Crusades (compendium)

end of the XI century. began the era of the Crusades - military expeditions organized by the Western Christian world to the Holy Land (Palestine) to release Christian shrines from the rule of Muslims. A total of 1096 by 1291 historians have identified eight large crusades. Later, the term "Crusades" began to identify other religious wars, which led the Catholic Church for the protection and propagation of the Christian faith.

reason for the Crusades was the request of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus to Pope Urban II for help in the fight against the Turkish Seljuks. The Pope agreed and urged all Catholics to fight for the liberation of the Holy Land. Thus began the era of the Crusades.

In the First Crusade 1096-1099 he participated in a huge number of participants from many European countries. On the whole campaign reached its goal. If the majority of poor people killed in the first battle with the Turks, the Seljuks, the knight-crusader army reached Jerusalem and took it by storm.

Crusaders conquered lands were divided into several states: Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Kingdom of Antioch, County of Edessa and the County of Tripoli. The main concern was Kingdom of Jerusalem and its ruler titled defender of the Holy Sepulchre. In their countries Crusaders established feudal order model of Western Europe. Each ruler divided his possession on baroniyi (independent ownership from him barons), which, in turn, divided into knightly fief. To protect the Christian possessions in the east were built castles and founded three religious knightly orders - Hospitallers, Templars and German knights - Teutons. Orders have played a significant role in defending the Holy Land.