§ 6. The spread of Reformation ideas in Europe. Counter
1. Why Christian church was interested in preserving the existing order?
2. Who are heretics? Against what they were? As the church struggled against heretics?
1. Lutheranism. Augsburg Peace 1555
Struggle between supporters and opponents to the ideas of M. Luther in Germany lasted another 30 years after the Peasants' War. Lutherans in North reformed the German Catholic church. Head of the Church in every Principality became prince canceled expensive ceremonies, veneration of icons, worship was conducted in their native language. All religious possession confiscated.
У 1529 was on withASIдAnnі Reichstag in Shpayeri Catholic held a majority decision on Catholic church services which were to become mandatory in principalities and cities, committed to Lutheranism.
In Answers 5 princes і 14 cities, supporters of Lutheranism, were protestingWhere stated that in matters of faith can not obey the decision of the majority.
. Since then, supporters of the Lutheran faith were called ProtestantsAnd the Lutheran Church - Protestant.
The fight dragged on for many years. Interpretation of accelerated intervention of Emperor Charles V. He decided to use the differences between Catholic and Protestant princes to restrain them.
The threat of loss independence encouraged princes to unite. Joint army set sail against Karl V and almost took him prisoner. Charles V was forced to agree to a truce. In 1555 at the Imperial Reichstag in Augsburg religious peace was concluded, so recognizing the equality Catholics and Protestants. The right to define religion in their estates have received princes, subjects had to keep the faith professed prince by principle "whose power, even his faith."
Although Augsburg peace has not solved all the problems, he stopped the dispute between Catholics and Protestants. Won first idea religious tolerance that was one of the manifestations of culture of modern times.
Realizing the full collapse of their plans and that confirmed the Augsburg Peace actual decay Empire, Charles V abdicated. Austrian possession of the Czech Republic and Hungarian crown of the Holy Roman Empire, he handed his brother Ferdinand I (1556-1564 biennium), and Spain, Netherlands, Italy and possession in the Spanish colonies in the New World - son Philip II(1556-1598 biennium).
2. John Calvin and the Reformation in Switzerland. Calvinism
Among European country's largest distribution, except Germany, the reformation movement came in Switzerland.
Events in neighboring Germany had a great impact on cantons- Some independent ground, that were cooperating in the Swiss Union. Majority population here was also dissatisfied Catholic Church, performed by restriction its influence and possession of secularization. Center for the reform movement was rich and prosperous city of Geneva. Living in the city strongly supported the Lutheran preachers and Catholic clergy were forced to leave the city. Finally won the Reformation in Geneva, when there came from France to escape the religious persecution Frenchman Jean Calvin (1509—1564).
Fig. John Calvin
The figure in the history of
John Calvin was one of the most important figures in European history. For over 400 years it views on the moral leaders of our country and affect the lives of hundreds of millions people. Calvin received an excellent education: after graduating from college he studied law at Orleans University. He was only eight years when M. Luther announced his "95 Theses". Families in which Calvin was born, was a Catholic, but youthful years he decided to become a Protestant. To avoid persecution, he left Paris and settled in Switzerland, where he set about to study theology. The result this was that вother published work "Guidelines in the Christian faith, which made his name known. In this book it in a manner outlined their basic views.
In 1541 Calvin settled in Geneva and remained religious and political leader of the city until his death.
Fig. Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe
Under the leadership of Calvin Geneva become a center not only Swiss, but also the European Reformation.
John Calvin believed that the fate of each person identified in advance by God. Only God decides get a man to hell or to paradise. During his earthly life man must work in good faith not seek comfort and pleasure, be conscientious and save money. If before the person an opportunity to profit and she does not use it, it will be a great sin. If Catholicism is considered a sin wealth, then Calvin, by contrast, issued him a sign of God's blessing. Calvin justified usury, considered the possible existence of slavery, which take effect in the colonies.
