§ 10. Netherlands
1.What were particular socio-political development of Spain during the Middle Ages?
2.What explained by the great influence of the church in Spain? What this effect was detected?
3.What are the main features of the republican form of government?
1. Netherlands under the rule of Spain in XVI century.
Netherlands (in translation - "Lower Land") known as the land located on the Lower Rhine Maas, Scheldt and the North Sea coast.
In the middle of the XVI century. Netherlands covering the territory where now are the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and part of North-Eastern France. This country had no fertile soil or minerals, suffered from floods. Its main wealth were hard-working residents. They proudly said: "God created the heavens, we - dry. Niderlandtsi occupy land in the sea, which built the farm, great city.
Netherlands divided into 17 provinces, which differed significantly by level of development. In northern land belonged to the free peasants, who often use hired labor. It gradually formed a new, market relations.
Fig. Map of Netherlands
In the south more Land was part owned by noblemen, which employ free peasants, who performed duty on land use. However, in the south Netherlands developed the market, especially in industry. Worldwide known weaving factory has produced Flanders cloth, carpets, silk products.
After large Netherlands geographical discoveries were at the crossroads of new shopping ways, and Antwerp became a center of world trade. It was at Antwerp Exchange prices were determined by Oriental and European goods.
In the middle of the XVI century. Netherlands have achieved significant successes in economic development and have become the most populated country in Europe, with three million souls, 300 cities and 6500 villages.
At the beginning of the XVI century. Netherlands found themselves within the Holy Roman Empire of Charles V. Last Netherlands considered the crown jewel of his, because this little country gave four times more profit than all the possession in the New World. Only in 1552 Charles V received from the Netherlands 6692 livriv thousand gold.
After the collapse of the empire in 1555 Karl V The Netherlands moved into the power of his son - the king of Spain Philippe II (1527-1598). He reviewed the Netherlands as a foothold in Europe to fight against France and an endless source of profits for implement their plans.
Fig. Philip II
2. Causes and beginning of the uprising
Situation Netherlands, due to politics fanatic Philip II, who sought in all order to establish their possessions such as Spanish, has become intolerable.
There was significantly increased the number of Spanish troops, and all power is concentrated in the hands State Council (consultation) with people like the Spaniards. It was established 14 new Episcopacy, launched the activities of the Inquisition, the persecution began heretics. Anyone who dared to speak against the Catholic Church and Spanish, executed, with denunciations of those who condemned the Spaniards awarded.
Intervention Spaniards put the economic life Netherlands to a standstill. Philip II forbade merchants Netherlands trade with the New World, 40 times increased the duty on wool, which Netherlands bought in Spain. Great damage has caused trade Netherlands Philip II enmity with England. In the Netherlands began to close factory, many people lost jobs.
Fig. In the Netherlands XVI - First half XVIAnd art. Netherlands Revolution 1566 - 1609 рр.
In the 1566 delegation Netherlands namisnytsi nobles appealed to the Spanish king in the Netherlands Margaret Parma with his application. In it they are expressing their commitment "His Majesty the King of Spain, once asked to close down Inquisition and convene the General States (Parliament). One of the counselors Margaret Parma contemptuously called a modestly dressed noblemen hezamy, ie beggars, and added that they should not be afraid. Niderlandtsi decided to adopt nickname "Geza" as the name of those fighting for the liberation of the Netherlands Spanish yoke. Their honors were a portrait of Philip II and the inscription "Faithful King to the beggarly sum, as mention of an unsuccessful appeal and a hint that Spaniards destroyed their country. At the head of the opposition stood Prince William of Orange (1533—1584).
Fig. William of Orange
Figure in history
William Orange was a wealthy man, owned land in the Netherlands and the Principality Orange in France. Got a good education, knew seven European languages. Was too young pazhem at the court of Charles V and there learned how to Spain exploiting and oppressing the Netherlands. I decided to dedicate his life to fight for freedom of their motherland. Towards the goal of oxen to do the practical steps and not Chat breed, for that his nickname was silent. After introduction to the Spanish Netherlands Army hiding Protestant princes in Germany, where organized invasion Netherlands. In 1577 the province that delivered from the Spaniards, declared Prince-rebel governor. Philippe II declared it illegal. William of Orange was killed by hand pidislanoho killer.
With the growth of dissatisfaction with the authorities Spaniards Calvinistic preachers prophesied convergence revolution that would destroy "ancient Babylon" (as they called Catholic Church and the Spanish government) and set a fair kingdom "Selected". They condemned the Catholic "worship of idols" as they called veneration of icons, and encouraged people to destroy them.
In the Netherlands began performances against the Spaniards. In the summer of 1566 removed some unrest form of rebellion against the Spaniards and the Catholic Church. Armed with the artisans and peasants destroyed churches, monasteries, burned icons. For several days in August Iconoclast 1566 rebellion swept 12 out of 17 provinces. Only in Flanders destroyed the 400, and in general in the Netherlands - 5500 Catholic churches and monasteries. Thousands of religious art masterpieces were destroyed.
