed(39 sections), which declared the basic principles of the Church of England.
As in Lutheranism, deklaruvavsya principle of human salvation through faith, but kept three in England sacraments: baptism, communion and redemption. Worship was conducted only English missal for special government approval. In another new Catholic Church resembled: the veneration of icons was allowed to be kept luxurious clergy attire, performance of organ music, a solemn procession. Compared to Lutheranism and Calvinism Church of England had more moderate character.
4. The emergence of movement puritans
Among the parts angry limited spread bourgeois ideas of the Reformation Calvinism. These people stood for "purification" of the Anglican Church remains Catholic. Called them Puritans (From Lat. purus - net). Puritans rejected all the church hierarchy did not recognize the authority bishops. Gradually, they broke with the Church of England, came out of it, and began to create their own religious communities led by elders selectable (pastors).
Puritans counted on the support of Elizabeth I, but he did not. Queen did not like some views puritans (separation of church and state, conquering King church), and she began to violently persecute and punish them. "First they require clean bishops - said Elizabeth I - and then - and very monarch. History showed that the Queen has been sighted. In the middle XVII. There was an English Revolution, which many historians call "Puritan". In those turbulent years just Puritans with an English Parliament opposed King Charles I Stuart and sentenced him to death.
5. Board of Elizabeth I
The second half of XVI century. Britons named Elizabethan. Last Queen of the Tudor dynasty managed to leave its mark in the history of England.
Elizabeth I - as noted above, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn - grew forgotten father which denied it after the death of his wife. Teachers found it considerable ability. Elizabeth received the knowledge of mathematics, classical languages. During the reign Mary Tudor she was in prison. After the death of Mary's parliament declared Queen of England. Her hands sought the most powerful rulers of Europe - French prince Fran
The new queen was able to laviruvala between the old aristocracy and new nobles, strengthened royal authority, keeping the parliament and local government. All that she made, justified concern for the people. Rumored that her character was birds - pelicans, which, according to legend, feeding the chicks meat, torn from its own chest. That she believed their concern about the subjects. At the same time - issued new laws against beggars.
Elizabeth I helped development of English trade and the Merchant Navy, has provided trade privileges Companies, especially East India. Evidence of successful trade was London opening Exchange (Place, where various operations are performed). Founder Exchange banker Graham is even awarded knighthood.
6. Anglo-Scottish relations. The tragedy of Mary Stuart
Scotland that covered the northern part of the island, in the XVI century. was an independent kingdom. It was divided into northern, or mountainous, Scotland and South, or valley. In Scottish hill dominated feudal patriarchal relations, there were family community - Clans led by leaders. Classes of the population were cattle and hunting. South Scotland developed quickly, its inhabitants were not only cattle but also farmers. Here there were many cities which were brisk trade with England, the Netherlands and France.
In the XVI century. Scottish throne belonged to the dynasty of Stewart. But the royal power was very weak. Large landowners in South Scotland and the leaders of clans in the north preserve the independence and do not obey the king. The burghers of Southern Scotland is also not supported the king, because they more interested in developing ties with England than association with the backward north. In such circumstances, Stewart, with no support in the country, became the most toys in the fight tribal clans.
Economically weak, rent internal struggle in Scotland became the XVI century. the object aggressive intentions of England. The war against England in the first half of XVI century. lasted for several decades. In 1542 the Scottish king, who has undergone defeat in this war, died. The crown passed to his daughter Mary Stuart, which born of the same in 1542 Mary was sent to be reared to France, where she became a zealous Catholic. Scotland at the time managed to have the Queen - Mary Giese, representative of the powerful French family Hiziv.
In the struggle that unfolded between the two queens - Elizabeth I and Scottish Queen Mary Stuart (1542-1567 biennium), found display of political and religious opposition at that time in England.
Fig. Mary Stuart
The figure in the history of
These two women were completely opposite to each other. Mary Stuart, according to contemporaries, distinguished by the charming beauty and lightness, and government affairs not care of. Elizabeth was unattractive, violent and cunning, but compensated by the natural mind, good education and extraordinary ability to governance. Mary was a zealous Catholic, Elizabeth - convinced protestantkoyu. Childhood of Mary was cloudless. She got crowned Scotland from birth, at 6-year-old bride was heir to the French throne in 1561 was educated in France, 16-year-old Mary Stuart was Queen of France and a year later - a widow.
Elizabeth with children years learned how to be a daughter of man accused of high treason. After the death of mother - Elizabeth Anne Boleyn appeared on walls sail the grisly Prison Tower.
Mary Stuart thought that every country is monarch, she did not care what kind of country she led. Elizabeth felt as belonging to England and its people that managing the state, the will of God. She is not hesitant in deciding if where little benefit England.
In the middle of the XVI century. Scotland Calvinistic ideas spread. Became the leader of the Scottish Reformation John Knox. His preaching is always ending with the words: "God! Deliver us units of power woman ", implying Mary Stewart.
