§ 9. Spain
1. What is Reconquista and when it ended?
2. In what year Columbus discovered America?
3. Who are conquistadors? What is their role in history?
1. Socio-economic development of Spain
ХVAnd art. sometimes called "the age of Spain. This was due to the fact that Discovery of America by the Spanish monarchs were unprecedented resources to chystolyubyvyh for their plans. But these riches played for Spain more negative role.
Zealous Catholics Ferdinand Izadella and sought to eradicate any religious heresy and achieve unity in their possessions, with both Catholics and Muslims lived many Jews. For this purpose, was reformed inkvizitsiya that became weapons in the hands royal power against their opponents in faith and church. First blow was dealt to the Jews. Royal Decree in 1492 they nakazuvalosya or change faith or leave the country. Later persecutions were those Jews to Christianity.
After persecution were Muslims. Moreover been subjected to persecution and those Arabs who accepted Christianity (in Spain they were called morisky). Im forbidden to wear Arabic names, speak their language, observe their customs. All cultural destroying Muslim heritage. Later morisky were also expelled from the country.
Expulsion of Jews and moriskiv ekomitsi caused extensive damage to a country that lost hundreds of thousands zemlnrobiv and hardworking craftsmen who produced the main export commodities country. Once prolific bloom of Paul and southern Spain were zanedbanini. In country fortified position of intolerance and fanaticism, and not by chance that Spain became a powerful force of the Reformation.
Attacking economy kings of Spain at first did not feel the negative impact that offset by a large influx of gold from the New World. "Cheap" gold, which caused a "revolution of prices, and undermine the remaining industries. Yes, it was broken grain growing, setting maximum prices. As a result rozoryuvalysya farmers. In favor of grandees, who were farming millionths flocks of sheep and export of wool, Royal authorities refused to introduce laws that would ohorodzhuvaly of Spanish industry from foreign competition that tilkm began to develop. This picture should be added the ever-growing taxes.
2. Spain by Karl V
Зavershennya Reconquista and the opening of Columbus created prerequisites to transform Spain into one of the most powerful country in the world. King Ferdenand and Queen Isabella laid the foundations for its policies that Spain could claim primacy in the Catholic world. In addition, they laid the foundations of Spanish absolutism. Successor of their policy was ix grandson Karl Habsburg, who ruled in Spain under the name of the pits Becoming King Carlos IV, he obtained under vast knowledge of his power: Spain, Italy and possession in the New World. A parental lines for the German Austrian Hapsburg possession, Netherlands etc.. In 1519 the young Spanish King Charles I of Habsburg elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire under the name Charles V (1519-1556 biennium). Thus he objectsunited under his rule a huge empire. What kind uleslyky said that "Above the sun never sets."
The figure in the history of
Charles V was a beautiful, athletic physique man, got an excellent education, spoke Spanish, German, Italian, French, Flemish languages. These qualities it took quite Holy Roman Emperor, who led the exhausting struggle for preserve the unity of his vast empire, sought to create the world Christian state, to decide all cases in Europe have mostly America and Africa.
Having such a legacy, Carl V found himself in a very quandary. He had to fight three major opponents. The first of these was France, which found itself surrounded by possessions Karl V and did not want to have such a powerful neighbor. In addition, France itself was on the rise and sought establish its dominance in continental Europe. Another opponent was The Ottoman Empire, which continued its persistent attack on Christian Europe. That's been the Habsburg possession barrier, which vperlasya Turkish army. The third enemy of the emperor became the Reformation, which began at the start board Karl V.
In war, these three opponents and passed a long reign of Charles V. Although he repeatedly sought victories, was finally forced to leave the crown. His triumph was the most prominent defense of Vienna in 1529 the Turks. Majestic Karl plan V to revive the Holy Roman Empire as a world Christian monarchy late in time. The rise of national movement and spread of the Reformation exclude the possibility for any governor to retain power in the vast territories of nations, different in culture and religion.
Charles V was owner of the largest in size and yet the weakest political empire. Some parts of the Empire who own policy, not necessarily ignoring the emperor. After defeat of German Lutheran Princes у 1555 Charles V rejects the authority favor of his brother Ferdinand, who gave the Austrian, Hungarian ownership, and son Philip, who received the Spanish crown colony in the New World, Netherlands Italy and South.
