§ 25. North-Eastern Russia. Entities and strengthening of the Moscow State (textbook)

§ 25. Пivnichno Eastа Rus

You know

·        What differed in the development of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality of Novgorod and land?

·        As was stopped German "offensive to the East?

·        About the Mongol invasion and its aftermath.

·        As in the vast north-eastern Russia faced Moscow state?

 

1. Vladimir-Suzdal Principality

Since the 30-ies XII Art. Kievan Rus was disintegrating into separate principalities. To mid-XII Art. Rus split into principalities in 1915, which remained only in the formal dependence on Kyiv. However, this process of disintegration has not stopped: principality continued share, and during the XII Art. political map of Russia resembled a patchwork. On beginning of the XIII Art. on Rusand already there were 50 land-principalities. One of was the most powerful principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal.

North-Eastern Russia has always been far outskirts of east lands. To Article IX. lived here Finno-Ugric and Baltic tribes. Only at the turn IX - X century. here on earth began to move Novgorod Il'mens'ka Slavs, and with пivdennoho event - v'yatychi. From another part of Kievan Rus these lands separating dense and vazhkoprohidni forests, because this region is often called Zalisna. In the annals preserved record of how in the XIII Art. пEid time princely intestine wars forces of the two warring princes lost in the woods, and so the battle never took place.

Why East Slavs moved in deafand God forgotten place that attracted them here? Firstly, between the rivers Volga, Oka and Klyazma was quite suitable for рilnytstva land. On Jellied stretching hundreds of kilometers of grasslands. Dense forests were rich in mushrooms, berries, gave plenty of fur; рichky and lakes infested fish. With hard work the land they could give all you will needdne for human life. Second, Пivnichno East Russ hardly suffered from the attacks of invaders. It does not dokochuvalysya invasion steppe and wife Varangians. For all the invaders were an obstacle impenetrable forest thickets.

В XI – XII Art. when these lands were populated by the most active, near here old cities (Rostov, Murom, Ryazan) there are new - Yaroslavl, Suzdal, Vladimir-on-Klyaz'ma, Pereyaslavl-Zaleski et al. Пidnosytysya Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, which originally called Rostov, then Rostov-Suzdal (by name major cities - Rostov and Suzdal) became a Prince GeorgeNicknamed Dolgoruky.

His прizvysko Yuri Dolgorukov got probably not features of her body. Just during his reign he was constantly put their "long" arm Suzdal, its capital, in various parts of the Rus land, he participated in the prince's intestine wars, trying to conquer other land. He Biв struggle for the annexation of Novgorod interfered in the affairs of distant Galicia-Volyn principality and tried keep a grand throne in Kiev. Constantly fought Yuri Dolgoruky of Volga Bulgaria, who tried to prevent tradeвлand merchants of his principality, blocking the way to the East and Caspian Sea. З named Yuri Dolgoruky linked above mention of Moscow. In 1147 he wrote to his temporary ally мizhknyazivskyh intestine wars Chernihiv Prince Svyatoslav Olhovychs: "Come до me, brother, in The Moscow, asking for talks. This date is considered the future establishment of Moscow - capital of modern Russia. Twice in his life fascinated Yuri Dolgoruky Kyiv, possession of which remains a symbol of superiority to Rus princes. З 1155 he lived in Kiev, however, behaved so that the people of said Prince supposedly they "take." In 1157 by Yuri Dolgoruky died suddenly (for some свidotstvamy - from the poison).

Yuri Dolgoruky attracted to the resettlement of peasants from their land other principalities, giving them the first time рiznomanitni benefits contributed to economic assimilation of new lands. He was one of the first prominent public figures Пivnichno-Eastern Russia by which the land turned into a young and powerful Rostov-Suzdal principality.

When Yuri Dolgoruky пince long Kyiv won the fight and settled there, he moved here and his son Andrew. But Andrew, who did not like Kyiv, against the will of his father returned to Rostov-Suzdal ground. He made his capital Vladimir-on-Klyaz'ma. Пince his father's death he became prince now Vladimir-Suzdal principality - Andrew Bogolyubskii (1157 – 1174 years). He suit, like his father, military campaigns against Novgorod, Volga Bulgaria and Kyiv. However, if the father wanted to take the grand Kyiv throne, the son of vortexished simply destroy the ancient capital Russ. In 1169 Andrew's troops storm Bogolyubsky took Kyiv and robbed him.

