Introduction (compendium)

death of the Western Roman Empire was the tragic finale of Ancient History and at the same time a new stage of world history - Middle Ages, the era that traditionally define the beginning of its units 476 when the last emperor Romulus znetronyly Avhustula. However, this fact itself was not of decisive importance and his contemporaries did not even noticed. Event, which is the finale of the Middle Ages, consider the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492

So the Middle Ages cover about a thousand years. Most historians divide them into three periods:

1. Early Middle Ages (late V - X century.) - the origin and development of European civilization.

2. developed Middle Ages (the beginning of the XI - XIV centuries the first half.) - flowering of European civilization.

3. Late Middle Ages (the middle of the XIV - XV century end.) - how well the Dutch historian said the twentieth century. Johan Heyzinha - "Autumn of the Middle Ages, the era of lush and beautiful vidtsvitannya medieval culture.

Such periods reflect a western view of history. Indeed, in the middle ages formed Christian civilization (Kievan Rus - one of the stages of the Ukrainian statehood - was also part of her). Other medieval civilizations (Islamic, Far Eastern, South Asian, etc.). That existed in Asia and Africa, joined the title "East".

term "Middle Ages" first entered the Italian scientists in the fifteenth century. trying to determine where the modern world in their history and give a name to the period separating their times of antiquity. Twenty-four hours V - XV century. they sometimes felt the barbarity and cruelty, when it was lost and forgotten achievements of ancient culture. Indeed, while many events happened that a party may in the opinion of the "Dark Ages" in Europe's development. But history is never time wasted in vain. It is for the Middle Ages there were new states competed brave warriors, hard-working farmers cultivated grain. Silent witness of the era is the magnificent architectural monuments that adorn the cities of Europe. Among them - Reims Cathedral, the Cathedral. Sophia of Constantinople, Cologne Cathedral, St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev and hundreds of other attractions. Is it the testimony of beauty and grandeur of the human spirit seen as a manifestation of decline? Of course not. Humanity has not only kept some secrets of the ancient skill, but also greatly exceeded them. While there were such famous literary works like "The Song of Roland", "Poem of Beowulf," "Tale of Igor. In the center of medieval culture - monasteries - accumulated knowledge about the world, monks copied and distributed hand-written book, there were priceless library. Each book was a real piece of art in which the medieval man incarnated train for knowledge and understanding of its beauty.

So what was actually a time - lost time or great epoch in human development, "dark ages" or medieval romantic? No single answer. The truth is both the first and the second statement. A thousand years may not be "good" or "bad." As in human life history in incorporating various events - happy and sad, majestic and tragic.