Glossary of terms and concepts
Abbot - Superior Catholic monastery.
Alchemy - Medieval science whose aim was to seek "philosophical stone " for conversion of various metals into gold and silver.
Anathema - Excommunication, combined with a curse.
Arbalist - A device to shoot arrows with a steel tip.
Assimilation - Mergers of one nation to another.
Asceticism - A form of behavior that involves suppression of desire, renunciation of luxury and even the majority of amenities, restrictions on food and sleep, a physical task suffering for the purpose of remission of sins.
Astrology - The science of communication between the location of celestial bodies and events in the life people, nations, countries, etc..
AUTO-da-Fe Grand-enforcement Inquisition.
Baron - Vassal king, but not hereditary.
Incumbency - The allotment that was provided by King or any other large feudal lords in life-vassals under objection to military or administrative service.
"God Court " - A series of tests (fire, water, iron), after which be imposed sentence.
Boyars - Large landowners in Kievan Rus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moscow State that have passed their possession by inheritance.
Boyar duma - The highest state body of the Moscow principality of XIV century.
Bull - Especially important document, sealed with a metal seal - Bull.
Burghers - Full residents of Western European medieval city.
Vassal - A person who got possession of superior fief for their service.
Vasalitet - The system of feudal relations, personal relationship of some feudal others.
Vatican - City-state within Rome. The official residence of the Pope.
Magna Carta - One of the main legal instruments that provided the right people's representatives control the King.
Migration - Movement IV - VII century. Germanic, Slavic, and other Sarmatian tribes territory of the Roman Empire.
Renaissance (Renaissance) - A period that sign for the transition from medieval culture to modern times, a distinctive feature Renaissance - humanism (humanity). Lyricist applied to cultural heritage antiquity.
Vikings - Scandinavian warriors. In Russia were known as Varangians; in the West - as the Normans, the northern people ".
Stained Glass - Painting with colored glass in windows of cathedrals and town council.
Veche - The name of public meetings in some countries.
Barony - Land belonged Rus feudal and passed by inheritance.
Hanse - Commerce and Political Union merchants, more than 160 German cities led to the city L. There were in XII - XVII.
Hvelfy - Supporters of the popes in their fight against the German emperors.
Duke - Great territorial ruler; in the feudal hierarchy, ranked second only to the King.
Hibeliny - German fans emperors in their fight against the popes.
Guild - Union City merchant.
Gothic - The direction in the European art XII - XVI centuries. For architecture characterized arches, large colorful stained glass windows, light walls, and the building itself was directed up with an infinite variety of forms.
Earl - 1) official, who represented power of the king in a certain district, 2) the feudal title.
Sin - Disturbances in thoughts or actions God's will.
Community - Of people who together possessing instruments of labor and other property. The feature of this association is partial or complete self-government.
Hussite movement - Nationalist and religious movement in the Czech Republic in the first half of XV Art.
Church Tithing - The tax on hold church, which equaled one-tenth of incomes.
Jihad - The holy war that Muslims must wage against the infidels.
Dynasty - Some other kind of monarchs who deputize one another in power.
Doge - Head of Venice or Genoa republics, elected for life.
Domain - Hereditary land ownership King.
Donzhon - Multi-tower, the main Castle building.
Spiritual knightly orders - Of knights, the main business of which was to fight against enemies Christian faith; swore not to marry and live in poverty.
Epidemic - A massive spread of infectious disease.
Bishop - Spiritual head of the administrative-territorial units of the church - Diocese.
Heresy - A religious doctrine that is not recognized by the Christian church.
Heretic - Spreader of heresy.
Hierarchy - A system of strict subordination power of stairs higher.
Iconoclasm - Religious-political movement against honoring icons.
Investiture - The right to appoint senior clerics.
Inquisition - Consistory.
Islam - One of the world religions, common in Eastern countries, Asia and Africa.
Catholicism (Catholic Church) - World Church, was formed due to separation unified Christian church in the western and eastern. Worship is conducted Latin, the church is led by Pope.