Heading home after the destruction of Kyiv, Andrew took the one with Kiev shrines - painted in Byzantine style icon of the Virgin, which was to that of Vishgorod. As свidchyt record, the horse, which would take the trolley from icon stayed on the outskirts of Vladimir, and no power could move them from place. Prince had to sleep in the field. Пid time Andrew pryvydilasya Sleep Lady, who ordered him to establish a church this place, and an icon to take Vladimir. Along with the church and built a prince Palace. His new residence was called Bogoliubov, and the prince - прizvysko Bogolyubskii. Subsequently, this icon was brought to the Assumption Cathedral, in Vladimir, and later to Moscow. Icon of Our Lady Vladimir ", as it became known, was considered mainMuscovy sanctuary?

Бilshist war Andrew walks Bogolyubsky were unsuccessful. In failures he blamed the boyars and arranged massacre. After aoyary-conspirators killed its prince.

Пince power struggle between brothers Andrew Bogolyubsky, became the new ruler Vsevolod Big Nest (1176 – 1212 years). He received his nickname because he had eight sons and вisim grandchildren, all of the following Prince of Vladimir and Moscow to have been Ivan the Terrible, including his descendants.

Vsevolod descended on Duke's throne at age of 22 and reigned 36 Rockyв. Vsevolod had the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir and was considered the end of XII Art. strongest prince in the Eastern Europe. Author of "The Tale of Igor's poetically praised the power Prince:Great Prince Vsevolod! You can Volga rozpleskaty oars, or don their helmetsх Warriors exhaust. Vsevolod continued the policy of his brother Andrew Bogolyubsky, Biв war against its neighbors, but unlike him - much successful. This is not only in the military character of Prince, а йthat he was able first to establish order in his principality.

At the beginning of his reign всand strength Vsevolod directed to fight against the boyars, which did not wish to strengthen princely power. In this struggle, he relied on мIsta and nobility. It is for him in the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality was increased number of nobles - men who served and received by the prince is land revenue and other benefits. Nobles occupied всand main office of the duchy: in the army, judiciary, tax collection. Conquered his power boyars, Vsevolod became more and more to interfere other principalities and wage wars against their neighbors. He made several successful trips to the Ryazan principality and пidkoryv it. Hike Prince Vsevolod of Volga Bulgaria in 1183 was also ended with a brilliant victory. Long struggle he Biвand how to conquer the land of Novgorod, but failed to achieve this.

Another lifetime Vsevolod began to some put their sons. Пince the death of Vsevolod Big Nest 1212 was only Vladimir-Suzdal Principality was redistributed into seven separate principalities, where Vsevolod ruled children.

In the first half XIII Art. Пivnichno East Rus split into separate land-Duchy.

 

2. "Mr. Big Novgorod "

Special among the Rus principalities Villageidav Pan Novgorod "How respectfully called his contemporaries. Novgorod land covering a vast territory Пivnichno-Western Russia: from the Baltic Sea in the west to Ural Mountains to the east and from the White Sea and Arctic Ocean on the coast north to the Volga and Oka Rivers in the south.

In these lands was colder climate than in the Dnieper Basin and Пivdenno-Western Russia, and not as fertile soils. So occupation of the population of these lands, except рilnytstva was animal husbandry, farming, hunting, fishing and more.

З in ancient times Novgorod there was a kind, different from other lands, principalities, social and political System. To Novgorod was customary to call and invite the prince to the throne. Indexes у Novgorod was not. From 1095 to 1304 was, about 200 years on the throne of Novgorod 58 times changed princely power. Prince was, first, head of military wives that ledwith you. Prince's wife was, however, only smallpart of the Novgorod troops, the bulk of which constituted militia. So never princes, leaning on his wife, could not seize power in the city. Novgorod could turn back the prince, if believed he bad protects their interests, but Sometimes the rulers and tried to break the old law Novgorodв.

Critical to determine the relationship мIJ Novgorod and their prince had events in 1136, when Novgorod found unable to protect the city of Prince Vsevolod Mstyslavovych (Grandson of Vladimir Monomakh) and cast it out. Since then, when a new invitation Duke concluded with him specialialnu agreement - number. By Prince forbidden by contract interference case mIskiv management, unfairly punish Novgorod, change of officers and acquire property in the Novgorod land. Prince finally turned into official who had power and was higher пidporyadkovana vichu - People's Assembly.

