§ 2. Conquest of the New World
1.Where laid the main trade routes from the East to the XVI century. ?
2.What do aware of the level of social development of peoples pre-Columbian America?
3. What were understanding of the Earth in the Middle Ages?
1. Conquistadors in the New World
In 1495 , the King and Queen of Spain issued a decree that allowed everybody offer expeditions to new lands in the West searching for gold. Two-thirds found gold they would give to the royal treasury. This immediately solved the Spanish crown two important problem: get rid of the dangerous forces which were numerous militant Hidalgo (nobles), who found no employment at home and provide new a source of revenue.
At first Spaniards seized the islands, built a fortress on them, settling for immigrants from Spain, paved roads, created a sugar plantation cane, spices.
Since 1510 began a new phase Konkisty (Spanish conquista - conquest) of America - land development of the continent. In 1517-1518 he groups Hernan de Cordoba and Juan HrihalvyIn search of new slaves landed on the Yucatan peninsula. But the conquistadors was an surprise. Instead hyzh primitive natives, whom they saw on the islands Caribbean Sea, before they faced great cities, pyramids, temples, covered with strange patterns. It was the Maya civilization - the oldest of pre-Columbian civilizations of America. The Indians did little resistance, because the Spaniards uvyzhalysya their gods, their appearance zhahaly riders on horseback, to the unprecedented and sound of firearms. Temples Spaniards found many gold things and found that gold Mayan Aztecs get out of the country, located at north of the Yucatan.
On the conquest State Aztecs moved in 1519 the Spanish squad led by Fernando CortNumbering 400 soldiers, Spaniards, 16 riders, 200 Indians and 13 guns. Vysadyvshys ashore, Cortes ordered burn the ship, explaining that the retreat and return home is not going. Acting decisively and brutally, Cortes conquered the Aztecs.
Seizure detachment Cortez Aztec state was one of the most successful military operations in history. Cortez relatively small losses conquered the whole of the country. Aztec ruler Moctezuma met Spaniards as Friend and invited them to his state capital - Tenochtitlan, which was located middle of the lake. But Cortes cultivated black metrics. When Moctezuma with their went close to the palace, where he settled Cortez, Spaniards suddenly shut gate of the palace and captured Montesumu captured. At the palace the Spaniards found the treasure Aztecs, where they gathered for centuries jewelry, and robbed her.
In the night of sorrow " Aztecs tried to free their ruler, but the Spaniards killed Montesumu. Cortes ordered to retreat. When the Spaniards attacked the Aztecs in a great panic crowded on the bridge over the dam, he collapsed. In the abyss of falling horses Spaniards were wounded. When a pile of bodies filled the abyss Cortez escaped in solids former comrades from the trap, taking treasures. In the night of sorrow, "Cortes lost and army comrades, but got the gold. Later, writing a report on the events of that Night King of Spain, he, however, wrote that lost in the waters of the lake all the treasures Aztecs.
A year later, Cortez F. back and recaptured the capital of the Aztecs. City of Tenochtitlan was destroyed and on its ruins Cortez established a new capital - Mexico City.
Cortez was governor of "New Spain" (so-called Spanish Mexico). For several years he conquered all of Mexico. Spaniards have won if not the richest in World gold and silver mines. However, towards the complete subjugation of the country Cortez was waiting for disappointment. Nephew Montezuma, last Aztec ruler Kuautemok hid most of the gold, no torture and no forced him clue. That gold is not found till now.
Simultaneously with the conquest of Mexico by Spanish conquistadors moved to South America, along its Pacific coast. Conquerors attracted by stories of fabulous wealth Biru (or Peru). These lands while the Inca empire existed.
The conquest of the state Inca Trail in 1532 made a conquistador Francisco Pizarro with detachment, which consisted of 62 riders and 102 infantrymen.
