Theme III. REFORMATSII and Counter
§ 5. The Reformation in Germany
1. What were features of the political development of Germany in XIV-XV centuries.?
2. What idea of building society and human behavior in it proclaimed Catholic Church?
3. What movements against the Catholic church, you know? What they were intended?
Reformation - A word which is translated from Latin as restructuring, became a symbol of the whole epoch in the history of Europe. It was an era when the movement turned Reinventing Catholic Church society. It quickly became a struggle that began with disputes in university halls and spilled over into field battles. People are beginning a new era were shocked by the power of hatred, with which there was fighting between supporters Old Catholic Church and the reformers. It will take a long time before mankind understand that it is impossible to destroy anyone who wants to live differently. We must learn live together on one planet. The way this will be very long.
Events that caused the split of Europe into two camps - the Catholics and supporters Reformation - started at the beginning of the XVI century. in Germany.
1. Germanyна semifinaleredodni Reformation
End XV - Early XVI Art. Germany was an integral part of the Holy Roman Empire, to name is then added the words "German Nation". In Germany, its composition were part of the modern Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Czech Republic, France Burgundy, part of Italy and other areas.
Sacred Roman Empire was politically fragmented country that consisted of many large and small, secular and religious possessions. Oholyuvav elected King of Germany, which could crowned as emperor. He was elected emperor: the assembly Elector(Prince voters). From 1438 to 1806 Emperors were elected from a family of Habsburg.
The idea of the degree disintegration of the country can give the guest list for tips on meeting Reichstag - Congress of representatives of states Empire in 1521, among whom were seven Elector, 50 archbishops and bishops, 83 Abbot naybilshyhmonasteries, 24 secular princes, 145 graphs, representatives from 65 cities, and more - many imperial princes knight estates, which had no right to vote in the Reichstag.
Princes played a large role in Germany. In the first decades XVI Art. there were about 70 - archbishops, bishops and laymen. Seven princes - kuraryurstiv that had the right to choose Emperor strongly opposed to strengthening his power and left to the right decide important matters.
Early XVI Art. all of Germany was covered with a network of large, medium and small cities, whose total number was about 3 thousand. Cities were divided into "imperial" - directly subordinated Emperor and "free" - which enjoyed self-government, gained due to release from their seniors. In XVI Art. differences between "imperial", "free" cities almost disappeared. They have great human and often ruled surrounding areas as small Duchy. The largest cities are Nuremberg, Augsburg, Cologne.
In Germany existed Reichstag - Imperial collection, which included three of the curia - Electors of spiritual and secular princes and Representatives of cities. Existed in the Principality diet - Is-local representative nobility, clergy, and princely cities. In some diet also included representatives of rural communities.
Reichstag and diet discussed a similar issue - on peace, laws, fees, but at different levels - the whole empire or separate principalities. Each Curia took the decision himself, and then they were compared. Important role of diet played a city. At the Reichstag, it depended on the content issue. If there was a need for money, of all interested, in other cases they are right to vote could cast doubt.
Reichstag and diet played an important role. They were place for reconciling the interests of large social groups, served as a counterweight diadem - the emperor or prince.
New feature in development Germany XVI Art. was the formation of Another type of control - not the center or places, and regional - for constituencies. In these politically fragmented country districts were created primarily to facilitate the fight with robbers and violators of peace.
On beginning XVI Art. Germany dominated feudal relations, most of the population was dependent peasantry that was paying taxes landowners and church. In the first half XVI Art. have spread and market relations. A lot of new enterprises were created in the mining industry. The emergence of new enterprises contributed to the high demand for their products.
Spirit and gain energy business were a symbol of that time. Many countries have been known German names Fuhheriv rich, Hohshtetteriv, Imhofiv, Velzeriv. Fuhhery, such as putting funds into the wholesale spices, which gave a fabulous profits in usurious transactions with interest rates, mining, bought land. Fuhher Jacob, who was to contemporary embodiment of a wealthy entrepreneur left a fortune of 2.5 million guilders.