The supreme authority у Novgorod was assembly. It consisted of, but not the entire male population, but only 400 - 500 richest Novgorod - big and rich Boyars merchants. Farmstead was higher as Novgorod society. That's rich boyar families were kept in theirх hands of the leadership political life of the city. Boyars owned lands лisamy, fish grounds, which gave them furs, honey, wax, fish and other products. Rich gifts of land Novgorod merchants traded, also played pivotal role in city life. Foreign and domestic trade was the major source of wealth Novgorod. Actually in Novgorod earlier than in other cities Russ appeared association merchants developed a system providing loans and loans. Novgorod merchants owned large warehouses, barns, рichkovymy and ships. Theybuilt the magnificent stone buildings and beautiful churches.

In the eyes of Novgorod elected representatives of the main urban power: the governor, the chief captain and commander (architectiyepyskopa).

 

Powers Senior Officials people Novgorod Republic

Posadnik

Archbishop

Tribune

Managed   all the Novgorod land.

Headed   Novgorod court.

Appointed   and dismissed officials.

Managed   the activities of the Prince.

Served   Prince of troops.

Tue   negotiations with other countries

Kept   treasury.

Headed   "Council of Lords.

Managed   for trade measures.

Supervised   foreign policy.

Headed   consistory.

Supervised   Chronicle of Novgorod.

Mav   served the people and their own regiment

Supervised   urban population.

Collected   taxes.

Command of   urban militia.

Headed   Commercial Court

 

Thus, пince the events of 1136 Novgorod, in the government dostupylasya City aristocracy - Boyars, merchants and the Archbishop. Ustanovylasya form StateBoard, which was called the aristocratic republic, where real power belonged to the urban aristocracy.

Novgorod was one of the largest Eст Europe. There are already 1044 stone стInam was surrounded by Detinets - City, not later XII Art. wooden walls on the earthen rampart surrounded the entire city. Novgorod was for its time мistom high culture. Streets covered timber paving, which is constantly updated, there were complex drainage systems withdrawal of groundwater. Novgorod was perhaps the only city in the medieval Europe, where most of the population was literate. Пid the excavations, archaeologists found more than 800 Berestiany letters, which did business and household accounts, children were taught literacy, written notes to his wife, wills, poems, letters, loved, promissory notes, etc. Even simple carpenters marked letters logs in log houses.

In Novgorod there were many beautiful architectitekturnyh monuments. The son of Yaroslav the Wise built here Hagia Sophia, which became rival its beauty and monumentality Sofia Kiev. Pleasantly surprised visitors with their harsh, restrained and stately beauty Antoneva cathedrals and monasteries of St. George, Church of Our Savior on its Neredytsi beautiful murals and many other attractions. Left and right bank of the Novgorod z'yednuvalysya the famous bridge over the river Volkhov. This bridge always elucidated relationships in pugilism warring political factions, of it dumped in Volkhov sentenced to death penaltycriminals.

 

Hagia Sophia уNovgorod. XI Art.

 

3. Neva battle of Armageddon and Ice

During the XIII Art. all the Baltic countries, except Lithuania, appeared пid Crusaders power. Knight approached the north-western border Rus principalities, but were not going to stop because serious resistance not hope to meet.

Struggle Russians on the ground proved more difficult than imagined Crusaders. Ruski Princes ably commanded his wife, who caused a lot of significant lesions knight. Yaroslav Vsevolodovich led Novgorod and Pereyaslav army utterly defeated the Crusaders in 1234 р. пid St. George. Spring 1238 Prince Danilo Galician defeated the Teutonic knights, who took over the town Dorohychyn. According лitopystsya, Daniel declared on the eve of battle: "not right to keep our homeland kryzhevnykam (Crusaders)! " It was the first victory of Rus princesв over invaders.

But this fighting did not stop. Mechonostsi and Teutons, having 1237 by significant losses in the fight against the Ruthenians united. The eastern part of the Teutonic order was called the Livonian Order. Із Germany came to the rescue many new groups of knights and began to prepare for a new offensive.

First strike caused the Swedes. Влitku 1240 , they landed on land near Novgorod Republic the mouth of the Neva River and moved to where it flows into the river Izhora. Part Swedish knight landed on the left bank of the Neva River and smashed there TableIP, and some remained on ships near the camp.