Fighting Calvinist against the Catholic Church supported the arms and money Elizabeth I. It namiryalasya thus conquer Scotland and physically destroy Mary Stewart. Spain and Pope cherished hope to make Mary Stuart English Queen Elizabeth I and instead do away with the Protestants in England.
After the death of her man - King Francis II of France Mary Stuart returned to Scotland. Calvinist struggle against Catholics broke with a bang.
Mary Stuart supported the Catholic Church, established relationships with English Catholic nobles who were preparing the plot against Elizabeth I. Instead, Elizabeth I organized a Calvinist performance against it.
In 1567 Calvinists, led by Earl Murray, raised a rebellion. Mary Stewart was forced to flee. She requested asylum in Elizabeth. Queen granted asylum "dear sister" uv'yaznyvshy her in the castle for long 20 years.
In Scotland dostupylysya to power, supported by Elizabeth I, proanhliyski force. King Scotland was the son of Mary Stuart James VI.
Meanwhile in England liberty around Mary Stewart waged a fierce struggle. Maria sent out secret letters to Catholic countries with pleas for help. Several attempts to free it ended badly. However, English Catholics to kill Elizabeth I, to proclaim Queen Mary Stuart. Conspiring failed, their members was executed.
In 1585 British parliament passed a law allowing anyone who participated in the conspiracy against the Queen, should be executed. Under this law, the royal tribunal Mary Stewart sentenced to death for activities dangerous for England and Queen. Son of Mary Stuart James VI of England threatened war over the death penalty mother but Elizabeth found a way to curb it. Being childless, she has alliance with the King of Scotland, so named heir James VI of English throne.
Mary Stuart was executed in 1587
7. Conquest of Ireland
Along with England included the island of Ireland. It has long attracted British fertile land and rich mineral deposits. By English usurpation of political weakness contributed to the country. Ireland was divided into family clans of 5-6 thousand people, constantly at enmity between themselves.
Conquest of Ireland started back in the XII century. At the beginning of XVI century. proud Irish were pushed Englishmen in the mountains, and swamp forests, but continued to struggle.
In 1541 Henry VIII declared himself King of Ireland and owner of all its lands. He has Irish nobility the right to use land for recognizing him as their king. In those who disagreed, land taken away. Confiscation of land was the main English conquest of Ireland means crown in the XVI century. Earth handed English colonists provided their British settlement.
British Politics resulted in strengthening the fight against Irish invaders. In the second half XVI century. in the south were some uprisings against British rule. The rebels demanded the return of seized land to stop harassment Irish-Catholics. 16000th Army led a successful fight against the British. After several defeats, the British launched against the Irish war of attrition. They totally burned villages, destroyed all the inhabitants, crops in the fields, leaving in a devastated land. However, such a total war in 1603 uprising was suppressed. The governor of England in Ireland, Lord Mauntdzhoy Queen testified: "Your Majesty is not something to reign in this country, except for corpses and ashes."
After the defeat of the rebellion 1594-1603 biennium Ireland finally became an English colony.
8. The struggle against Spain for supremacy at sea
At the same time struggle for the conquest of Ireland began the penetration of England in America. But in her way was Spain, which after the merger in 1581 with Portugal had large colonies in America. From the New World sailed to Spain, famous caravans of ships loaded with gold and silver. The struggle against England Spain from the middle of the XVI century. took the form of contraband trade with the colonies Spain and the attacks of pirates at its ports and ships carrying gold to Europe.
Elizabeth I strongly supported the pirates gave them the license, which allowed the Spanish attack and Portuguese ships. In England, created a special company to of pirate expeditions. The Queen and her were close shareholders of these companies. Pirate Cruise inflicted great damage Spain, which lost them to 3 million ducats a year, and contributed to the enrichment England. The value of piracy for the development England can be compared with the value for Spanish conquistadors, with the only difference that they were conquered by land, and sea.
In 1562 English pirates began to supply the Spanish colonies in America, blacks slaves from Africa. The English rover on royal service Walter religion 1585 founded the first English colony in North America, naming it in honor of Queen nezaymanytsi Virginia (from English. Virgin - Virgo). At first colony was a haven for pirates who hunt Spanish ships.
Among British Pirates of the time nayuslavlenishym was "pirate Her Majesty" as he called himself, Francis Drake (1543—1596).
