Germany and the Nordic countries in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. (compendium)

from the XIII century. Holy Roman Empire entered the lane of the crisis and then decline. In 1254 died the last king of the dynasty Shtaufeniv. Empire left their assault on Italy and stopped the futile struggle of the Roman papamy. As the empire began interregnum period (1254 - 1273's). Germany split into many secular and religious domains, cities and individual knight possessions. From that most benefited from the princes who okruhlyuvaly possession and enhance power. Following the formal restoration of power the emperor was so weak that he actually managed only their generic holdings. Imperial rulers closely followed the rise of emperors and the emperor wanted to choose weaker. During the interregnum vstanovyvsya order, when the emperor chose the seven most powerful princes of the empire, called Elector . In the imperial crown claimed by the representatives of the families of Habsburg and Luxembourg.

In the middle of the XIV century. political center of empire moved in the Czech Republic. Emperor Charles IV (1346 - 1378's) was a dynasty of Luxembourg and King of Bohemia at the same time. In his politics he paid attention generic own territory. He rebuilt Prague, founded the Prague University in 1346, but in its policy relied on the German settlers that eventually led to a severe national conflict in the Czech Hussite movement. Charles IV, realizing that to keep the empire under his power he can not, decided to consolidate the status quo, in which only a united empire separate independent principalities, towns and other property. Yes, In 1356 he declared the gold bull that reinforcing fragmentation of Germany .

Bull confirmed the order by choosing a German Elector King majority. After the coronation of King pope became emperor at the same time. Bull reinforcing the privileges of the princes of the high court, development of mines, mint coins, gold mining. Allowed to conduct "lawfully declared" war. But the war against the suzerain vassal was forbidden. Gold bull has basic laws for the Empire until its dissolution in 1806 from the end of XV century. empire was called the Holy Roman Empire Germanic nation .