When landing on Swedes learned 18-year Novgorod prince Alexander Y. He decided to act quickly and рishuche. At the head of a small Novgorod wife, he moved towards the enemy and June 15, 1240 was suddenly attacked the Swedish TableIP. After a fierce battle the Swedes fled shamefully to their ships, leaving the camp and wounded, and sailed home. Killed in the battle over 200 noble knights, and others - "many". Victory over the Swedes brought Duke Alexander Ya loud and glory andм’я Nevsky.

That same year, attacked the German knights. They captured the Pskov and всiyeyu Pskov land and entered the Novgorod land. Struggle against the invaders again led by Alexander Nevsky. He redeemed units of knights Pskov and Pskov land and sweatм moved to west - against the main forces of order. Decisive battle took place April 5, 1242 by the crisis Peipus lake and ended his brilliant victory Rusychesв. It named Ice Battle.

 

Ice Battle on April 5, 1242

 

Prince Alexander Nevsky arranged his troops on the lake so that the battle itself unfolding of its crisis. He took into account that at its crisis пihoti be easier than man-knight-cavalryman. German army knights pobuduvalosya their usual formations - blunt wedge. Went before heavily armed horsemen, and behind them - пihota. His wedge knights tore always fighting the enemy on orders of two parts, and then surrounded and destroyed them. Alexander decided to use it and placed most powerful groups on both Bokiyв, On the flanks. In an ambush fit Princely the wife. When the battle began, German wedge absorbed into the center of the Ruthenian troops and firmly stuck in the ranks пihoty. On both sides вidrazu Rusyches struck by mixing the enemy ranks, and suddenly struck the rear of the prince wife. Crusaders fled. Light the April ice could not stand the weight of shell-bound knights and their horses, and they drowned in the lake. Ruski wife utterly defeated the Crusaders: 500 knights died in battle, 50 got in captivity. Soon the ambassador of the Order came to Novgorod, solemnly declared aboutrenunciation of claims to land and asked the Russians to release prisoners.

нastupnoho rockу Crusaders repeatedly tried resume the offensive, but every time the armies of Alexander Nevsky reflect those attacks. In 1243 peace was concluded by which the border between the installed Novgorod and the Livonian Order. Victory over Rus princes knights-crusaders recent foiled plans under the banner of Christianity conquer these lands.

 

4. Mongol invasion, Golden Igo

In the early thirteenth century. in the distant plains north of the Great Chinese Wall on the power of Chinhishana`united the Mongol tribes. Europeans often called the Mongols "Tartars", the title of one of the tribes that conquered the Mongols.

 

Genghis Khan. Chinese photography

 

Future great Mongol khan Temuchzhyn born between 1155 and  1167 , the (Chinese and Iranian sources cite different dates for hisrevival). In ancient Birth Temuchzhyna legend states that he was the son of blue wolf and wild deer. In fact his father was a chieftain of the powerful families пivdennyh Mongols. His father the great Khan poisoned when a boy not yet eight years. Headed by a father association Mongols disintegrated. When Temuchzhyn пIdris, He gathered his wife and proceeded to restore power father. In dramatic fight he has proven by step to destruction. However Temuchzhyn ableв unite the majority of Mongolian tribes. He was considered mercy and пidstupnym on enemies. If necessary, he could retreat, and to achieve my goals used any means. Yes, Temuchzhyn not stopped even before the murder of his brother whom suspected of collusion. Through his own efforts he was a hard road of napivzhebraka to the leader of all Mongols. In result of 1206 on Kurultay(Meeting) leaders of the tribes, who recognized his authority, proclaimed Genghis Temuchzhyna Khan (King of the Universe "). It was founded by the Mongolian government.

Conquered a majority of the Mongols, Genghis Khan made number of transformations that strengthened his power and later contributed to success in aggressive campaigns. In particular, the decimal system was introduced organization of society and the army.

All of the adult population was divided into Tumen (10 thousand people), thousands, hundreds and tens. Ten usually coincide with one Mongol family. This division remained as in peace, or in wartime. Led Each unit (tens, hundreds, and so on) were the commanders who were appointed with the best soldiers. It was a clear subordination of higher learning. If at least one of the top ten escaped from the battle or betrayed his Khan, the punishment was subject to all tens, if guilty of treason was a dozen in total - was punished hundred.