2. The Catholic Church in Germany at the beginning XVI Art.
Catholic Church claimed the fundamental role in Europe, and especially political fragmented Germany. It was here much wider arena than in countries with strong central government. Germany flooded the entire sales indulgences, holy relics, and various assemblers Billing in favor of the church. Catholic Church owned vast landholdings and even city. The largest gains from his possessions Pope Рymskyy just received from Germany. However, he is not too concerned orders in German monasteries, which undermined the authority of the church in the eyes of the population.
In 1510 Emperor Maximilian I attempted to negotiate with the Pope. He in particular, expected to limit payments to Rome. On his behalf been trained "Complaints German Nation," where was gathered basic claim. However, this attempt has suffered a complete failure.
This situation at the beginning XVI Art. was the reason that Reformation of the movement against the Catholic Church in Europe began just in Germany.
3. Background of the Reformation. The German humanism
Criticism Catholic Church was associated with the spread of ideals in Germany humanism.
Humanism (vid. лat. humanus - Humane, human) secular freethinking Renaissance, which opposed the medieval sholastytsi and spiritual domination of the church. In a broad sense - the recognition of human values as personality, her right to free development and discovery of their abilities.
On beginning XVI Art. in Germany there were 16 universities in Most of them taught scientists humanists. Humanism flourished in Germany reached the eve of the Reformation. It then reached its peak humanist satire, approved new social ideals, unfolded searches new forms of religious life. In Germany there were "dark Letters people "- witty, sharp and talented satire that exposed and bezkulturnist moral decline of the clergy, his endless enthusiasm scholastic disputes with any detail. European fame came activities Erasmus (1466-1536) and his younger contemporary, knight-humanist Ulrich von Huttena (1488—1523).
Figure in history
Erasmus of Rotterdam was highly educated person, studied the works of Italian humanists and antique literature translated and published their works. He proudly called himself "Citizen of the universe." Erasmus of Rotterdam wrote works that exposed fornication Catholic clergy. Fine irony marked his satire "Praise follyі. He condemned the vulgarity, lack of content, hidden by a blank formalism in Catholic rituals, political arbitrariness and tyranny of kings and princes. The philosopher believed that religion has a clean shape and direct frank dialogue between man and God. He favored the spread society, religious tolerance, religion acquiring personal information, use language in the liturgy of the Church of the people that had to make it understandable ordinary people.
Fig. Erasmus of Rotterdam
Ulrich von Hutten was one of the authors' Leaves dark people, "he wrote epigrams on Julia Pope II, in which exposing the debauchery and ridiculed the pope selling indulgences. Hutten, with inherent temperament, and fervent patriotism, sharper than Erasmus Rotterdam, tavruvav Catholic clergy, supported the "freedom Motherland. " He praised the humanistic sciences that help "sighted Germany, saw in mind "the head of life and human strongly condemned "Barbarism" and "pious humbug" in the church. That humanists - next Huttena friends were among the first responded to the speech of M. Luther against the sale indulgences.
Humanist Society has prepared activities to understanding of the need to reform the Catholic Church and the deployment of combat for the unification of Germany.
4. Martin Luther and the beginning of the Reformation
On led the reform movement in Germany was Martin Luther (1483—1548).
Fig. Martin Luther
Figure in history
M. Luther was born in the family wealthy burgher. From early childhood, he believed God as a great and righteous judge who punishes the guilty and protect the weak. After graduating from the University of Erfurt Luther decided to devote himself theology and went to the monastery, but was not found peace. He could not understand why life in the monastery so different from that declared Church and what she demanded from others. At the same time he studied hard, he sought answers to your questions in the books. Luther became a doctor of theology and Professor of Philosophy. The heavy internal crisis that lasted several years, suddenly over, and he realized that would do.
31 October 1517 Luther puts on the door of the church in Wittenberg his "95 Theses" against abuse saleем indulgences. In Luther's theses in generally defined foundations for a new doctrine. Special place in it belonged three provisions:
1.Lyudyna only saved my faith.
2.Spasinnya obtained only by God's grace and is independent of any "merit" person because not people, but only God knows the true value of "good deeds".
