Theme II Age of InIKinootkrytie: MEETING Civilizations
§ 1. Indigenous
1. What understanding of the world dominated by the Middle Ages?
2. What were life and culture of India at the end of XV century.?
3. As you know about the life of the peoples of pre-Columbian America?
1. Causes and conditions of large geographical discoveries
Daily high geographical discovery was a watershed between the middle ages and the new time. It was then that mankind has accumulated enough knowledge and felt a need to know Earth with its unknown spaces.
End of the Middle Ages, trade with the East has become permanent. Various Oriental goods - spices, jewelry, textiles, etc. - have become familiar to Europeans. However, in the second half of the fifteenth century. situation much more complicated due to the annexation of the Turkish Ottoman Middle East. Various adjustments to trading caravans and ships, robbery, piracy did the trade very risky, unprofitable and irregular. A large number of intermediaries (Arabs, Italians), which led to the rise in commodities. Way to India via Egypt and the Red Sea is completely controlled by the Arabs who are not Europeans assumed here. Thus, the merchants of West and North-Eastern Europe on the far eastern markets was impossible dream.
Pepper and clove spices grown on the islands (modern Molucca Islands Sunda Archipelago) in the Pacific Ocean. Local residents brought them to light their boats, junks to Malacca (now Singapore), which sold for a tiny price Indian merchants. They brought spices to India, where Arab traders sold them, which navantazhyvshy their ships carried spices through the Indian Ocean to Egypt. In Egypt, the Arabs sold their precious cargo Venetian and Italian merchants. And only then began the way of spices to Europe. Each broker increased the price to get your benefit. Not surprisingly, during the journey By sweet (so called merchants of this route) the price of spices grown hundreds of times and they sold their weight in gold.
A growing number of merchants and seafarers Western countries thought about finding a new sea route to India, bypassing the Arabs and Turks.
To search for fabulous India's rich Europeans pushed another reason: for trade development establishment of new businesses needed gold and silver. In Western Europe it was not enough. At the same time the imagination of Europeans surprised Stories travelers who visited the East. Golden, tell you they have a very much and not export it from there ... To tell you the truth, the great palace there and covered with pure gold ... Another will tell you what floor apartments - and many of them there, - Covered with pure gold, two fingers thick, and everything in the palace - and halls, and windows - decorated with golden ornaments, "- wrote the Venetian merchant Marco Polo, who visited the East in the thirteenth century. After reading these stories, European adventurers not reflected where to find the desired gold and silver.
In the XVI century. become a major gold-digging reason that impelled the Europeans in dangerous expedition to fairyland East.
Preconditions large geographical discoveries important developments were made at that time in navigation and military affairs, namely:
1. The Portuguese in the XV Art. created a quick and easy sail for distant trips - caravel. It had three masts with square sails and slant and could move at any wind speed reaching 22 km per hour.
2. It was improved marine compass and map. Compass that appeared in Europe at the end of the XII century. Had view of the needle, you put a piece of wood that floated in the bowl of water. Magnetic needle strengthened with reel and rod nastromyly to that provided her resemblance to the modern marine compass. In the XIV century. , the first marine compass card - portolany that fairly accurately reflect the known Europeans land and sea, to which was affixed compass grid.
3. European pilots began using astrolabe invented by Arabs to identify location of a ship at sea by the stars.
4. Great value and little improvement in firearms: it was invented hand variety - harquebuse, pistols, muskets.
New Ways to countries East were the first to look for Portugal and Spain.
2. Portuguese Opening
Successful geographical location, mastering Arabic geography and mathematics, Naval Affairs helped transform Portugal <XV Art. on sea power. Getting geographical discoveries Portugal associated with the work of Prince Enrique mariner, talanlyvoho organizer marine expeditions in which participated not Only noblemen, but merchants. The path to the desired coast of India they tried to find proplyvshy along the west coast of Africa and rounded its southern edge. Simultaneously, Portuguese, starting from 40-ies <XV <Art. regularly sporyadzhaly expedition to West Africa for slaves, ivory, golden sand, spices. On the map of Africa were names "Pepper Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, the Slave Coast ". With new lands to the Portuguese treasury received huge profits.
