§ 28-29. Medieval China
· Who is the Son of Heaven? How and why in China confirmed imperial form of government?
· Why changing the imperial dynasty?
· What are the implications for China's little Mongol domination?
· What is the contribution of China to the treasury of world culture?
Fig. Countries in Asia V-XIart.
1. Son of Heaven and his subjects
China by its size and population in the Middle Ages can be put on all singing Christian Europe. On the Edge XII-XIII Art. lived in China around 100 million people - more than in Europe at that time. Chinese considered their state a center of the Earth, and all the people who live around them called barbarians.
Strong central government headed by an emperor in China have developed in III Art. BC From that time until the beginning ХХArt. China has consistently remained an empire. Governor Chinese state called the Son of Heaven. His government passed a legacy and officially no limited. The person of the emperor was sacred. He was considered not only the lord of all people, but also the intermediary between heaven and heaven world. Empire was considered to embody the heavenly order.
Each subject of the empire seen as an instrument for the will of heaven, delivered by the emperor. In Chinese society was strict hierarchy. Below the emperor were high dignitary, usually his relatives. More below - officials who were divided into many levels. In general, officials in China Mandarin. Via officials of the emperor and ruled the empire. To become an officer had to receive appropriate education and exam. For more senior again had to pass exams. All exams were supposed "good people" have expressed that desire. Usually children can better prepare officials the exams. But such a system would provide access to power structures talented people from all walks of life. Those who handed examination of higher level received at the court and place considerable salaries. They respected and later became known as shenshi (ші- Scientist Shen - The one that carries power zone).
Scheme. Management System in China
Emperor - "Son of Heaven"
Nearest future environment (Chancellors, Ministers) - mostly relatives.
Officials of various ranks (about 1 million)
"Good people" (own free) - peasants, artisans, merchants "People play it (personally dependent, including slaves)
In medieval China State and society continued to follow many rules of life that Confucius developed back in the pre BC In the Middle Ages it announced the "first saint. He was called "teacher of 10 000 generations, "Emperor without throne. Built in his honor many churches.
According to the teachings of Confucius and representations of the Chinese, everyone in society should know its place: the governor - Honestly serve and take care of his subjects, the officials - to give him wise Tips and farmers - honest work. Loyalty, obedience, kindness and compassion sense of obligation of, respect for elders and their parents declared major virtues of a noble and decent man. She had to learn 300 main and 300 additional rules of conduct.
If you do not follow standards of conduct and carry out acts of sprouts, it could invoke the wrath of Heaven: earthquakes, floods, war. Sheds Son of Heaven could lose the throne.
The Chinese believed that dead relatives helping the living. But for this it was necessary to ensure the dead all necessary. Over time these things were replaced by paper.
Yes, for the life of the children had their parents Gifts and clothes for coffin burial. If the parents were ill, not Children walking, did not go to visit, do not eat meat. They had to get up earlier to prepare food and water for washing. A warm bed in the evening parents.
From the first centuries BC in China Buddhism spreadThat attracts many sermons charity total equality before suffering promises benefits in return for good deeds and punishment stupid. Buddhism interacted closely with Confucianism. Yes. Buddhists even included Confucius among the deities. In addition to the religions in China were distributed and others particular TaoismWho preached the path to immortality.
A giant statue of Buddha. Western China
A distinctive feature of medieval China was religious tolerance and religious interaction.
1. Suy dynasty in China and Tan
Of IIIArt. BC. BC to the end VІArt. Chinese civilization has experienced a significant crisis. The result of this crisis was final consolidation of the empire as a form of Chinese society. To Moreover, this form borrowed from China and neighboring nations: Japanese, Koreans, Vietnameses.
Having survived the years of crisis, collapse and even extinction Empire in 589, the warlord Yan Jian force Weapons restored the unity of China. He was proclaimed emperor and founded Suy dynasty (581-618 years).
Successor Jan Jiang Jan Ді moved capital in a small old city Luoyang and on zihnav its building 2 million persons. He moved to of 10 thousand China's richest families, placing them under control. City decorated magnificent palaces and parks. In imperial park all year round zelenily tree: winter their leaves and flowers made of silk. Jan Ді decided to connect the two great rivers - the Yellow River and Yangtze and began building the Grand Canal. This water way connected economy north and south and promoted trade. The emperor also strengthened and dobuduvav Great Wall of China, led a permanent war against neighbors.
Great Wall of China. Modern appearance
However, this dynasty was not destined long to keep power. Recklessly domestic and foreign policy resources are exhausted country has not yet had time to recover from previous tests. Finally, the Emperor Yan Ді was killed by conspirators. Suy Dynasty ended.
To elected members of the dynasty Tan (618-907 years). Its the first ruler of the Yuan and Li Li Shymin performed quite prudent policies that ensure prosperity of China. The new rulers had redistribution of land. Hard work of millions of farmers devastated land turned into fertile fields, and brought good harvests. A thought tax system the state has provided significant profits.