3. Revolt in Castile komuneros 1520-1522 biennium
Dostupyvshys to power Charles V once had a serious collision with the cities of Castile, who have received secret assistance of France. Cities of Spain, who were communes (in Spanish - komuneras), reacted negatively to the policy of the young King, who tried to consolidate absolute power and restrict the rights of cities. The reason for the revolt was the appointment viceroy Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht, who arrived from the Netherlands. He had to ensure we come together with financials stable income taxes for broadly Karl V. Revolt began in Toledo under the slogan protect liberties of the kingdom. By price of minor nobles joined (Hidalgo) and large landowners (Grand), which hoped to restore his privileges and failing power of the king. Subsequently rebels formed a "Holy Junta (Union), which nominated Charles V following requirements: 1) that King lived in Spain, and 2) to the higher appointed by the Spaniards only, and 3) prohibit the export of gold and silver from Spain; 4) regularly convene the Cortes - every 3 years, 5) to impose taxes on the nobility, 6) return treasury looted wealth of Queen Isabella. Last requirements turned away from the insurgency and most grants Hidalgo. This immediately took advantage Charles V, Who recently promised to consider their requirements. Fighting broke out between the cities and nobles. From St. junta " separated part of the city and created a "junta troops, which stated that" from now on war against giants, kabaleras (nobles) and other enemies of the kingdom, against their Property and palaces should be conducted by fire, swords and destruction. " Decisive Battle risen between supporters of the king and held near the village Vilyalar (1521) where the rebellion was completely crushed, and leaders of executed prisoners. Thereafter Only one town - Toledo - continued to struggle, holding a six-month siege. But eventually she fell.
Rebellion helped Charles V strengthen its absolute power, and restrain the city of Cortez, which lost the right to make laws.
4. Board of Philip II
Philippe II Spain lifted to the top of its power. How jealous Catholic, Philippe II seen a protector and defender of all the Catholic world. He often said: "I will have no better subjects than to have them as yeretyeiv. All his efforts were directed in this napryamkuyu. However, despite all the effort, on his account more defeats than victories. To win the King are the following events. In 1571 Philip II in alliance with Venice utterly defeated the Turkish fleet under Lepanto and temporarily stopped the Ottoman advance into Europe. The second important achievement was the king's accession in 1581 to Spain, Portugal. On 1960 Iberian Peninsula into a single unit, and the two largest colonial empire united to bring. The biggest of his victory can be attributed support for the Counter-Reformation and the Pope and to ensure security Catholics in other parts of their possessions. However,abezpechyty dominance of Catholicism in Europe Philip II never could. The price of victory was Spain itself, which after death King quickly became a third-country.
Philip II almost always held in Spain. He board near the capital was Madryt which was built Eskorial (Palace monastery and tomb) in which the King had almost all the time. With fantastic performance, King believed that strict regulations can be controlled great country. For orders of King soon reached the subjects were made road, was organized post. Much attention was given to the army. Arranged by Swiss sample, it was the most powerful in Europe.
Castle-Monastery Eskorial - and a huge building with strict gray granite. It completely reflects the character of King. The building was built on a portion of St. Lawrence in Memory Day`memory which Spanish Army defeated the French. Castle-Monastery was built in the form quadrangle, which resembled the hearth, the saint who died. Philip II said that he wants to build "Dvorets for God and the hole for the king." His rooms were rzmischeni so that King could take them to church. Despite this ostentatious asceticism king, royal court distinguished elegance and richness and was a model for European rulers.
When Europe started the Reformation, Philip II entered with her uncompromising struggle. It was by his board came inkvizitsiya unprecedented proportions. He tried to suppress the Reformation and associated with it a revolution in the Netherlands has supported Catholic France and ordered itsvolume fleet “Invincible armada“ invade EnglandTo destroy its main competitor. However, all ended in defeat in Spain. It lost naval superiority, and soon began an economic decline. Besides Spain was to lose possession. Philip II died in 1598
Documents. Facts. Comments
Excerpts to report sentenced to death
"First: Orbian, Fleming ... bookbinder by profession, 30 years. It burned several paintings depicting our Lord Jesus Christ and other saints and all adhered to the teachings of Luther, considering it good. He also dared teach others. He showed a stubborn, and so was cursed and given The secular court for burning alive with confiscation of his property, movable and immovable.
Second: Juan Perez de, Portuguese ... She adhered to the Jewish faith and kept her over the years, following all rules and ceremonies thus tempted others. It vyspovidalasya and reconciled with the church. It is punishable by weaning and life imprisonment. Its movable and immovable property confiscated ...
In thirteenth-: Juan Korineo - morisk. I leave in the Barbary Coast. Curran rizok hundred blows.
In-thirty Two: Andres Konseno, a farmer, said that before the priests should not be to confess grave sins, because they are people like him. It should repent and get beaten hundred stripes.
1. Who proven before a court of inquisition?
2. What people judged?
3. Or punishment was fair?
Questions and Tasks
1519-1556 biennium - Reign of Charles V
1520-1522, the - rebellion komuneros
1556-1598 biennium - the board of Philip II
1571 by - Battle of Lepanto
1581-1640 years - stay in Portugal, Spain stock