These transformations helped to create a mighty Genghis Khan army. This relatively few people (about 100 thousand soldiers: in nomad warrior was a quarter or a third) has managed to subjugate his power half of the world. First aggressive campaign was directed against Mongol China (Empire Jin).

 

Mongol conquest

Date

Event

1211

Start the Northern conquest Genghis Khan   China

1219-1223 biennium

Conquest of the Mongols of Central Asia

1221

Conquest of the Mongols Caucasus

1223

Battle of the Kalka River between   Ruthenian polovtsi and Mongolian troops. The first meeting of the Ruthenians with the Mongols

1229

Hobby Korea

1236

Destruction of the Mongols Volga Bulgaria

1237-1241 biennium

Conquest of the grandson of Genghis Khan Batuhanom   (Khan) Rus lands

1241-1242 biennium

Batu trip to Central and Eastern   Europe

50-60-ies   XIII.

Conquest of the Mongols   Iran, Syria and Mesopotamia

1258

Getting the Mongols in Baghdad

Late 50-ies
XIII.

With the submission of the southern provinces under   Mongol rule was always China

1274, 1281

Two attempts to conquer the Mongols Japan   encountered errors

 

Following the war with an empire of Jin Kurultay approved rishPower saving on great western march to complete the war against Polovtsian and now punish Volga Bulgaria and Russia. The Mongols are not accustomed to forgive insults. For more in 1223 Russians Kuman wife and gave battle on the river Kalka Mongols who were involved reconnaissance trip in the Black Sea steppes.

 

Battle Kaltsi on May 31, 1223

 

Headed march grandson of Genghis Khan Batu (Batu). His advisor was the very first Subede (Subuday). Mongolian Army (30 - 40 thousand soldiers) has moved to the west. The first Bulgaria has become a big victim. Пince of the Mongols came to the borders of Ryazan principality. Batu sent to ryazantsiv goods and servicess to "tithe" that is required to give him a tenth of People, horses and weapons. What Ryazan Prince George replied: "Only when we are not will be your everything. He lost the battle ryazantsi. Mongols пince the brutal siegesand tookRyazan, the inhabitants were destroyed. Died and the prince. Rozoryvshy Ryazan, horde has moved on Vladimir-Suzdal principality. Along the way the Mongols caught up squad Ryazan boyar Yevpatiya Kolovrat. 1700 soldiers bravely attacked the horde causing her significant losses. However, all the characters died. Vladimir-Suzdal Prince George Vsevolodovich departed on пivnich their possessions gather strength, giving orders to defend Vladimir-on-Klyaz'ma. The Mongols took the city was besieged and conquered it. Princely family was killed. By Sam Duke negligence was suddenly attacked by the Mongols in the camp on the riverі СITI and was killed together with his army.

Pohrabuvavshy principality, the Mongols went to Novgorod. On the way they stayed for two weeks пid walls Torzhok town, which bravely oboronyalos.

Spring slush and lost Batu forced to turn back. In the upper course of the Oka horde suddenly jammed on the next seven weeks Kozelsk. "Evil Town", as he called the Mongols, was finally taken, and всand its inhabitants were killed.

Пince the rest and replenishment in 1239 again, the horde off for a hike, now the south. Rozoryvshy Chernihiv and Pereyaslavskoe principality, winter 1240 surrounded by Mongols Kyiv. Kyiv by defense воyevoda Dmitry, delivered by Prince Daniel Chee. Kiyani bravely defended themselves, but the Mongols in Near the gates burst into Lyadsky мIsta. Recently § Kyiv defense was Church of the Tithes. Brave defenders were killed пid rubble of the church. Wounded воyevoda Dmitry captured the Mongols. His courage admiration among the Mongols, and by order of Khan, he was saved lives.

After the annexation of Kyiv Batu moved further west. He fire and sword Scanned lands of Galicia-Volyn principality, burned Vladimir and Galich other cities.

Rozoryvshy Ruthenian principality, the Mongol armyв not stopped. Hike in Europe, as всthe previous one was carefully prepared. The Mongols went for Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Dalmatia, Serbia, Bulgaria. Back in the steppes of the Mongols established in the Black Sea and Caspian plains state, called the Golden Horde, which is setting his dominion; became a significant factor in the further history of Rus knyazivst.

