Theme II. EARLY MAN'S A NEW DAY
§ 3. Mateеrialnyy world and society
1.In the example conditions of great geographical discoveries expand the relationship between new invention and development of society.
2.What were main features of handicraft production?
3.What is states? What rights and obligations were three states of medieval society?
1. The era of inventions and improvements
Day from start Age of Discovery to the middle of XVII century. was the time when Europe turned technological progress - a large number of different inventions and technical improvements. The Europeans have not borrowed inventions made by the Arabs, Chinese and Indians, as before, and they did open, far ahead of other nations.
One of the main areas of scientific research was the Europeans improve energy sources and engines. Obviously, the main "engine" of ancient times - beef man - remained, and nothing could replace it. That person turned the potter's wheel, constrained in motion a variety of machines. However, human mind, not giving up this "engine", able to improve other mechanisms.
It was improved wheel, which resulted in movement watermill. Its diameter reached tens of meters. With this in mills in second half XVII. began to produce 37 kg of flour per hour (in XII century. produced 17 kg).
In the first half XVI century. in Holland learned use as an energy source in the industry windmills. With energy windmills polehshuvalasya hard work in the mining business, podribnyuvalasya Ore, invoked in traffic grinding device, drills, saws, pumps, presses and others.
Great value little improving the design and technology Screw manufacturing - An important element of any device that transmits energy. First, did the screws by hand, cutting them from wood or metal. Then, when the lathe was invented (1568) and developed casting screws, bronze and brass, an opportunity to improve production processes in other areas.
In Nuremberg, about 1550 first start using screw printing press. This greatly improved print quality and the number of printed letters: in the beginning of the XVI century. printed 300 emails per day, the century - more than 1000 letters.
Significant changes have occurred in the mining business. Coal mining and ore from which received iron, copper, silver, belonged to the oldest classes. In XVI-XVII centuries. in mining production has already used pumps to drain the mines water transporters to raise ore to the surface, creating a system in mines ventilation. In Slovakia midnorudnyh industries in the XVI century. first time to deliver ore to the place of processing used-car, dragged them on wooden rails horses. Shortly time the invention was used in British coal mines. Later, in the era of steam engines, used this idea to create a railway replacing wooden rails with metal. Replacement of manual labor or horse mechanical traction allowed to significantly increase the productivity of miners.
In XVI-XVII centuries. Europeans improvements to existing Technology melting metals. Growing demand for metal products by launched development of a new world has stimulated search for ways to increase their production, which proceeded in two directions. First, the improved process of melting and construction of melting furnaces. At the end of XIV century. in Europe began use a blast furnace. Thanks to the improvement of melting learned receive iron and stainless steel. Second, expanded production coal, which was greater than the temperature of combustion of peat and charcoal. Trying to replace charcoal stone was also linked to the rapid decrease in the XVI century. forests. For the first time man saw her story as a result of its activities began to disappear natural resources. This prompted city authorities to begin regulating the use of forests. For the purposes of steel vidvodylysya separate areas of forests, made new landing trees, but it did not solve the problem.
Use coal was impossible because of the impurities in it that deterioration of quality metal. Exit was found in 20's of the XVI century. When English learned to produce the Stone coal coke, burning with it in special furnaces harmful contaminants. England, which had large deposits of coal suitable for the production Coke, it became a main manufacturer and supplier. Gradually Europeans are convinced that Coke makes more heat and are use it in production and home heating. However, the final coke replaced charcoal only from the XVIII century.
Therefore in the XVI - first half of XVII century. was a lot of inventions - improvements that contributed to the development of the European economy and laid the foundation for deployment process of industrialization in the second half of XVII-XVIII centuries.
2. Market relations and the villagers
In the XVI century. old rural world began to change. During the Middle Ages the main person of this world were peasants and feudal lords. Farmers, except land owned by all necessary for life: tools, housing, working cattle. To gain ground in its holder - superior, and the farmers paid him rent. They were seniors perform certain work and give a part of their products economy. At first, in order to keep the peasants on his own farm seniors turned them into dependent people, depriving personal freedom. But gradually understanding that a free man is better than type, seniors encouraged farmers to return personal freedom. Feudal peasants provided additional allotments, allowing them independently economy subject to the handling and payment of cash rent. Some villagers ransomed in seniors with their personal freedom. Between the peasants and seniors who owned the land comprised new business. Senior already not considered a protector, a farmer had to obey, but only the owner of the land rent which was to regularly pay money.
Farmer into a self- owner. He supplied their products to market, pidrahovuvav that products have the greatest demand in the nearest town, and that no. Not everyone peasant, of course, reached success: one lucky and they became wealthy, while others ruined. Development of market relations in rural areas has led to property stratification among peasants. Wealthy villagers asked the superior of the requests give them rent additional land. Sometimes villagers are even rented the entire superior land and became richer from it. For a wealthy farmers hired for a small fee for food or just their impoverished villagers who could not pay the rent money and lost their land. Seniors much more pleasant to deal with one or two large tenants who regularly paid rents than with dozens of owners of small plots. This prompted seniors sometimes deliberately displace less wealthy peasants from their holdings and give it out to new owners.
In the village acquired spread of wage labor. Personal dependence gave way to economic dependence of employees Did their owners.
3. Capitalism in cities
In European cities at the beginning of the XVI century. biggest asset holdings merchants. Through international trade, using the difference between wholesale and selling prices (Especially in colonial goods) and its monopoly on the markets European merchants gained a lot of money. But invest the money in production development in the city was very difficult. In this way of standing medieval guild statutes, which eventually turned into the foundation of obstacles new businesses. Guild rules to determine the size of workshops, number machines and workers. Instead of creating equal conditions for development of guild rules hampered its development.