Uprising erupted in 1566, was directed against the government and the Spanish conquerors little nationalist character. Simultaneously, the radical changes that it caused in my life niderlandtsiv, allow to consider it social Revolution.
3. Politics Duke of Alba
Frightened Margarita Parma has agreed to make concessions if the Dutch stop the uprising. But that did not happen. Then Philip II decided to use the rebellion as a pretext for occupation of the country. March 17, 1567 to the Netherlands was introduced 60000th Spanish army led Duke Album (1507—1582).
Fig. The Duke of Alba
The figure in the history of
Alba Alvarez de Toledo - Duke, Spanish soldier and military figure. He was a proud man, proud of his noble birth. Frank and sincere people felt stupid. With courage and commitment to Catholic bigotry monarchy enjoyed the special confidence of Philip II. At the time of the appointment of commander of the Spanish Army in the Netherlands it was 59 years. The best way of governance considered terror. In the Netherlands it was executed thousands of people, however, suppress rebellion, he never could. In 1573 he was recalled to Spain.
The Duke of Alba began to "reassure" the Netherlands ax and fire Inquisition. He founded the Council in cases of riots, which had unlimited powers. Property konfiskovuvalosya rebels is increasing taxes. Many people had to leave the country.
In March 1559 Duke of Alba in the Netherlands decided to introduce alkabalu - 10-percent tax on each trade transaction, as was routine in Spain. Under the Netherlands, where each product passing through several hands before it gets to the consumer, this led to complete disruption economic life. "Better to keep God and King impoverished and ruined country - he said - than to have her in flowering state for the devil and his minions - heretics.
The entire country was enveloped resentment. Niderlandtsi realized that they have nothing to lose.
Population Netherlands launched a guerrilla struggle against the Spaniards. In 1572 ships Marine heziv cast anchor in the port of Brille. Together with the residents they destroyed the Spanish garrison, formed a large naval squadron and began to liberate from the Spanish coast, preventing ships from using Spanish for Army. Once they captured a Spanish fleet of 46 ships, other - Caravan of 30 ships. The forests were forest heziv troops. Farmers heziv reported the whereabouts of the Spaniards, giving them food.
Rebellion swept all the north Netherlands. Disparagingly called the Duke of Alba these events "rebellion redneck, "and added:" It is not worth attention. " But he was wrong. Rise in North won. To guide the insurrection was invited to Duke William of Orange. In July 1572 representatives of the Northern Provinces decided in negotiations with the Spanish king to act jointly.
With decisive action groups heziv, supported by the population, gained victory by victory. In the north of the Netherlands Uprising won.
Fig. Fleet Marine heziv
5. Continuation of the liberation struggle
For action northern provinces of the Duke of Alba union said a new wave of terror. The period from 1572 to 1575 was most difficult for the insurgents. The Duke of Alba destroyed the city, which supported the decision of the Northern provinces. Harlem City bike struggle against the Spanish troops during the seven months, and the threat of famine forced its defenders to surrender. 300 leaders of the rebellion the Spaniards bound drowned in the sea, others slaughtered. Eventually Philip II realized that Alba policy failed, and withdrew it, but the rebels continued fighting and were not going to stop.
City Leiden were under siege from October 1573 to March 1574 all offers Spaniards seem to have rejected the residents. The situation is increasingly deteriorating Defenders: diminished food supplies, and all the way to control the Spaniards Leiden. And then came to the aid of marine G
Meanwhile, Spanish Army, which received fees from Spain occasionally, rozkladalasya. Soldiers resorted to robberies and violence against local people, burned Antwerp. When the fires died and was killed about 8 thousand inhabitants. It residents of the southern provinces led to decisive action.
September 4, 1576 in Brussels rebels arrested proispanskoyi members of the State Council. Power moved to General states. Last met in Ghent, where representatives of all Netherlands provinces signed "Ghent reconciliation. It involved a joint action in the fight against the Spaniards to final liberation of the country. This caused concern nobles Catholics. In 1579 in Arras, they had made the union (union), which recognized their king Philip II and refused to fight.
6. Formation of the United Provinces Netherlands
In response to the decision supporters of reconciliation with the Spanish King province north of Utrecht signed union, which initially five and later seven provinces united to wage war against him to complete victory. His supreme authority they proclaimed General States.
The signing of the Union of Utrecht started a new independent state - United Province of the Netherlands, most often called the Dutch republic. When Philip IIdesignated award for the murder of William of Orange, July 26, 1581 was passed an act which proclaimed complete independence of the Netherlands. This historic document was put provision that if the governor does not people are satisfied the Netherlands, people have the right to remove it. That's why people Netherlands eliminated Philippe II. In the United Provinces Netherlands left the northern provinces, and south - remained under Spain.
Summer 1584 William of Orange killed agent Philip IIBut this has not led to the collapse of the United Provinces that Spain hoped. Ruler Netherlands was elected the son of William of Orange Moritz.
In 1584-1609 he was a war in alliance with the Netherlands, France and England against Spain continued. Netherlands have successfully taken advantage of the difficulties of Spain, particularly with defeat 1588 its invincible armada, led the successful operation of the ocean and in Spanish colonies in India and Indonesia.
