Mongol conquest (compendium)

In the steppes north of the Great Wall of China lived a nomadic tribe of Siberian Tatars. Among them were the tribe of Mongols. They roamed from pasture to pasture, living in felt yurts. While still in pre-state levels of development, they were divided into large families, linked common origin, language and culture.

From childhood life Mongols (Tatars) was associated with a horse. One of the travelers who visited their country, wrote: "The Tatars are born and grow up in the saddle and the horse, they themselves learn to fight because all their lives year-round goes on the hunt."

neighborhood of the Chinese civilization has accelerated social stratification and selection of elite breeding nomads. This is the basis for state formation. The birth of a single Mongolian state was held in bloody wars between nations during the second half XII - early XIII century. winner in the struggle to unite all the Mongols came Temuchzhyn, who Kurultay (joint congress of leaders of Mongolian) 1204 - 1205 was proclaimed Genghis Khan - "great khan" .

Esuheya Genghis Khan was the son, who in 50 - 60's, the XII century. united the majority of Mongolian tribes. He was born in 1162 After his father was poisoned, and he headed union fell apart, the family found itself in dire straits. When Temuchzhyn grew, he was able to collect his wife and father to continue the case. In a brutal fight Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes, bringing its peremozhnist.

conquered Mongols, Genghis had a series of reforms that ensured him success in aggressive campaigns. He introduced the decimal system of organizing society and army. All of the adult population was divided into "darkness" (10 thousand persons), thousands, hundreds, tens. Ten usually coincide with one Mongolian family.

This division of society as preserved in peace and in war time. At the head of each group were the commanders, who designed the best soldiers. It was a clear subordination of higher learning. Genghis Khan created a personal guard. Family members of those soldiers do not pay tax. He also introduced a system of private property. All society adhered to strict discipline. If one in ten escaped from the battle or betrayed his Khan, the punishment subject to all the others, and if all ten guilty - punished hundred.