First Merchants invested their money in various bank transactions. While in the cities Europe appeared banking offices, stock exchanges, which concluded the agreement was carried out various commercial operations. For the convenience of merchants began use in a variety of mutual payments, securities, promissory notes, payment orders and receipts.
Bankers and merchants, gradually turned into one of the most influential forces of society, remaining representatives of the unprivileged Third Estate, which, unlike clergy and nobility had to pay taxes. But their real power and weight in society have become much more: sometimes they even borrowed money king to impoverished monarchs could fight wars, keep the courts. Thus, of course, bankers do not forget about their interests and lent money only when they are convinced in their own profits.
4. The appearance of manufactories
Increase demand in Europe and the newly established colonies on the various products was impetus to the emergence of major new enterprises that were called manufactory (From Lat. manufactura - making hands).
Most often such Enterprise encountered in weaving and foremost suknarstvi.
As they create? Businessman, merchant or guild master, when increased demand on wool cloth purchased and distributed it to various artisans recycling specialties. Distribution of buying raw materials and finished products in the master set dependence on a specialized craftsmen who often lose the right ownership of instruments of production continued to work on it at home. Such an enterprise called fragmented manufactory.
In this organization of work in weaving and in particular, various artisans suknarstvi specializations in their areas carried out by washing and pre-processing wool spinning, weaving, dyeing and fabric processing. Hired agents for behalf of the owner, was carried out mediation in the process production.
Most effective form of new business was centralized manufactory, when All manufacturing operations were carried out under one roof of hired employees who were not owners of implements - they themselves acquired entrepreneur and unilaterally set the amount of work and reward you get for it all. These enterprises manual work prevailed - no machines or tools, invoked that would move differently than human muscles are not used. Each employee thanks to our small, simple operations, division of labor performing a certain part of labor. This, as well as by improving production process and tools to centrally Manufactory produced more goods than dispersed Manufactory. The fact centralized manufactories were much less scattered because their creation was the entrepreneur must have a lot more money.
So manufactory - a large enterprise, which used manual tools, there was division of labor among workers. Through division of labor workers The factory produced many more products than the artisan.
From appearance of manufactories in society, new social strata - hired workers and entrepreneurs, or bourgeoisie(From France. bourgeois - Citizen). The name extended to owners manufactories because most of them lived in cities. In furthering XVI Art. and later, almost to the end of the next century, manufactury production was one of the main form of political development Europe
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Description of exchange in Antwerp Italian merchant Lodoviko Hvichchardini
"Local and foreign merchants engaged here daily operations with huge bills, and mortgage products. Here's how occurs in the morning and evening. At specific times of the English merchants are Exchange, where for an hour through various and numerous Brokers engaging in transactions with goods. Then they go to the New Exchange, where the majority of buyers going, and again in an hour stack through a broker agreement, this time on mortgage bills.
Sense of calculations with the use of bills is that in Antwerp are in debt or make any amount of money must return or get somewhere in Italy (or elsewhere); operation when taking or give money in one place with the obligation to accept or return in another, invented for the convenience of trade, but some merchants, mainly the rich are not satisfied by this and through covetousness, greed and constant desire greater benefits spoiled this honest operation. They then invest the money then, on the contrary, they take large amounts of exchange, make money market unstable and thus enriched, while others are hurt ... Now will talk about the mortgage operations. Yes, hiding evil things, called Now for a fixed term loans with interest ... percentage set in 12% per annum, Their Majesties have agreed to such a high rate in order to avoid major difficulties for buyers in a difficult time, but as shown life and examples of past high interest very difficult for poor people, and trade also hurt itself because human dishonesty continually increases.
1. What is operations with bills and mortgage?
2. How use notes facilitated the conclusion of trade agreements?
3. Why do your opinion, the author believed that the high interest on loans to disturb trade?
2. Description centralized factory (for English ballad about John suknarya Uyichkomba)
"In a spacious room and a long standing two hundred strong and mighty machines: these machines worked two hundred men all in one number. Next to each of them sat on a fine boy, which great enthusiasm prepared shuttle. In addition, in an adjacent room, one hundred women without rest chesaly wool with funny faces and singing songs. The following room to work one hundred girls in red skirts, white as milk, headscarves, and these beautiful girls all day up in wisdom spun and sang amazing, like nightingale, voices. They then went to the next room where they poorly dressed children, they all sat and skubaly wool separating fine from coarse, they were one hundred and fifty, children of poor, weak parents as a reward for their work each of them received one every night penny, except that they drink and eat during the day. For poor people this It was a great help. In the next room he saw still 50 young men - a were shearer who showed here his art and skills. Next to them worked 80 fuller. Besides, he still had the painting, in which held 40 men and cloth factory, where 20 more workers. "
1. .What are the facts presented in the document indicate thatThat:
a) Manufactory was large enterprise;
b) it worked salaried workers;
c) used hand tools;
d) there was division of labor.
2.Consider how many people worked on the factory. What was their occupation?
3.What in the text are facts, and that poetic fiction author?
1.What inventions and improvements were made by Europeans in the XVI - first half of XVII Art.? What is the significance of these inventions for the development of European countries?
2.How did rural life influenced the spread of market relations?
3.What is manufactory? As organized work the factory?
4.Specify main differences from the factory artisan.
5.What changes occurred in the structure of society in a fledgling market economy?