Pizarro tricks captured prisoner "supreme cu" Atahualpu, while destroying three thousand Incas. The rest of the Indians, lose leader, fled. When Atahualpa knew that Spaniards are most interested in gold, he suggested for their freedom extraordinary redemption: fill a room in 35 square meters. m in height of the raised hands of gold and slightly less room - filled with silver twice. Pizarro agreed to this. Two Months collected Incas jewelry to make her governor. According to rough estimates, the ransom was 60 quintals of gold and 120 quintals of silver. However, this did not save lives Atahualpy - Pizarro had him executed.
After death "High Incas" units Spanish conquerors scattered across the country, plundering temples and palaces. All looted gold they rozplavlyaly destroying unique works of art of the Incas.
As a result of gains South America was the Spanish colonizers established authority.
2. First Colony. Indians after Age of Discovery
At the open lands of the New World adventurers rushed and light food. Conquered the land they turned to colony- Territory, economically and politically dependent metropolis - Countries which possessed colonies.
Fire and Sword devil they new land. Violence conquistadors outrage even among most Spaniards. Witness the events Spanish bishop las Casas wrote: "When Spaniards winning Indian settlement, the victims of their fury were older, children and women ... They have driven the Indians, like sheep, protections in place and competed with each one better rozrubaye Indian half with one blow ...". This "Policy" of the Spaniards the Indians led to a catastrophic reduction local population. In 1630 in Central America remained only 3% population that lived there in pre-Columbian era.
In those lucky escape, the Spaniards were taken of the earth, and most Indians were forced to work in mines vydobuvayuchy gold and silver. The Indians soon died; killed themselves and their loved ones not to be slaves. Catholic priests force navertaly them to Christianity. Those who would not renounce the faith of their ancestors, tortured, burned alive.
Indians increasingly more endangered by too heavy labor, famine, disease. To replace dead on hard work in America began to import black slaves from Africa. For one black servant to nevilnytskyh markets of Brazil in the XVI century. paid 15 times more than the slave-Indians. With thousands of slaves, which captured in Africa and transported on ships across the ocean, surviving no more than half, but it provided the traders 'slave' extraordinary profits. Slave trade was profitable business in America and lasted into the first half of the XIX Art.
Perhaps not surprisingly, millions of indigenous inhabitants of America refused celebrate 500 years of its discovery by Columbus. "For us, Indians America - they say - no language at all about "meeting of two cultures" - has been invasion, alienation of our territories and colonial oppression. " In historical memory of these people forever vkarbuvavsya horror of crime newly captors. Konkistu they viewed solely as a crime against humanity.
3. Implications and significance of the Great geographical discoveries
Geographical discoveries had huge impact on economic life across Europe. If previously Major trade routes ran across the Mediterranean and the Baltic Sea, they are now shifted to the oceans. An world trade; that configured connections between different continent. In open continents, to colonies carried articles of iron, weapons, textiles and more. To Europe from America Asia and brought tobacco, coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, gold, silver, jewelry. Began forming the world market as part of the economy of the new society.
Place Italy as the most advanced trading country in Europe took the first Portugal and Spain, and later - the Netherlands and England. New center of business activity are the following European cities as Cadiz and Seville in Spain, Antwerp and Amsterdam in the Netherlands, London in England.
Europeans have learned amazing grow crops - corn, tobacco, tomato. Use in food potatoes, maize, sugar, ground nuts, tropical fruits, meat, turkey proved very useful. Besides food resources continent doubled. With the spread of potato Europeans finally got rid of the threat of starvation. Corn was nutritious food for people and good fodder. The development of sugar production in Brazil and its export Europe have led to the emergence of new sectors of the food industry. Sweets become available not only wealthy but also ordinary people. On the Europeans came various fish dishes.
The immediate The discovery was also creation colonial system. The first created a colonial empire and Portugal Spain, later - Holland, England and France. Possession of colonies brought Member colonizers huge profits and contributed to the development of their economy.
One of the major consequences was the Age of Discovery "Price revolution". In the 40's of the XVI century. price of many commodities began rapidly grow, surprising and revolting accustomed to steady prices in Europe. Price bread in the XVI century. increased 5-7 times. Europeans accused of buyers, speculators in high prices, but the cause of high prices was that number of gold and silver, imported from America to Europe and India, was extremely large. Estimates to 1600 it was about 186 t gold and 16 thousand t silver. This led to a significant reduction of gold and silver money and corresponding increase in commodity prices, which, in turn, led to significant and cost of living.