Municipal Traffic - The struggle for urban municipality.
Koran - The holy book of Muslims.
Kurtuaziya - Knight rules of conduct.
Elector - Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, which had enshrined the right elect the emperor.
Flax - The same as fer? e.
Scrivener - A person who lends money at interest.
Chronicle - Historical work in which events are sorted by year, chronologically.
Lord - A large landowner in England.
Magistrate - City Council, the governing body of city communes.
Majordomo - The highest official of dynasty Merovingians.
Mosque - Muslim temple.
Internecine war - War between feudal land and power.
Changed - A man who for a fee money exchanges.
Missionary - Preacher of Christianity.
Mysticism - A religious doctrine, which provides direct communication with God.
Monarchy - Higher-man state power that is transmitted mostly hereditary.
Monastery - Residence of monks, separated by walls from the outside world.
Monk - Member of a religious community who made a vow to lead ascetic lives.
Muslim - A person who professes Islam.
Natural economy - The type of economy in which products are made only for work satisfaction needs of the owner, and not for sale.
Servage - Fee dependent feudal peasants, often food-or cash.
Pilgrimage - Journey of believers to the holy places.
Boon - Must work on peasant feudal land.
Pope - Head of the Catholic Church.
Papal region - The territory of the state of the Pope in Central Italy, which lasted until second half of the nineteenth century.
Parliament - The highest legislative authority in some states.
Bourgeasy - City top.
Patriarch - Head of the Orthodox Church.
Duties - Required forced labor of peasants to their feudal lord - servage, boon etc..
Town Hall - House, which housed the local government.
Reconquista - Reconquer the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula territory seized Arabs.
Reforms - Changes, the transformation of some aspects of life.
Sagas - Heroic songs of the Vikings.
Liege - Senior landowner, seigneur, the owner about their vassals.
Cathedral - 1) a large Christian church, 2) meeting the higher clergy within one country or the whole church to decide important issues.
Rolling - Large groups of people who differ in their hereditary rights and responsibilities and place in society.
Stanovoye monarchy - Polity in which power is limited to the ruler a class-representative bodies (parliament, the Reichstag, Cortez, diet etc.).
Sudebnyk - USC.
Sultan - The title of monarch in some Eastern countries.
Schism - Schism.
Taboryty - Representatives of radical movements Hussite movement.
Title - An honorary title that is associated with a particular landholdings (Duke, Earl, Baron, etc.).
Tournament - Knightly duels.
Union - Associations and unions.
Fief - Hereditary land ownership, which gave his liege vassals as payment for service.
Seigneur - Host fief.
Feudal fragmentation - The collapse of the state of independent principalities.
Fibula - Metal buckle made by the English sample pins.
Fresco - Painting work done in water colors crude plaster.
Caliph - Successor Mohammed, The title of ruler and while the spiritual head of Muslims.
Charter - A document which recorded the rules and norms of public life.
The Crusades - European feudal war, supported by the Catholic church under slogan of the liberation of Muslims from Christian shrines in Palestine.
Crusaders - Members of the Crusades. Certainly nashyvaly image on clothing Cross as an award his good intentions.
Chronicle - Historical work, which includes annual and detailed records of events occur.
Centralized state - A country that is controlled in one place, usually the king.
Church - Association, an organization of believers who manages their religious life.
Workshops - Craft unions of one or allied fields.
Monastic orders - Of monks, subordinate to a common center or their charter.
Sharia - Collection of Islamic law.
Masterpiece - A product which had to produce journeyman to master to pass the exam.
Sheriff - Royal officials in the counties of England.
Nobility (From davnonimetskoho "shlaht - family, rock) - a privileged social status in feudal states (Poland, Lithuania, Czech Republic), whose representatives were 'Noble' (knightly) origin.
Janissary - Turkish infantry. Formed mainly of Christians who have children captured.
Label (Turkic "decree") - Golden khans charter that gave the right to Board principalities or specific fields.
Fair - The annual auction.