INTRODUCTION (textbook)

INTRODUCTION

У This year you continue to study the history of mankind. In previous classes you acquainted with the history of the Ancient World and Middle Ages.

In 8 class you will learn first period of modern history whose events occurred from the late fifteenth to late eighteenth Art. Tentatively, for the events that determined its content may allocate it two parts. The first is called a new era in the early (late XV - first half XVII.). In this periol held such important events in history: Big of Discovery, Renaissance, Reformation and Counter-Reformation. The second part  (The second half of XVII - XVIII century end) passed the mark in the Enlightenment.

Age of discovery were the impetus for far-reaching changes. Thousands of people from European countries went to new lands in search of riches and fame, new territories. Yes, thanks to the great geographical discoveries Western civilization exceeded the bounds of Europe, extending its influence in America, Africa and Asia, significantlyhas changed the lives of people caught in the limits of its action. Much has changed and life of Europe itself. More and more people vtyahuvalos in trade and business activity. The economy has changed its character and turned from a natural for marketable. The vast majority of producers of manufactured not to own consumption and for sale.

The need to increase production has forced people to seek energy sources that can replace beef force. Began using a variety of water and wind devices for extraction energy.

Normal division of human origin remained, but increasingly inferior place another - for professional qualities, the number of capital. The stratum of people who through their professional qualities achieved high status in society. Hlybshaly contradiction between people who had great wealth, but had no political rights, and those who enjoy privileges and political rights but often had no money.

Significant changes in people started the Renaissance worldview. At that time formed awareness that man is the highest value, has the right to comprehensive and harmonious development and implementation capabilities.

Catholic church, which was the basis of the old European society, more and more become the obstacle to the formation New orders. Movement for Reinventing Catholic Church in a society called the Reformation. (The content changes, that occurred in Europe during the Renaissance and Reformation deployment you 'll learn when appropriate theme).

Significant impact Catholic church caused great geographical discoveries, which result has been called into doubt the truth of the views of a world church distributed. Mankind first understand that the world does not end at the beach or ocean. These oceans are the continents where people live too, and they are representatives of one community on the planet.

Old society that was based on the traditions and customs, gradually collapsed, while increasing the number of new European civilization began to follow common sense and their own minds.

There were changes in the polity in Europe: the estate zastupala monarchy absolute. Absolutism became the form of government that is more consistent with interests new social strata. At the same time the society was growing awareness that government should serve society and protect the interests and rights of each of its members.

Ethnic more and more deeply aware of their nationality. It became clear that create the best conditions for the development of the nation can only be in their own state.

The main cEntry of a new society of countries of Western Europe - Italy, England, Netherlands, France, Germany. This is where the new born ideals and social and political movements emerging absolutist state, composed market relations and new social strata emerged. Old traditional society based on natural agricultural and manufacturing sector, destroyed.

Development the East end XVXVIII Art. held otherwise than in Europe. It maintained the traditional agrarian-artisan society as a civilization of the East scholars call traditional. At the time, increased pressure on the country's new European civilization East. The latter, unable to withstand it, became dependent on West of the country.

Thus, age end XVXVIII Art. became the West period formation and development new European civilization rapidly developed, and for the East - sometimes slow rate development, preservation of traditional agro-Craft civilizations.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What period of World History is studied in 8 class? What are its chronological limits?

2. Describe changes occurring in Europe in this period.

3. What Western Europe became the main centers of the new society?

4. As developed Community East in this period?