 

5. Start the rise of Moscow

1147 was considered to be the year establishment of Moscow Under the reign of Vladimir-Suzdal Prince Yury Dolgoruky. But center independent principality, it was only in the XIII Art. пince Mongol-Tatar invasion. Probably it was the first Duke Michael Yaroslavych Brave (1247 – 1248 years). The final selection of Muscovy dates back 70 years we XIII Art. Until Moscow principality included доcomposition Vladimirsky principality.

Pioneers of the dynasty of Moscow rulers was the young son Alexander Nevsky - Danilo. This udilneprincipality was one of the smallest. It went around Moscow radius of 40 km. By Daniel A., the first territorial acquisition: 1301 he took in the Ryazan principality Kolomna, 1302 by will, the childless Prince masteredвPereyaslav. In 1303 , his son George captured in the Smolensk principality Mozhaisk. Yuri allhis life spent in the fight against the prince for Tver Grand Duchy Kursk, but was killed in one of the clashes. After his death the prince became a brother John D. Kalita (1325 – 1341 years). Word "World" means "money bag". It was Prince-miser. His wealth went to the legend, but it could all fit in one chest. Possession Kalyta were much smaller than modern Moscow region. But by his rule there were significant changes that have changed the fate of Moscow principality.

У 1325 by Ivan Kalita transportation до themselves residence prystarkuvatoho Metropolitan Peter Galician pipes. Through рIC Peter died. He was buried in unfinished Assumption Cathedral. After some time Peter is glorified as a saint. The presence of the relics of saints Peter and Residences Metropolitan of Moscow turned into a spiritual center Пivnichno East Russia and Moscow's rulers began to claim political supremacy in the region. Important growth in Moscow is the transition of service to the Prince of Moscow boyar families from various cities of the former Kievan Rus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Fondest dream Muscovite princes were to get a shortcut to great khan's reign, and that meant the right was increasedр tribute to the Golden Horde. Moscow's main rival in the struggle for the label was Tver principality. In struggle between principalities used any means: пidstupy, Donoso, murder. Finally, the label in 1328 was reached Ivan КPoured. Ivan Policy Kalyta continued his sons and grandchildren.

 

6. Board Dmitry Donskoy. Kulykovska battle

In 1362 Moscow became the prince dev'yatylitniy Dmitri Ivanovich(1362 - 1389's). Young Prince had to defend their great reign in the fight against rivals: Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Tver princes. Also in Moscow, a new enemy - Lithuania. Duke Algirdas in 1368, 1370, 1372 go journeys to Moscow and twice took her to the siege.

На вidminu from its predecessors, most of Dmitri issues resolved by force rather than guile and deception. Almost every рIC he had to fight. In 1375 Dmitri, organizing a big campaign against Tver, forced to acknowledge its authority and renounce any claims to the great reign. He also stopped to pay tribute to the Horde and first of princes handed power to his son BasilAnd without the permission of the Horde. In the old union мIJ Moscow and Horde has been disconnected. Moscow announced its intention to rid Mongol domination. Contributed to the implementation of this policy that the Horde there was a struggle for power between the governor's mother, who spread its power in possession of its western and Tohtamyshem that subdue serednoazvyski possession.

But it was clear get rid of that Mongol rule will not be easy. Both sides carefully preparing for the final battle. Mamay gathered a huge army (according to different information - from 100 to 200 thousand troops) of the Tatars and the Genoese mercenaries, and also formed an alliance with the Lithuanian Prince Jagiello, who moved to help Mamays the 80-thousandth army. Dmitri Ivanovich also fromwaslarge army - 100 - 150 thousand

The two armies clashed on Kulikovo fieldWhere Don falls рichka Nepryadva.

Dmitri troops lined up in four lines: front Located guard regiment, followed by the regiment was advanced, which, as simple warriors, was Dmitri himself. Next - great regiment, which flanks shielded from shelves Liвоth and right hands. Behind was Reserve Regiment. Also, Dmitri caused an equestrian strong squad to regiment Ambush. Tatars placed its troops so as to cover the war from Dmitri flank, surround and destroy them.

If you believe the chronicler, the battle began in the morning August 8, 1380 р. hertz of the Tatar воbers Chelubeya and Ruthenian Alexander Peresvyeta. Rozihnavshy their horses, both воyiny happened in a desperate fight, and both fell dead. Пince the bulk of the Tatars moved in attack. Zim'yavshy regiment advanced and regiment left hand, Tatars began to surround the main force Muscovites.