3. The only authority in matters of faith are Scripture, the Word of God.
It M. Luther's doctrine that it can be succinctly characterized as "salvation by faith" had a profound effect. If salvation depends on God's mercy, then questions arise: What is the mediation of the Catholic church, the whole huge hierarchy headed by the pope?
Luther obdumav not possible implications of this logic, the sources which he noticed in some texts of Scripture.
Doctrine Luther perekreslyuvalo statutory authority for Catholics, along with the Holy Scriptures, making the pope and church councils. According to him, this is not dealt with in Scripture, and it should reject, as human imagination. "
Luther's speech had the support of a significant segment of the population of Germany. Many people were Luther translated abstracts from Latin German and distribute them throughout the country. The Catholic Church denounced by Luther, Pope Leo X excommunicated from his church. However, the German princes at Worms at the Congress decided to support Luther. He received can hide in the Prince of Saxony in the castle called the Wartburg.
The Reformation began in Germany, which covered all segments of the population.
5. The People's Reformation. Thomas Myuntsera
In every city and village, every home people are arguing about what should be the church. Not waiting for permission, the people expelled priests dispersed monastery. Advantage of the situation, the princes took monastic lands, and urban elite refused to pay church taxes. Power Пups Рymskoho no longer recognized.
Still, these changes not satisfy everyone. Urban poor, peasants wanted more. They listened to preachers, who appeared very much and have talked about approximation of the Kingdom of God on earth: everything is shared and all people will equal. Such People Reformation they wanted and were ready to keep fighting for it. Many towns and villages started spontaneous performances. Reformation, which began as a movement moderate levels of society, inspired by humanistic ideals against Catholic Church, became features present struggle of the masses by improving their positions.
In German cities were the preachers who called for people to live as written in the Gospel: "And all that believed were together and had all things common: and sold their possessions and any property, and handed out to everyone for their needs. Proponents of these ideals of property and social equality called Anabaptists(Perehreschentsyamy). Children are not baptized, believing that baptism should take consciously adult. Entering into their communities, the baptism had accept a second time, and where there name. One of the most famous preachers Anabaptist ideals became the first friend of Luther, and later his enemy Thomas Myuntsera (C. 1490-1525). He people urged to raise the sword against the lords and the power to set the kingdom on earth God. In his opinion, the fight was to expand not only against Catholic Church, but against all those who lived, breaking Christian commandments - the princes, knights, moneylenders. All should be equal before God, monasteries and castles to be destroyed, and Panama - leaving palaces to settle in simple huts and work. Those nobles who fulfill this requirement will be taken to the new ideal community of people, and those who resist establishing fair manner, will have to enforce or execute.
Fig. Thomas Myuntsera
It was a call to rebellion to establish the kingdom of God, and Anabaptists expected rebellion and preparing it. When the summer of 1524 on the upper Rhine began separate peasants rebellions went there anabaptystski preachers.
Ideas Myuntsera and Anabaptists in Germany supported by most of the poorest people. Luther's ideas are frightened. As showed further events, the ways Luther and supporters of building on the land by force the kingdom of God parted.
Peasants' War began with a speech in the summer of 1524, which the government at first ignored. But the riots did not stop and even spread. Spring uprising sweptо southern Germany. Farmers stretch from Panama, and ozbroyuvalys created groups. They burned the castles, ruined monasteries and seized property distributed equally, to join the rebel commoners and small knights. From their help has been developed most popular among German farmers in the years War program called "12 articles".It put forward demands the abolition of personal dependence of peasants and tithing reduce handling and serfdom. Penalties peasants were made at the court, and not masters. Priest of each village had to choose rural community. Compilers "12 articles" knew and understood the wishes of farmers and their well-expressed. During Peasant War, this program is reprinted 25 times.
Representatives burghers and knights raised "Heylbronnsku program. It expressed the requirements of strengthening imperial power, abolition of customs duties within the country, introduction of common coins and measures. Farmers were exempt from personal dependence for price of 20-fold value in tax. In implementing the requirements of this program were primarily interested entrepreneurs as they create conditions for development market relations.
Peasant Flame War spread throughout Germany. Peasant groups often struggling in their native lands. Relieved of their hated masters, went home. When hastily assembled troops of noble cavalry attacked, the villagers could not against them together.