In 1486 navigator Bartolomeу Dias (1450-1500) managed achieved by sailing along the western coast of Africa, its southern end and exit to the Indian Ocean, but had to turn back the threatened revolt seafarers. Southern Tip of Africa called the Cape of Good Hope - the hope that these pilots will be able to reach India.
Expedition, which found a sea route to India, led the 28-year old Portuguese Vasco da Gama (1469-1524). Summer 1497 he left with four ships from Lisbon. Proplyvshy along the western obmynuvshy coast of Africa and Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama reached Mozambique. They saw Arab ship laden with gold, silver, pearls and spices, it realized that wealth can be found in India. Despite the resistance of Arabs, he found a wire to the shores of India.
Fig. Vasco da Gama
May 20, 1498 Portuguese ships entered the Indian port of Calicut. According to one of the members of the expedition, they took pretty cool. Above gifts Portuguese Raja Calicut his steward laughed, saying that poorest merchant would have given more. Vasco da Gama commanded the expedition members buy spices. At the end of the year by downloading the ship and received a letter Raj to the king of Portugal, Vasco da Gama went home.
Almost a year has continued return to Portugal. Vasco da Gama was adopted by the Portuguese king Manoelem with many honors and received the title "Admiral of Indian waters.
The value of Vasco da Gama expedition was to that she opened the sea route to India along the western coast Africa. However, this discovery laid pidmurok Portuguese colonial empire. Due to its superiority in military power and marine Technology Arabs ousted the Portuguese from the Indian Ocean. Large areas Portuguese usually not captured and created on the coast of numerous, well fortified factory. Hence, they attacked the neighboring territory, forcing local chiefs and owners to pay them tribute spices. Gradually they increased its sphere of influence and in 1521 achieved the greatest success - Portuguese factory appeared on the Molucca Islands.
Trade in spices was declared a monopoly (exclusive right), the Portuguese king. Merchants, who brought this product to Lisbon, get 800% profit. To save high prices, King allowed to import spices 6.5 ships per year.
Seizing control the eastern route to India, the Portuguese tried to find the western path. Already after the discovery of America by Columbus squadron led Pedro Cabral opened in 1500 and Brazil announced its property Portuguese king. Here is a small country Portugal created a great colonial empire, Whose population in XV. was about 1 million people.
Fig. Large of Discovery (Atlas of Modern History (XVI - XVIII centuries.) for grade 8, p.. 2 - 3. "Institut predovyh Technologies)
3. Christopher Columbus and his Swimming to America
The first to reach India by the Western traveler tried to Spanish Christopher Columbus (Crist
Fig. Christopher Columbus
The figure in the history of
Columbus was born in Italy. Already with 14 years participated in the voyages to England and along the coast of Africa. Columbus fascinated by Italian Paolo Toskanelli views that Earth felt a bullet, and a western route from Europe to the East - the shortest. Toskanelli made a map of the world where Asia was marked on the west coast Atlantic. By his calculations, the way to China and India through Atlantic was much shorter than around Africa. However Toskanelli wrong in determining the size of Earth and, consequently, the distance from Europe to Asia. Subsequently said that it was a big mistake that led to great discovery.
Map and calculations Toskanelli H. Columbus convinced the ability to reach India, moving on event. With Columbus' journey had opened a new part of the world, which at first called "West-India (West Indies). The name "America" is open Columbus mainland received by traveler named Amerigo Vespucci, who studied the open land, said that it was not Asia, and the "New World". Since these lands were to mark on maps as "Amerigo Earth" and later simply "America."
Based on research Toskanelli, Columbus decided to try to reach the shores of India, sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. Council of Portuguese scientists considered Columbus proposal, acknowledged its unreal. Columbus was in despair. He went to Spain, proposed a draft of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. After liberation from the Arabs of Granada in 1492, which ended the period Reconquista (Spanish reconquista - reconquer) and the Arab presence in the Iberian peninsula, Spain wanted fame and power. Queen Isabella agreed with the proposal of Columbus. Having decided to organize this expedition, she, of course, risked, but its successful completion could bring many benefits for Spain. Under the contract, which signatory H. Columbus to the Spanish king and queen, in case of failure expeditions he has not received any compensation. In case of success, he had become viceroy of open land, get the title of Admiral and the tenth part of goods bought or found in public lands.