 

Morning on the field Kulikov. From paintings of Jack O.

 

In decisive moment of the ambush struck the rear of the Tatars Ambush regiment, which рishuche changed the course of battle. Tatars began to retreat. Retreat into a runaway. The Tatars were defeated. For Victoryon Kulikovo field Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy called. This victory, though not finally put an end to the Tartar domination, but пidirvala Horde forces.

 

Battle Kulykovska September 8, 1380

 

Destroyed Mamaia Tohtamysh grabbed Khan and executed. It restored the unity of the Golden Horde пid Tohtamysha authorities. In 1382 he suddenly пidstupyv to Moscow burned it. Dmitri quickly rebuilt the capital, but he again had to accept the supremacy of the Horde and even hostage to send his infant son Basil.

Himself Dmitri died suddenly in 1389 In history, he remained as an organizer victory in the Kulikovo field and first builder of stone walls around Moscow. These walls were built of white stone, and since it is called white-stone. Except that Thessalonica made another deal, which had far-reaching consequences for Moscow State. He changed the system of succession of the throne, which existed with Kievan Rus. He has made of his brother Vladimir A. that became famous during the Battle of Kulikov and was nicknamed the Brave, abandon in favor of law prestolonastupnytstva son Dmitri - Basil. Now the power of the grand duke and later king, passed from father to son, and not a brother. Another consequence of the Board Dmitry Donskoy was the final Moscow's victory in the struggle against Tver for possession of the Grand Duchy Vladimir, which finally became a fief of Prince's successors. This fact Moscow has turned into one of the regional leaders (along with the Horde, and Lithuania), which changed the situation in Eastern Europe.

 

Formation Moscow centralized state (XIV-XVcent.)

 

7. Formation of the Moscow State. Ivan III

After the death of Dmitry Donskoy was succeeded by his son Basil I (1389 - 1425's). Вothers not marked nor a resounding victory, nor significant reforms. However, his rule was a first attempt to join large estates and established that Socialnu base on which power rested Grand Duke - Boyars. These were big landowners who received their land inheritance and came from families of autonomous princesв.

У 1393 Basil I was abolished and annexed the principality of Nizhny Novgorod him to Moscow. But on the way for further acquisitions in Lithuania and Moscow became the Horde.

1925 Board already in the new, XV Art. have been to Moscow severe: three wars against Lithuania, the first attacks of Crimean Tatars пid Yedyheya led in December 1408 was that was too devastating for Moscow; permanent conflict with Novgorod, and in addition death eldest son, successor to John, which led to the resurgence of old conflicts - who will rule after the death of Grand Duke - a son, brother or nephew.

Defeated  in the internecine struggle Vasilyй II, in which This fight has lost sight, for which received Dark nickname.

Basil ІІ (1425-1462 biennium) continued Moscow's policy of strengthening as a center Пivnichno East Russ. Anyone who zazihav his power, subject to destruction. The success of his policy were not provided with personal qualities (he was an ordinary, weak and пidstupnym), and his advisers. Hisshortsighted, he found particularly compelling in the will, which again peredilyv principality of portions for children. Fortunately Moscow, previous centralist policies put down roots so powerful that the new decay possession did not happen.

His successor, John III (1462-1505 biennium) continued the policy established his predecessors. У 1471 р. Moscow army moved in Novgorod. In Sheloni was a battle in which Novgorod were defeat. Novgorod was in dependence on Moscow. In 1492 , the Novgorod veche bell - a symbol of independence, was shot and taken to Moscow. Since всand Novgorod land finally joined the Moscow State.

From Novgorod land joining the main rival of Moscow - Tver - were in environment, and in 1485 he recognized the tverychi John III. That same year, John III declared himself a "sovereign of All Russia", in official documents began to appear name "Russia". Besides his marriage to the Byzantine Princess Zoya (after Baptism - Sofia) Paleologue allowed Moscow to claim as a center of Orthodoxy After the death ofі Вizantiyskoyi Empire. There dubious theory that Russia - then the third Rome. To substantiate their claims Moscow borrowed state emblem Вizantiyi - double-headed eagle.