In Europe Prices increased in different ways. The largest and the fastest they have grown in Spain end of the XVI century. exceeding five times the price beginning of the century. Elsewhere - Germany, England, Netherlands - Prices began to rise only in the second half XVI century. This process was much slower: the average price increased 2.5 timesи.
The "price revolution" were its victims and its winners. This was impetus to the agrarian revolution in Eastern and Central Europe. Seniors, seeking to increase agricultural production, capture the country and public land, they created large estates. Farmers lost their land - the only source of its existence. Instead of handling or Cash rents for land they had superior vidroblyaty serfdom. Many villagers threw his farm and went to seek work in city.
Dissolve precious metals, the demand for craft products through the establishment of colonies in New World led to emergence of new companies, manufactoriesWhere division of labor through vyhotovlyalosya much more output than the artisan.
Epoch Вelykyh geographical discoveries covered a comparatively short period of time - From the end of the XV to the middle of XVII century. A half century - a period of slight history, but this time there were huge changes in the way people world that surrounded them. On the world map, new continents, islands, trade routes. Already had no doubt that the Earth is a ball. Age of Discovery were impetus to new research. Rozpochynalysya search for the legendary Southern continent (Australia), known myths of antiquity. Appeared huge material for the development of other natural sciences - geography, biology, astronomy, physics and chemistry.
Human mind increasingly immersed in the unknown. Rozpochynalasya new era in the history of humanity ...
Geographic discovery changed the usual picture of the world for Europeans. For the first time they felt how is a huge and diverse environment. He did not quit on European Bankи, Omyvanim ocean waves and rozprostoryuvavsya too far.
Age of Discovery caused far-reaching changes in many spheres of life in contemporary Europe, launched a new time in history.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. From "History of India" Bartolom
"The Indians ... worked in those days continuously, and all the important work they put cruel overseers - Spanish ... These guards treated them so harshly and cruelly inhuman, not giving them a moment of respite nor day nor night, which reminded the ministers hell. They beat the Indians and dryukamy sticks, slapped them without ears gushing whips, beat down, and they have not heard from them laskavishyh words than "Dog" and then tortured and rough treatment of a continuous behavior Supervisors ... and intolerable work without any rest, knowing that they have no future, but imminent death ... they were run in forests and mountains, trying to hide there, but instead formed the Spaniards special police, who detained under miserable and turned them back ...
This situation was caused by the fact that Spaniards while trying to extract gold as soon as possible and very hastily performed all the necessary work (and extraction of gold was unchanged and the main goal and concern). It is pulled by a depletion of loss of American Indians, who used to work a little, because fertile land is not required almost no work and give them food ... and now these people have poor health put to incredibly hard, grueling work and have worked continually. By six to eight months, until a group of Indians mined gold in the mines ... Moon died, and even a third of the workers.
Satisfied that it is up to the death of all ... Indians, and not worry while nothing but its enrichment, which would do more, the Spaniards decided that it would be nice ... bring here instead of the dead inhabitants of these islands as many slaves from other places. "
What are some methods spared Spaniards with Indians?
1. Estimate the actions of the Spaniards in the conquest of Mexico and Peru.
2. Look for common and differences in the actions of the Spaniards in America and the Portuguese in Asia.
3.What were the consequences for the Age of Discovery Indians?
4.Describe the changes in trade due to the large geographical discoveries.
5.What price revolution? What were its consequences? Who won and who lost from it?
6. As of Discovery influenced the development of scientific knowledge?
7. Make a plan for the story "of great importance for Europe geographical discoveries and prepare an answer for him.
Note the dates:
1495 – King and Queen of Spain issued a decree allowing all wishing to offer expeditions to new lands in the West searching for gold
1519 - capture Fernando Cort State Aztecs
1532 - conquest Francisco Pizarro Inca Empire