§ 4. Daily Life Western Europe
1.As changed life for Europeans of the Middle Ages?
2.As look medieval city?
3.What ate the Europeans in the Middle Ages?
1. Population of Europe
During the XVI - first half of XVII century. Europe's population is constantly growing. It concerns above the XVI century. During which the population of European countries increased from 69 million to 95-100 million people. The average population density in Europe increased to 30-35 people per 1 square. km, which is approximately one third of current level. Population growth was particularly marked after terrible times plague (Black Death) that ravaged Europe in the XIV century. In the first half XVII. growth rate decreased, and in the middle of the century population of European countries amounted to 110-115 million people. Reasons for increase population were to increase fertility, improving living conditions changes in the diet of Europeans.
Average duration life was 30-35 years, which does not exclude the presence of people who reached old age. Most of the men died at the age of 40-60, women - 20-40 years. As before, the infant mortality remained high: only half of them reached the age of ten. It was connected with the lack of medical care during childbirth, disregard of basic rules of hygiene. Hospital in modern sense simply did not exist, were only shelters for the terminally sick, elderly and disabled people.
Terrible health conditions, especially in urban areas contributed to the spread of diseases and epidemics. In XVI - first half XVII. some parts of Europe have repeatedly struck plague. Under an outbreak of plague in the years 1629-1631, which encompassed almost the entire Mediterranean, died more than half the urban population. German plague devastated the land in 1624-1630, 1634-1639 and in the end he was the Thirty Years War. The loss of population in these countries accounted for 60-75%. Significant were also the loss of epidemics smallpox, cholera, typhoid.
Population of Europe not just died from epidemics, but also from hunger in lean years, fires, war devastated. Especially notable were the loss of war, associated with the beginning use of firearms and the mass murder of civilians that become standard practice of warfare. During the uprising in the Netherlands against Spanish rule Duke Alba, who led the punitive expedition testified King Philip VI: "If I have admiration for Alkmaar, the creature is no remain alive. Each will cut his throat with a knife. " Were enormous lost during civil wars in France and the first pan Thirty Years War. Estimates are that only in the XVII century. Europe lost in war 3 million people.
Epidemics, famine and war were the main factors limiting population growth, affect the movement of population and the daily life of XVI - first half XVII.
2. European Cities change their appearance
Most of the population Europe at that time were farmers. Citizens accounted for 10-20% of the population. Only exceptions were the Netherlands, where there was a small region about 300 cities and their inhabitants 60% of units of the total population. Most cities preserved medieval appearance. They were small, with 3-5 thousand people separated from world around the ancient walls, with narrow streets, where even not withered in the summer of mud and feeding pigs. However, there were city-giants. Europe remained the largest city with a population of Paris 300 thousand souls. He conceded to Naples (270 thousand), London and Amsterdam (200 thousand), Venice and Antwerp (150 thousand), Rome, Milan, Genoa, Bruges, Prague (100 thousand shower). These city-giants demanded daily supply of food, coal, necessities. Ways like blood vessels connecting them of villages and towns from where came the necessary things for their existence. Villagers surrounding towns specialized in producing necessary products. On the road appeared inns, warehouses for merchants who bought peasant production and supplied its cities.
Big cities were consumers not only products but also the centers of attraction for those who are not afraid CONVENTIONAL leave rural home in search of better lives. It is here were those who felt the strength and desire to get an education, learn crafts, or those who chased from the village of deadlock and the threat of starvation. Not everyone, of course, achieved desired. Many people have always remained in shacks suburbs.
Unlike suburbs, downtown was all the cell where the wealthy lived citizens, placed public buildings, churches, town hall, banks, offices lawyers. Due to lack of space for building more expensive land in the center city, which stimulated construction of apartment buildings. In XVI - first half XVII. European cities have started to grow up. At the same time changed appearance of cities. Laid straight wide streets that city on peredilyaly separate quarters. Italian architects were the first in Europe to develop Projects ideal city, composed of squares or circles located houses surrounded by trees and fountains. Cities need of sewer and water supply, which had put an end to disease and antysanitariyi. In the XVI century. Projects began to be realized in practice. In the ruined cities of Italy medieval houses, new wide paved streets, built multi-storey buildings and rozplanovuvaly large squares. It was then turned to architecture classes artisans in the art. After a while the pattern of Italian cities have changed your view of Paris and London. Gradually European cities acquired a modern look.