Fig. Francis Drake
The figure in the history of
The most famous Englishman was a sailor class, which has repeatedly carried out successful attacks on Spanish colonies in America. The Spaniards called his "dragon", and King Philip II demanded the death of Elizabeth I hated pirate. However, the pirate queen is punished, and committed to and made a knight Vice-Admiral. All these differences from Elizabeth and he got in his famous Voyage around the 1577-1580 biennium goal of this expedition was under the plan Drake crossed the Atlantic Ocean, South America and round the attack city on its west coast, where the Spaniards have been accumulating huge reserves gold for shipment to Europe. Queen supported his pirate and even invested in his expedition. Officially it was announced that the squadron of five ships sail find vacant land for colonies in South America. Persecuted by the Spanish drake swam across the Strait of Magellan and while survived only its flagship Golden Hind ", went to Peru. There seizing large prey he crossed the Pacific, visited the Molucca islands (where agreed with Sultan of local spice trade with England), rounded Cape of Good Hope and September 26, 1580 returned to England. It was the second in history round the world. Elizabeth generously rewarded his pirate - because cost spoil that brought Drake, the English treasury income exceeded two years. Philip II requirement to return looted it neglected.
King Philip of Spain II perceived the painful audacity Queen. The last straw that filled his cup patience was the execution of Mary Stuart. As a defender of Catholics around the world Philip II to call the Pope began to prepare for war against England.
For invasion England, Philip II decided to build a huge fleet. But in 1587 Francis Drake by order of Elizabeth made daring raid to the port of Cadiz - Spanish base fleet and destroyed many Spanish ships. Spaniards had to re-collect fleet. In 1588 Invincible armada(So called its fleet Philip II) went to the shores of England. It consisted 130 sailing vessels of 20 thousand sailors. In the Netherlands the Spaniards waited for another 300 ships had to join the invincible armada. English roost Navy commissioned Elizabeth F. Drake.
Fig. Invincible armada
In 1588 British ships attacked the invincible armada in the English Channel. The battle lasted two weeks. Heavy Spanish ships were divided light English. Balances Spanish fleet, attempting to bypass north England, died during the storm. The navy of England has not lost a single ship. In his familiarize it Elizabeth I F. Drake wrote: "We tried to dig out from the tail feather of a Spanish bird one by one, and pathetic rozsiyaly their remnants across the sea. " To mark the victory of Elizabeth I ordered the medal engraved with the inscription: "God blew and they were dispersed.
With England winning start converted to Volodarka seas and strong once Spain became gradually secondary state.
Elizabeth I died 1603 - the last queen of the Tudor dynasty, during the reign of which England began transforming into a great European power, a powerful global empire.
1. Excerpts from the Act of suprematiyi
... To promote the Christian religion in Kingdom, for the suppression and destruction of all the abuses that exist in it still, be constituted authorities of the Parliament that the King, our supreme owner, his descendants and successors, kings of this kingdom must accepted, recognized and respected in the world only the supreme head of the church England .. and should have the imperial crown of this kingdom, and profits that are so common and are higher as head of the church. Our supreme ruler, his descendants and successors, kings of this realm, should have the full right and authority to inspect periodically, to make visits maintain order, suppress, fix, reform, deter ... all those false opinions, heresies, abuses, acts of disorderly conduct and that their any spiritual power ... must be reformed for the good of Almighty God, for success of the Christian religion, for peace, unity, for peace in kingdom. Use of any other country customs, foreign law foreign power contrary to the stated above.
What are the rights acquired by Act suprematiyi king as head of the church?
2. The English philosopher Francis Bacon of the Board of Elizabeth I
"Elizabeth and mood, and the fate of their was an amazing personality among women and among the memorable personality monarchs.
Board at all times women were rare, even rarer is the board was so happy, the combination of welfare and duration is very rare. This queen, however, the rules are full forty-four years ...
The truth is that the real tribute to the woman was time, which although much splynulo since, but has not been created in this half the human race no one like her in the management of public affairs.
For that F. Bacon gave this appreciation of Elizabeth I?
Questions and Tasks
1.Describe features of economic development of England in the XVI century.
2.Fold simple plan for item "Characteristics of Economic Development of England.
3.What is fencing? How and why does it happen? Which were the consequences of fencing?
4.What you know about the "bloody legislation"?
5.Tell us as the Reformation took place in England. What was the occasion for it?
6.Describe process of the Church of England.
7.Who are Puritans? Why there was this movement?
8.Compare Anglican Church of the Lutheran, Calvinistic and Catholic.
9.Fold historical portrait of Henry VIII.
10. Describe in the history of Elizabethan England.
11. What were Anglo-Scottish relations in the XVI century.?
12. Spread the word Mary Stewart and her battles against Elizabeth I.
13. How was conquered Ireland?
14. What caused struggle between England and Spain for supremacy on the seas? Tell us about it struggle.
15.Make a table "Internal and foreign policy of England during Elizabeth I" on the scheme: a) the basic directions of domestic policy; b) foreign policy priorities.
16. Make history portraits of Mary Stuart and Queen Elizabeth I.
Note the dates:
1509-1547 biennium - Board of Henry VIII.
1588 - Death invincible armada.
1558-1603 biennium - Board of Elizabeth I.