In Europe, Geneva became known as the "Protestant Rome," and Calvin - Geneva Pope. Calvinism in Switzerland controlled all spheres of life was forbidden dances, songs, festive clothing, jewelry. For any fault of people severely punished. It is known that the decision was executed Calvin boy for seven years that he hit his mother. Those residents of Geneva who did not want to obey new order, deprived of civil rights and driven from the city, even executed. All share a Spanish doctor stunned Catholic Miguel Servet (1511-1553). With performances against the Catholic Inquisition persecuted him, and he hoped to find rescue in Geneva. But Calvin also did not satisfy the views of Servet, its habit of taking everything into question. "Geneva Pope" accused of heresy and Servet sentenced to be burnt at the stake.
Despite these extremes, Calvinism in general, the needs of forming the new society. Opinions Calvin spread from Geneva to the countries where the market began to develop relations, and became the basis of ideology, "businessman" new time.
The teaching of Calvin and established his church in the world had even more supporters than Lutheranism. Although northern Germany and Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland) were mostly Lutheran, Switzerland and Netherlands adopted Calvinism. Proponents of Calvinism were in Poland and Hungary. Presbyterians in Scotland were Calvinists as well as Huguenot in France and the Puritans in England. And the Puritans, immigrants continue to have great impact on the fight against the English colonies in North America by independence.
By its organization Calvinism differed significantly from the Catholic, Lutheran churches. Calvinism was the basis of the community who are most chose their heads - presbytery. Their duty was to enforce moral community members principles of Calvinism. Priests in Calvinism was not. Sermons read pastorsWhich elected community of its most educated members. Priests and pastors were part of ConsistoryIn charge of all community affairs. From time to time to address the theoretical issues of Calvinism congresses gathered pastors - Congregation. Due to the principles of selectivity and independence of the supreme power of communities Calvinism was more democratic by Catholic and Lutheran. However, permanent management intervention in the community life of their members violate individual rights. Limited the rights of believers and that any deviation from the declared Calvin framework was considered unacceptable and severely punished.
3. Anglican Church
In England the Reformation held with the ruling circles and the king himself. English followers Luther put forward claims of confiscation of church estates, dismissal from government Pope and the church conquering king. Implementation of these requirements would successful development of market relations, and creating a new society.
King Henry VIII decided to support the reformers also because he was personally interested in Reform Church. In 1534 the English parliament brought the national church from the power of Rome and proclaimed King of the head. All Catholic doctrines and rituals retained. Catholic monasteries locked, their property passed into the ownership royal treasury. Established Church was called Anglican. This limitation did not satisfy the Reformation many, and they fought for the continuation of the Reformation.
4. Counter-Reformation. Trent
In connection with spread the influence of Protestantism Catholic Church began its own reform and enters the path of recovery. It wassystem of measures that have name Counter. The long period of crisis 1520-1540 biennium in the heart resulted in Catholic reform movement and the desire to resist injustice - The effects of differences in the spread of Christianity and Protestantism. they encouraged the council to gather for changes in life Catholic Church and, simultaneously, actively resist the offensive of Protestantism.
When vnykla danger of spread of Lutheran ideas in Italy, Pope Paul III (1534-1549 biennium) creates in 1542 the Congregation for the Supreme Inquisition - Senior apostolic tribunal, Which assigns to fight the spread of heresy. Over time she expanded its influence almost every Catholic country. Papa called her eradicate the slightest signs of heresy, "... in any case not act gently, not never doubt, and if for example the need to punish others - do so without hesitation. " With particular cruelty Inquisition operated in Spain and Portugal, where all the suspects, remnant Lutherans "and" supporters erazmizmu " condemned to be burned.
Next year was created the Index of books forbidden ". Contained in the Index ... "books are excluded in booksellers and burned at streets, along with portraits of authors. Guilty in reading or escape banned books threatened court of inquisition.
However, this pope Council instructed the church to develop scientists reform project, which was to strengthen the Catholic church. To approve the reform had council, which met in Trydenti. Trent worked with break with 1545 to 1563 and received on Пups full flexibility in discussing issues of church life.
Cathedral called to clean the church from its unworthy members, sale of indulgences and church offices were prohibitedBy behavior of priests set strict supervision. Church returned to its home business - taking care of souls and help the poor, monks opened the gates of monasteries for the sick and poor, were to provide shelter homeless and food to the hungry. By order of Pope Pius V(1566-1572 biennium) was twice reduced the Roman court, put severe financial reporting, expelled all corrupted.