3. European Accommodation
For XVI - First half XVII Art. internal and external appearance homes of peasants and townspeople of European countries has changed. In XVI Art. most European countries, farmers built their homes in southern Europe stone in the north - from the tree. The roof of a house made of straw or reeds. Inside the building some rooms do not usually have - all family members lived in common room. For home heating and cooking used fire. Furniture in the peasant villages was very little: a simple table benches, chests for items, one or two stools and loft bed instead. Food prepared in the cauldron that hung over the fire, and ate mostly from a common dish for bowls and mugs at all lacking. Peasant home for a long time not changed, remaining such as in the past.
But housing while the townspeople were significant changes. In cities appears more and more stone houses. In Italy, Spain and South France stone built house in the middle ages. From XVI Art. Dress stone in Paris and London. Appearance of the building was convincing evidence of his wealth the ruler. Simple commoners windows of their homes delayed parchment or oiled paper, and wealthy inserted into the window glass and even made stained glass. Floors in the house wealthy city dwellers were covered with stone or ceramic tile, and rich ordered the masters of the parquet floor contained ornaments. People of the city limited to wood floors. The roof of their house to know the city began with XVII Art. valuable tiles cover.
Usual for our paper wallpaper appeared in Europe in particular XVII Art. At first they may adorn the homes of ordinary townspeople, who were unable upholstered walls of their homes and expensive fabric or carved wood cover panels, and later became popular, and among the nobility. In the homes of wealthy burghers were living, where the owner received guests, bedrooms, dining room, working master room and separate rooms for servants. If the house belonged to artisans or merchant, then on the first floor contained a shop, where goods are sold or trade office.
Furniture and things were evidence of wealth of the owner. Precious vessels exposed to special shelves. Various items and clothing stored in a trunk, which decorated with ornaments and paintings. Italian furniture maker being considered in Europe trendsetter, the first to put your chest upright. Yes XVI Art. appeared closet. Advantages over trunk cabinets were great: the way now can be decomposed into individual shelves, and easy to find when needed. More one invention decorated in Italian XVII Art. room house owner: it was the office - working desk with stylish cabinets and cupboards with numerous drawers for storing papers and secret storage required for jewelry. He was in the house and the usual table, surrounded by benches. But next to it appeared chair, mostly decorated with carvings and inlaid, for head of the family. Wealthy Europeans XVI Art. already arranged in their dwellings special bathrooms. Their appearance in homes caused that people afraid to visit recently popular municipal baths. This was associated with proliferation of dangerous new diseases - syphilis, imported to Europe after opening of the New World. However, the level of hygiene was the majority extremely low, and rich imagination of it all was almost comical.
The daughter of Spanish King Philip II Isabella gave promise not pereminyaty shirt until it man, the governor Netherlands Albrecht, not the city will win Ostend. It happened 1601 Princess remained as she was close, true to its promise to 1604, when finally the city was captured ...
4. European food XVI-XVII centuries.
Man XVI - first half XVII. still not completely free of the psychological fear of hunger, which had the Europeans during the Middle Ages. But then life became easier, and a rich meal and prostolyudtsya - tastier.
Solemn dinner in a wealthy Europeans have made a great impression on our contemporary. Tables were placed in a letter "P". At the head table sat the host and most distinguished guests. At tables covered with embroidered tablecloths were gold and silver salt cellar, sousnytsi. Everyone had his own plate, spoon and knife. Customary for us Europeans do not use a fork. Most used fork bidental only in order to take meat from the joint plates, and then ate his hands. Only in the middle XVIII Art. fork has been a subject of general consumption.
Rules good taste XVI — XVII Art. recommended to take all the meat is hand and three fingers. And in order not to obpekty hand, had to wear gloves to dinner. By the way, rules etiquette offered not to spit in the plate, use a handkerchief to the nose, not sleeve and wipe fat fingers on his hair.
The very first on the table attracted the attention of a huge amount of meat. During lunch on the table served to 10 kinds of dishes with meat. All dishes prepared with great number of eastern spices, which became available to Europeans. Only in the late XVII. capture spices went down. As before, the usual drink Europeans remained grape wine. However, from the XVI century. in Europe began to acquire popular use of "burning wine" - a strong liquor. Still, alcohol abuse in Europe zasudzhuvalosya sharply. For dessert submitted cooked in sugar fruit or nuts. In XVI - first half XVII. Europeans began to consume a lot of sugar due to its receipt from the colonies New World. For poor people a sugar treat, and for the wealthy - the usual product.
Special place in European diet occupied For at least 150 days of religious fasts, fish was the main food of man.