August 3, 1492 Columbus' expedition of three caravels - "Santa Maria", "Pint" and "Nino" - a garrison of 90 persons went to sea. The expedition lasted over two months. Sailors could not bear the hardship and demanded their return home. Finally, over 69 days they saw land. On the bank of a small island was installed Spanish flag and declared its possession of the Spanish king called island Holy Saviour - San Salvador. This day, October 12, 1492 is the date the discovery of America. Pursuing voyage, Columbus discovered the islands Cuba and Haiti and returned to Spain. Here he King triumphantly reported on open land to the west, which saw India but gold is not brought about. Royal court was disappointed.
Fig. Discovery of America
As viceroy of new land, Columbus made four trips yet, during which was opened Lesser Antilles, the islands of Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Trinidad, etc., explored the coast of Central America. By the end of life Columbus believed that he opened the earth, "Western India". However, these journeys he never found gold and silver deposits. At the royal court grew discontent Columbus: income from his expeditions barely covered expenses. After the death of Queen Isabella Columbus defenders he was denied all ranks property for the debts sold out, and he died in 1506, forgotten by all.
Opening of Columbus led to increased rivalry between Spain and Portugal for the right possess new lands. For settlement of disputes through the mediation of Pope Alexander VI, both countries signed in 1494 Tordesilyasi in agreement with limit which was held from pole to pole approximately 30-degree meridian, west of Cape Verde. All open land and water meridian west units were Spanish, to the east - Portuguese. However, this separation was done only in the Western Hemisphere. Subsequently, a new collision When opponents of Molucca Islands. Then in 1529 in Zaragoza was signed a new agreement on division in the Eastern Hemisphere in 17-degree meridian of east of the Molucca Islands. So was first in the history of colonial division of the world.
4. First round the world and Magellan its value
After death Columbus members of his expedition continued study of open land. In 1513 Spanish expedition led by Vasco Nunez de Balboa first crossed the Isthmus of Panama, looking fantastic, "Golden Country" - Eldorado. Before travelers opened the Pacific Ocean. However, they did not know its real size and named the Southern Ocean sea. After this discovery idea was revived in the Spaniards find a western route to India.
The first who found western route to India and made the first ever round the world, became Portuguese Fernando Magellan (1480—1521).
The figure in the history of
Magellan more of his life spent at sea expeditions, while serving in Portuguese king. Several times he has been traveling to Molucca islands, and perhaps even then began to think about the path of America to the islands should be reduced.
When Portuguese King sent a 35-year old navigator was dismissed from the beggarly pension that offered his services to the young King Charles II of Spain on the basis of carefully studied secret message Portuguese expeditions returned from South America, and he was offered a bold plan Spaniards. Magellan intention to achieve Molucca Islands from the west: as if they are closer in America than in India, then have them eligible for Tordesilyaskoyu agreement Spaniards. Magellan was convinced he'll find a passage from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific islands and possession of spices.
September 20, 1519 expedition of five ships went to sea and took a course on the west. Travel lasted three years. Magellan reached the southern edge of America and found Strait (she now has a name of Magellan), which is connecting two oceans. During swimming was good weather, and Magellan called the Pacific Ocean. Prolonged swimming was very difficult: the crew suffered from lack of food and water, died of scurvy and other diseases. Most of the expedition perished. Only in spring 1521 expedition reached the island off the east coast led Asia which was later named Philippine. In these islands, in a battle with local Magellan lost tribes. Two ships, which remained under the command of Sebastian d'Elkano (1487-1526), reached the Molucca Islands, and, taking a load of spices, they went home. 6 September 1522 sailors returned to Spain. With five ships survived only one shower with 253 crew left 18.
Cruise Value Magellan was enormous. First was exactly proved that the Earth is a ball, and returned first General information on its size.