Cave B Buddha. China Dynasty Tan
Dynasty Tan conducted active policy of conquest. China long fought against Turks-nomadic and defeated them at the beginning VIIArt. This allowed the empire finally assert control over the Great Silk way. Empire also established its supremacy over Korea, Indochina, Tibet.
Notable changes occurred in the economy and everyday life. Spread cultivation and consumption of rice and tea, which quickly became a traditional Chinese food. Began production of sugar from sugar cane. Applied advanced agricultural technology: the peasants used Eleven types of plows and irrigation wheel of jugs that pryvodylosya in the movement of livestock. Everywhere were water mills. Were first products from china.
Ceramic figure of a horse. China Empire Tan, VIIArt.
Of middle VIIIArt. Power Dynasty Tan began to weaken. On all sides of China imminent aggressive neighbors. Constant war steadily worsening situation of the people. Across country peasant uprising broke out, which was 874 resulted in one of the largest peasant wars. The rebels opposed the tax burden, injustice and greed officials. Peasant army led by Juan Chaocame over the capital. Imperial court fled.
New Tanskoestory of a peasant war
Juan Chao? came from a family that is rich in salt trade. He is fully owned by the sword, fired at skaku Archery, little could read and write, was eloquent.
? Huang Chao? illegally declared himself "a great military leader across the country? Juan Chao rode in the chariot from yellow gold guards were in luxurious gowns and colorful hats. Its closest environment after riding in chariots, accompanied by copper riders. In general became the capital of several hundred thousand people? A few days began large prey. The men bound, beaten with whips and took their property. This is called "cleaning items. Rich and drove rozzuvaly barefoot. All the arrested officials were killing, burning houses, if they could not there is nothing to find and destroy all the noble people.
Juan Chao? proclaimed himself? emperor.
1. What attitude by New T'ang History for Juan Chao?
2. How can explain this behavior rebels?
All public offices Huang Chaoappointed himself close to the rebels. Then they started to behave more worse than the former imperial officials. Their actions have caused a sharp discontent. This helped to quell the uprising. Dynasty Tanreturned to power. But the attack that she suffered from the peasants' war was fatal.
2. China during the Dynasty Sun
The wreckage T'ang State there were numerous small possession. Time of their existence - in 907 of Was 960 - called the "five dynasties and ten kingdoms." Between them there was incessant internecine struggle, during which China united under the rule Dynasty Sun (960-1279 years).
To establish a life in the ruined country, the first Minister sunskoho court Wan Anshi proposed a reform. They predicted streamlining the tax system, establishment of irrigation works, provision of loans to farmers, setting firm prices for all goods and more. Implementation of these change would allow the country to overcome the crisis. But opponents of the minister achieved his resignation and an end to reforms.
By these conditions, the tribes north of China seized chzhurchzheniv. They formed state Jin - Gold (1115-1234 biennium). In the south, which forced the Chinese emperor moved, established a dynasty of South Sun(1117-1279 biennium). In her subject area were the main centers rice, tea, silk production, making porcelain. The state Sun was invented paper, gunpowder, printing, that played a huge role in history. It was here the first time in history released paper money - assignation. Important inventions were made in the military case. Empire Sun was armed with powerful propelling device, incendiary mix of vessels, mobile towers with rams, first gun.
But Military equipment was unable to save an empire from destruction. She continued decompose until the Mongols became prey.
In life consisted of high tables and chairs and couch that pidihrivalysya. Among wealthy citizens, mainly in cities, spread custom bandage Women's feet to contain their growth. Tiny feet were considered the top feminine elegance. The fact that the unfortunate women often could not even move to focus not undertook.
3. Fight China against Mongol oppression. Ming Dynasty
In 1279 China finished conquering Mongols here have established their dynasty - the Yuan (the founder of the dynasty was the grandson Genghis Khan Hubilay).
Assault Chinese city army of Genghis
The domination of the Mongols from China had both positive and negative consequences. On the one hand, Mongol rule was accompanied by numerous victims, destruction of heritage of Chinese civilization, with other - through accession to the system of Mongolian China closely joined in world trade, contributing to its economic recovery. About China since Mongol domination interesting references left Venetian traveler Marco Polo.
The story of Chinese city
"Books about the variety of the world" Marco Polo (XIIIcent.)
City Tayan FuWhere we have come, great and beautiful, trade is lively and industry: producing a huge amount of armor here for Troops great khan. There are many excellent vineyards and wine producing abundance? Lots of silk here: they are many mulberry silkworms worms.
? City Kinsay? best, the largest city in the world? and 12 thousand bridges of stone in it?
? Was there 12 crafts and crafts for each was 12 thousand houses in every home were at least 10 people in some 15 and then 30 or 40, not all, of course, masters, but also workers, as directed by the wizard work? Many there are many merchants and they sell much? By order of the king of all involved in the parent Crafts? Learn another craft, he can not.
Houses good everywhere in this city a lot. Is there a great stone tower, when will fire in the city, residents there demolishing their property, and there is often fire, for wood many houses. Live here? subjected to great khan, paper money in them. In this city? all the streets paved with stones and bricks, and horseback riding and walking go after them well.