In 1598 by King Philip of Spain II died. Exhausted Spain had to go to sign a peace treaty with the United Provinces. Under Spanish authorities remain Southern Netherlands. Spain finally recognized independence of the United Provinces only the Netherlands in 1648 by Westphalia peace.
7. The meaning and consequences liberation movement in the Netherlands
Victory liberation movement in the Netherlands has created favorable conditions for development Economy in the Northern Netherlands economy rapidly evolve, here transferred their manufactory many businessmen from the south. More and more development of trade and navigation gained. In the middle XVII Art. Dutch Republic fleet twice exceeded the total fleets of France and England. Gained enormous power founded in 1602 East India Trading Company, what contemporaries called "state in the state. " Merchants companies were allowed to trade from the Cape of Good Hope to Strait of Magellan. They established factory, bought and sold their spices with great benefits. Successful development trade contributed to the fact that Dutch merchants followed in this area of new principles: equal opportunity, free competition and more.
On beginning XVII Art. Dutch seized land on the east coast North America, called it New Holland and founded a new city here Amsterdam (later renamed it the British in New York - New York. However, one of the neighborhoods - Harlem kept the Dutch title). In 1648 Dutch ousted the Portuguese from South Africa and founded the colony of Cape land there. In XVII Art. created tremendous Dutch colonial empire.
Championship among the port cities of Amsterdam Dutch Republic captured. The number of residents at the beginning XVII Art. exceeded 100 thousand people. Daily his standing in the harbor about 2 thousand ships from different countries. He turned the main European market Indian trade goods, grains, fish, fur and wood. Amsterdam became European center of banking. Founded in 1609 Amsterdam National Bank was the first and for a long time the only bank in Europe.
Creation Dutch colonial empire and the impressive rates of economic development Northern Netherlands would have been impossible without the victory of the revolution.
· removed dependence on Spain, which a political obstacle to economic development of the Netherlands;
· Conditions for development Protestant faith as the ideological foundation of a new society;
· started the formation of the Dutch nation. The division of the country on religious grounds was the reason that there were two people - Dutch and Flemish, who speak the same language, but in practice different religion.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Letters Duke of Alba to Philip II
"We have a lot more to do. Cities should punishment for rebelliousness, and large amounts have to be squeezed from individuals; need to obtain consent (General) states in the country's permanent collection Tax ... Each force should live in constant terror that the roof could fall on his head. "
"It's bloodiest war, which not long ago was. Increasing number of traitors - a real miracle! Especially confusing to me confused when I see how hard you, Your Majesty, discover reinforcement and ease with which people give their lives and their property in Use these rebels.
1. What was attitude of the Duke of Alba to the people of the Netherlands?
2. That a surprise in the Duke of Alba? What was the main reason for success insurgents?
2. English merchant and economist Thomas Man of the reasons for the rise of Holland
"Since they put off the yoke Spanish enslavement, as well they develop all their talents! Do not All this happened because of their continuous efforts and trade? Is their provincial inventory for most of the Christian world, thanks why their wealth, boating, crafts, and social income and excise taxes rose to amazing heights? If we compare the time of their enslavement of their present condition, they will become like other people.
... Our goal - to show the main causes wealth and grandeur of Holland. The whole world seems a miracle that such a small country, even smaller than the best of our two counties, with few natural wealth, food stocks, forests and other supplies necessary for war or peace, despite this, has it all in such quantities that in addition to their own needs (Which are very large), it can still deliver supplies and also sells to other countries ships, artillery guns, gear, grain, powder, balls, etc. and all that Dutch only gather from all over the world due to its persistent Trade ... And to achieve all this ... they had little means except fisheries, which allowed them to exercise in the sea of His Majesty. Great fishing and herring catches are the main classes and a major gold vein United Provinces, thanks to them many thousands of households, families, artisans, trade affairs and activities thrive and work ... In addition, the fisheries, we get a lot of money, which increases our facilities, our fleet, customs duty and income provinces.
1. What political and economic factors, according to Thomas Maine, have caused economic prosperity of Holland?
2. What role Fishing has played in the life of the United Provinces?
1. Describe position of the Netherlands under the rule of Spain in the XVI century. Identify causes revolt in the Netherlands.
2. What events launched a rebellion in the Netherlands?
3. Why arrival of the Duke of Alba to the Netherlands led to the intensification of the uprising?
4.Fold chronological chain of events the Netherlands revolution.
5. As victorious insurrection in the north of the Netherlands?
6. Tell the development of the liberation struggle in the Netherlands in the 1572-1579 biennium
7. How did independent state in the north of the Netherlands?
8. What were significance of the liberation movement in Netherlands?
9. Prove that the people of its active struggle ensured victory revolt.
Note the dates:
1566 - Beginning liberation movement Niderlanroof.
1579 - Signing of the Utrecht Union, the emergence of new states - the United Provinces Netherlands.
1609 - The signing of peace between Spain and the United Provinces of the Netherlands; completion revolution.