5. SUSE Linux people and their civilization
In 1992, when the world celebrated the 500 th anniversary of the first expedition of Christopher Columbus, instead of the usual word "discovery of America" called this event the first time "Meeting of two civilizations." And this, perhaps, more accurately. Columbus opened the way the land populated by people still 25-30 thousand years ago. In the ship logs expedition in 1492 left a testimony of the first meeting of the Columbus H. Indians: "They brought the balls of cotton yarn, parrots, darts and other things that would describe the long and gave everything for any subject, they offered. I was very attentive to them and hard learned, or have These people are gold ...".
These words of Columbus Indians have prophesied the hell that was soon to begin ... Indian civilization will face the onslaught of European asylum light meat, for which only god is gold.
Now it is difficult set, which was destroyed by the invader culture of peoples of America that consisted of several millennia. However, what we know, indicates a high the level of its development. Approximately 4 thousand years ago here there was agriculture. The Indians cultivated unknown culture in Europe - corn, potatoes, cocoa, tomatoes, sunflowers and others. They do not know how to smelt iron did not use such well-known in the Old World achievements, as the wheel, plow, fire arms. Weapons and tools made of stone, wood and more.
У people pre-Columbian America's happened several civilizations – Aztec on Mexican highlands, the Maya of Yucatan peninsula and Guatemala, the Incas in the Andes and the Bolivian highlands, chybcha in mountain areas of Colombia.
In these nations already existed States, there were many beautiful cities, z'yednuvalysya network cobbled paths. Streets were decorated temples and palaces of rulers. Because the river provided a bridge, there was even a post office. <
Maya - the only pre-Columbian peoples of America, which had their own script. Their hieroglyphic writing writing resembled the ancient Egyptians. Books of plant fiber and stored in the pouch. When temples Large library. Maya had their own calendar that could predict solar and lunar eclipse
Further development of Indian civilization was interrupted by European invaders.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. In a letter to H. Columbus Spanish king
"It can ... send all the slaves which can be sold, and barvnykove tree. If the information that I have, true, then ... 4000 can be sold slaves ... In Castile, Portugal, Aragon, Italy, Sicily ... very strong demand for slaves, and I believe they come in insufficient number of Guinea. The servants of this land, if they bring [the mentioned countries], it cost three times more expensive than the Guinean ... A fee for transportation [slaves] will come from the first money received from the sale of slaves. And even the servants die in the road - it is not all of them facing such a fate ...".
October 18, 1498
As stated expression characterizes Christopher Columbus?
2. Excerpt from the diary of one participant of expeditions
"Over the next three months and twenty days, we had no fresh food. Rusk, which we ate were not bread, and dust mixed with worms, mice zapaskudzhenoyu, so unspeakably stinking. Water we drink, was also rotten smerdila. To die of hunger, we ate skin which was covered Tackle ... This skin is caused by water, wind and sun so hardened that it had to macerate in sea water for four or five days. Then we baked it on the coals and ate ..., rats sold for pivdukata for another, but even at that price they could not get it ... We struck disease in which gums rozpuhaly so that upper teeth are covered, and lower jaws; people affected by the disease, could not eat any food. Dev'yatnadtsyatero of us died. For the three months and twenty days, we made four levh one thousand (one levha - about 7 km. - Auto.) This Pacific sea, we named the Pacific because we never were not brown.
On that trip referred to in the above passage?
1.Expand causes and conditions of great geographical discoveries.
2. Tell of the Portuguese expeditions around Africa and on opening the way to India.
3. Tell about swimming J. Columbus to America.
4. Which term you think best: "discovery of America by Columbus" or "meeting of two Civilizations? Justify your choice.
5. Expand historic expedition F. Magellan.
6. On the nations which met the Europeans as a result of great geographical discoveries? Why this meeting modern scholars call "a meeting of two Civilizations?
7. What civilization existed in America before the arrival of Europeans? Describe their level of development.
1492 —Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.
1498-Opening Vasco da Gama Sea Route to India.
1519-1522 biennium - First Voyage around F. Magellan.