In this city? good 4 thousand baths where people nizhatsya; several times a month go there, for purity of body followed, these beautiful bath, and the best nayprostorishi in the world.
1. What descriptions Marco Polo might impress the imagination of Europeans?
2. Through What China has achieved such significant achievements?
After the conquest of China before the Mongols appeared problem: how to control this territory. Without the ability to offer something of his own, the Mongols were forced to adopt a system of Chinese Emperor to the least official. The highest office in the State also took the Mongols. This situation has led to what the Mongols adopted not only management system but language, literacy, culture and others. Despite this okytayennyaMongols past considered themselves superior to the Chinese people and behaved as invaders, strengthening tax oppression. Such recklessness was detrimental implications for government Mongols.
Their policy caused general indignation. From the middle XIVArt. China broke the people's uprising ("Red bandages"), there were repeated attempts to palace coups. Finally, in 1368 one of the leaders of the peasant uprising monk Ju Yuanchzhanaproclaimed emperor. He launched a new Ming dynasty, which ruled China to 1644 The capital of the new dynasty was first city Nanjing, and later her moved to the city DaduWhich had received a new official name Beijing.
Chinese porcelain times Ming
Dostupyvshys to power, the new dynasty restored the traditional Chinese system of governance. It was established normal tax rates. The state took over operation of Irrigation System Restore. Considerable attention was paid to the development of crafts, especially the production of porcelain, silk, paper and glass, that is those products that exported. Began rebuilding and restructuring of Chinese cities.
To demonstrate its greatness, the Ming Dynasty emperors conducted an active foreign policy. They expanded the boundaries of the state to Tibet and Indochina. Organized military expedition to Oceania. Most expeditions (seven) to India, Indonesia, Indochina, Malaysia and even to the shores Africa led by Admiral Zheng Хеin the 1403-1433 biennium
During the Ming Dynasty Chinese migrated to actively Indochina and Indonesia, where Chinese have created a whole village.
Countries in Asia ХIII-XVArt.
4. Development of Chinese Culture in the Middle Ages.
Chinese civilization has created an original and rich culture that has become a real treasure for people of different cultures and civilizations.
One of the foundations of Chinese culture was hieroglyphic writing. It became a model for writing Koreans v'yetnamtsiv, Japan. The need to pass exams to obtain bureaucratic positions led to the discovery elementary and high schools and colleges to increase the number of educated people. Chinese officials were also poets, painters, perfectly possessed the art of writing - calligraphy.
Chinese writing. ІХArt.
The Chinese first invented paper and developed the easiest way of printing books. The text was cut out on wooden boards, filled with the special paint and then printed on paper. Early VIIIArt. China government started printing newspaper "Capital Journal", which existed before ХХArt. There were large library.
The Chinese invented the compass and is dust. In VIIIArt. the country opened Academy of Sciences, in ХVArt. created multi Encyclopaedias history, geography, medicine, art and more.
Detail of Chinese painting
VIII—ІХArt. called "golden age" of Chinese poetry. The poet Li Bai wrote some 30 volumes of lyrical poems, which praised the native nature. Another poet Ду Фуdreamed of a better future, people build huge house and it will shelter "offended millions of poor fate.
Temple of Heaven. Beijing
Significant achievements were the architects of China. They produce style, a sign which had roofs with curved top edge, has become a kind China calling card. This style is made even gloomy building forts, palaces attractive. One of the greatest monuments of medieval China was Forbidden City - the complex of buildings personal residence of the emperor, which was built in the 1406-1420 biennium
The Forbidden City is located in the heart of the Chinese capital Beijing. In City Plan has a rectangular shape. Enter the city could be five symbolic bridge over a river to Golden waters. Man, crossed the bridge, was considered as such, which appeared before the eyes of the emperor. All dozens of buildings and palaces built in one city and the only style plan. In the south focused administrative and official buildings in the north - owned by Emperor and his family. The Forbidden City served as a residence 24 emperors of Ming and Qing dynasties for 491 years.
Original art was China. Artists wrote works on silk fabric or paper, in which zmotuvalys scrolls.
Check how to remember
1. Find out the main features of the East.
2. To which consequences resulting Mongol conquest of China?
3. Name the achievement of medieval Chinese and Japanese culture.
1. Identify key features of China's and Japan in the Middle Ages.
2. Find features of Japan, compared with China.
Questions on consolidation.
1. When the Mongols established its dynasty in China? How is it called?
2. Define features of the Mongol rule in China.
3. When was rebellion red bandages?
4. Who was founder of the Ming dynasty?
5. Describe Ming dynasty.
6. What are the main features civilizations East.
7. What dynasty ruled in China in the Middle Ages?
8. When China was conquered by the Mongols?
9. As called Mongolian dynasty that rules China?
10. Name most peasants rebellions in China.
11. From what has invaders had to fight the Chinese?
12. Describe development of Chinese culture in the Middle Ages.
Think and answer
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