Peasants and poor commoners ate much smaller than the nobility, although their menu was much more varied. During lunch at their table were cereal, cheese, eggs, bread, oil and butter, and appeared in festivals okosty and sausage. Good Supplement to the table were vegetables from your garden or the bazaar, as well as berries, nuts and fruit.
In XVI - first half XVII. food most Europeans improved. During the Middle Ages, when hunger was commonplace companion of most populations in Europe were forgotten.
5. Capricious fashion
The changes that began in all spheres of life of Europeans, and swept the world of clothing. Usually spread not just to dress and follow fashion, changing annually fashions dresses and camisole. Still, not a whirlpool fashion conquered all. Clothing and poor peasants remained unchanged. Ignoring fashion - a sad tradition poor, no matter when and where she lived. Farmers had one constant work clothes and festive dress, which passed from parents to children.
Wealthy Europeans become the social strata that make in XVI - first half XVII. ensued kingdom of fashion. Every year the fashion madness increasingly embraced life nobility. Venetian ambassador at the court of French King Henry IV reported that "a man ... not considered wealthy if it has no toilets 25-30 different style and if it does not pereminyaye them daily. So in Europe vstanovlyuvalosya realm of fashion, the basic rule that was able to wardrobe change according to specific circumstances. Finally, this rule forged in Europe at the end of XVII century. Since then, the fashion spread in the world its new meaning: to keep pace with modernity. Public perceptions of fashion was evidence of his readiness for change and transformation. Today, researchers present Fernand Braudel age to identify this feature as follows: "The future belonged to ... societies that have learned to discard old tradition.
In Europe every year changed clothes fashions, pants and coats that were long, short, sleeve narrow or broad; collars that look like millstones of mills, then turned into subtle stripes. Changes in fashion, there was evidence that at that time was popular in Europe. Became a trendsetter who most admired Europeans.
At the end of XV - to beginning of the XVI century. trendsetter in Europe were Italians. Magnificent period costume Italian Renaissance, with wide sleeves, gold and silver sewing, brocade, yedvabom velvet and was an example for many European countries. In XVI century. in the higher strata of society became popular stern, buttoned up top black dress, introduced by the Spaniards. He seems to be symbolized Advantages of "global" empire of Catholic King. At the beginning of the XVII century. spread Dutch style - with lace collar and hat with mandatory high Tula. He personified the growth of a new European state - Holland. However, and this style is not long abstained. It replaced the French silk suit with a bright and free cuts.
Imitation fashion gradually evolved from Oddities of stimulus in the advancement of society. Because of her industries developed, trade, there were new businesses and industry.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. The English society of the second half XVII. according to the book "Description of England" (1587), William Harrison
"English aristocrats do not know any measures in the consumption of meat dishes. No day passes that on their table, except beef, lamb, veal, lamb meat, kozlyatiny, pork, rabbit meat, capons, pig ... no more deer or deer meat, and various game and fish, and in addition to their various specialties that they are not getting into "sweet" hand Portuguese, who travels the seas.
... Gentlemen, and merchants eat almost same: everyone at the meeting satisfied 4, 5 or 6 dishes, or perhaps 1, 2 or 3, preferably when no one who could make them company at the table. Their servants assigned software products food, but residues Did landlord table that has never served again. Craftsmen and farmers the most value to the flesh, which can more easily obtain and quickly cook ... Their diet mainly consists of beef and meat butcher who trades such as: lamb, veal, pork, lamb meat and more. This is plenty of meat on the nearest markets, as well as brawn, aspic, ham, fruit, fruit pies, a large number of poultry, butter, eggs, etc.
The latter (I mean the farmers) as abusing food, especially during festivals and weddings, when just impossible to imagine consume much meat. Bread making in the country out of the grain, which gives the land. However, the nobility, of course, provides plenty of white bread itself, while servants and poor neighbors met rye or barley, and in times of high prices - Bread with beans, peas or oats, or of all of this together and even with the addition of acorns, because to get any better, they can not. "
1.What was Lunch English aristocrat, merchant and farmer?
2.How affected prices for the diet of people?
1. As changed the population of Europe during the XVI - the first half of XVII century.?
2. What factors limit population growth?
3. That changed as the European cities of that era? What was their resemblance of medieval towns?
4. Describe rich and simple life of Europeans in the XVI - first half XVII.
5. What housing contemporary modern Europeans like?
6. Imagine that European city dweller you XVI century. Make your normal menu and festive afternoon.
7. What changes then occurred in the rules of conduct at the table?
8. What role Fashion has played in the development of contemporary society?