Decision Cathedral inspired by the new supporters of Catholicism, but his categorical refusal engage in dialogue with Protestants contributed to the religious schism in Europe.
On Trent has also approved the main Catholic doctrines, which were now define the face of modern Catholicism.
5. Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order)
Special role in played against the Reformation Society of Jesus, or Jesuit Order (from Lat. Jesus - Jesus) created the Spanish nobleman Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556). Bystatements Pope in 1540 Order immediately plunged into the tumultuous events of those times. With its new features of the Order has become the main instrument of the papacy in against the reform movement.
Fig. Ignatius Loyola
The main feature was a tough order discipline prevailing among the Jesuits and provided a full submission Members of the Order their leaders. Orders leaders had to do without hesitation, even if required to commit mortal sin, and feel free units of responsibility. By deeds subordinates meet only their heads.
Perfect Order of organization allowed to operate very effectively in the shortest time to achieve this goal, using any method. However, the Order association was not stupid performers who automatically obeyed managers. Society of Jesus was Order of intellectuals who had an excellent education and considerable natural abilities, who knowingly provide all the opportunities the revival of power church. To achieve its goal the Jesuits tried to influence the thoughts and souls people, not just the way the political intrigues and conspiracies. Classes were not in politics main activities in order.
One of the main lines of activity Order was osvitnytska activity. 2 / 3 of all organizations of the Society of Jesus "in XVII-XVIII centuries. were schools and universities, and 4 / 5 of the total number of its members were students and teachers. In their schools the Jesuits reached high educational level, providing a thorough knowledge of the subjects, while educating students in the spirit of Catholicism. Their goal was through the influence on youth gradually change attitudes in society to the Catholic Church. And, indeed, countries where Protestantism unbeaten, the winner was Jesuit teacher.
No less influential direction in order of activity was missionary- Christian witness, carried out in the remotest corners of the globe. Built in a day of great geographical discoveries by design just like Loyola missionary, order only at the insistence of Pope Paul III undertook to European Affairs. Jesuits, emerged preachers in America, India, Congo, Tibet, Japan. Characteristic was that they tried not to interfere in local customs and traditions peacefully agreeing to the requirements of the Christian religion. Faced with facts of gross violation of Christian morality colonizers, they angrily condemned these actions were to protect the local population. In 1556, when he died I. Loyola, the Order already had over 100 missions worldwide.
Society of Jesus "has become a major tool Counter-Reformation Rome exercised policy.
Documents. Facts. Comments
Excerpts from the "spiritual exercises" I. Loyola
"Silence - dangerous and evil than any storms, and most dangerous enemy - no enemies! Though very well serve God of pure love, you must also urge and fear God's greatness, and not only the fear that we call it filial, but he called the slave.
It is essential to faith in God was so great for a person without hesitation went to sea on board, if it does not ship!
If the church says, supposedly what we appears white, is black - we must immediately recognize it!
If we do not find the priest and other church leaders desired purity of morals, we should not blame them is neither in private nor in public conversations, because such talk generated more harm and shame than good ...
... Subordinate should look at older as to Christ Himself. He must obey the elders, as the body that it can be rotate in any direction, as staff to dedicate any movement; a ball of wax, you can change and stretch in all directions ...
... Should obey the Pope without any even calls for sin, and must commit sin, death, or simply if head required in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ ...".
Reviewed these expressions make conclusions about the morality of the Jesuits.
1. How did Lutheran (Protestant) Church?
2. What were the conditions Augsburgwhom religiousoho peaceу?
3. Tell us about the spread of the Reformation in Switzerland.
4.Compare the views of the Catholic Church and J. Calvin.
5. What attracted new business doctrine of Calvin?
6. What was the organization of Calvinism?
7. Tell us about the formation of the Church of England.
8. What is Counter? How it was done?
9. Describe the features of the Society of Jesus "and main directions of its activities.
10. What is the role of Jesuits in Konrreformatsiyi?
Note the dates:
1534 - The beginning of the Reformation in England.
1540 - Approval Pope оrdenu Jesuits.
1542 —creation of the Congregation Supreme Inquisition - Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic
1545-1547, 1551-1552, 1562-1563, the — Trent
1555 - Augsburg religious peace.