Confusion among peasants intensified after Luther angrily condemned the rebels and urged them lay down their arms. Luther declared that the peasants' personal dependence does not contradict Scripture, and therefore oppose it - sin. Thomas Myuntsera from the beginning struggle was with revolted. He personally led uprisings in Thuringia (Central Germany).
To suppress rebellion German princes assembled large, well-armed army of noble cavalry and mercenaries. In May 1525 near the city of insurgents Frankenhauzena was destroyed. From 8000th peasant 5 thousand troops were killed. Wounded Thomas Myuntsera captured, and the brutal torture of 92 supporters together was executed. Around that time the rebellion was suppressed and the South Germany. When the villagers learned about this defeatMany of They refused further fight. Although some districts performances lasted until mid 1526, Peasants' War ended in defeat.
Across Germany reaching its showdown with the rise, even though M. Luther reminded the winners of Christian charity, condemned "... ferocious, violent, those who are not aware of what they do, tyrants, and that even after the battle can not pohamuvaty their bloodlust ...". For a long time in Germany did not abate penalties. The number of deaths and executed in the peasant war in Germany exceeded 100 thousand.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. With pamphlet Ulrich von Huttena "Vadysk, or Roman triad "
"Three things Rome conquers everything yourself: violence, guile and hypocrisy. Three things invented to squeeze gold from foreign countries: trade in indulgences, a fictional war against the Turks and papal authority legates in barbarian lands. Three things always take care in Rome, although never bring them to the end: saving souls, the restoration of temples that dissolved, and the Turkish raids. About three things can not tell the truth: the Pope, of indulgence and of wickedness. Three things to do reluctantly in Rome: keep the words, help the other and inferior way ... Three things wants everyone in Rome: a brief prayer, good gold, life, full enjoyment. Three things make rice that distinguishes Rome: the pope, old buildings and moneymaking ...".
1. To whom pamphlet directed Ulrich von Huttena?
2. What its main idea?
2. Excerpt from "95 Theses" M. Luther
"... Every Christian, if only really regrets, gets full remission of sins without indulgences. The real treasure of the church is, of course, no release, and the holy Gospel of greatness and mercy of God.
... Christians must be taught that he who sees poor and, nevertheless, gives money for indulgences, does not receive remission Pope, the wrath of God ...
... To suggest that cross release, decorated with coats of arms of the pope and installed in the temples, has the same value of Cross of Christ is blasphemy ...".
1. Against what M. Luther acted?
2. What implications for the Catholic Church would warrant its performance?
3. Excerpts from letters of Luther's "Against predatory and armed peasant hordes "
"Three years of terrible sins against God and people draw troubles over these peasants. First, they swore to their masters in loyalty and commitment, be humble and obedient ... However, because they ... rise up against their masters, they naklykaly penalty for body and soul ...
Second, because they started a revolt, blatantly steal and rob the monasteries and castles, which they do not belong, then only twice so they must die physically and spiritually ... Mutiny - is not manslaughter, he is like a big fire that incinerate and exhausts the country. So everyone who can, should they beat, strangle, stab secretly or openly and remember that there can be nothing otruynishoho, destructive, nothing more devilish than a rebel. It must kill as mad dog ...".
What was the attitude M. Luther to rebel peasants?
1. Fold plan report, "The situation in Germany at the beginning of XVI century." and answer the question the plan.
2. What role in life of Germany in the early XVI century. played by cities and princes?
3. Expand the role of humanists in the preparation of the Reformation in Germany.
4. What population of Germany and why were dissatisfied with the domination of the Catholic church?
5. What is Reformation? What was the occasion for it?
6.Describe the basic views of Luther.
7. What is the People's Reformation? What form it has in Germany?
8. How different are the views of Luther M. and T. Myuntsera?
9. Describe the program rebels. Determine which groups people meet each application.
10. Spread the word Peasant course of the war in Germany. What were its consequences?
Note the dates:
1517 - Speech M. Luther against the sale of indulgences, the beginning of the Reformation in Germany.
1524-1526 biennium - The Peasant War in Germany.