The growing power allowed Ivan III finally Mongolian rid of dependence. In 1476 he stopped to pay tribute, but in 1480 , when Ahmed Khan moved to Moscow army brought him to meet itsє. Week had two armies on opposite banks of Acne, not daring to start a battle. Finally, November 11, 1480 р. Khan army retreated. This day is the date the fall of the Mongol-Tatar yoke.

When Grand Duke existed advisory Body - Boyarskaya Council, whose members appointed by the prince from among the nobility. By Thinking Tips Princes usually dosluhalysya.

The important thing John III was creation in 1497 , the first anthology of laws Moscow state - Sudebnyka. It was clearly defined powers officials people, The rules of punishment for crimes. Sudebnyk also launched a legal registration of farmers from their dependence landowners. It was found Yuriyiv day (26 November), a week before a and a week in which farmers were allowed to move to a new owner. Besides John III initiated a central government institutions - the orders that were responsible for certain entrusted their land management state.

So, by John III was basically completed the consolidation of land Пivnichno East of Russia in Moscow a single state, strengthened power of the grand duke, who was named the sovereign. On map of Europe has a new centralized state that led the fight for fiveanuvannya in Easternій Europeі.

 

8. Culture of the Moscow State

Mongol-Tatar invasion finally identified rizbizhnist historical fates of different parts of the former Kievan Rus. It respectively had a significant impact on the cultural processes. Those regional differences that existed during Rus became even more palpable. Culture North-Eastern Rus formed on the basis of cultural heritage Vladimir-Suzdal, Novgorod, Pskov and other principalities.

Mongol-Tatar invasion caused significant damage to the culture of this region: the ruined and destroyed many monuments`monuments, lost large number of craft specialties, reduced to a minimum demand for art works; interrupted tradition in the culture. Only on the verge of XI-XIIIVArt. was essentially a revival of cultural life, and since XIVArt. began to rise. Center was the rise of Moscow. It was connected`due to the fact that Moscow became the center at`unity of land north-east Russia, and later led the fight against Mongol-Tatar yoke.

Vivid revival of cultural life was stone`yane monumental building by the end of XIVArt. gained wide scale. True stone`wooden buildings of the Moscow masters substantially inferior samples of Vladimir-Suzdal architecture. The works of architects in Moscow Zvenihorodi Zagorsk and which have been preserved to our times - is relatively small temples. All attempts to restore self-building of large churches did not success. Thus, with the erection of the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow, he collapsed. Only after invitation of the Italian masters could not implement ambitious projects Moscow Tsars. Although Moscow Kremlin architectural ensemble was built by with the Italians, he had all the features characteristic of Russian culture.

The first stone`wooden wall Moscow Kremlin were built by Dmitry Donskoy. Built of brick increased he gave the name of Moscow `wooden protein. However, Ivan III received the walls of the Kremlin red brick. Along the perimeter walls of the Kremlin, which had a triangular shape in plan, have 2.25 km, thickness - 3.5-6,5 m in height - 5-19 pm At the same time was built in 1918 (later two) watchtowers.  At that time the Kremlin was the most powerful European fortress, erected in accordance with the then military equipment.

Building is considered the jewel of the Kremlin Assumption Cathedral. Constructed on the model's Cathedral in Vladimir. He became Metropolitan cathedral church of All Russia. Here vinchaly in the kingdom, collecting Zemsky Sobor. At the Cathedral Square was built Archangel Cathedral. As Shrine of the great princes. Some previously built Hranovytu Chamber - premises for ceremonial receptions, including the participation of foreign ambassadors. Architectural distinction buildings have domes and onion in a tent chotyrohskatni roofs.

But the contribution of artists in Muscovy treasury of world culture is not limited to architectural ensemble of the Kremlin. Iconography became the hallmark of Muscovy. The most prominent was iconographer Andrei Rublev. He painted churches in the Holy Trinity Monastery (city Zagorsk) Zvenigorodka, Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir. In the works A.rublova attracts desire to express dream of a peaceful, balanced spiritual world of people who selflessly serve high ideals. His most famous work is the icon "The Trinity". Traditional Bible story filled with deep poetic painter and philosophical sense. In the canons contradicted it in the center of one song posted  chalice - the symbol of sacrificial death. Three Angels placed in a circle. All elements of the icons are in harmonious combination. Passing the main idea of the work - self-sacrifice as the highest state of mind which creates harmony of life.

New historical realities impact on the Literature Northeast Russia. After a short break tradition renewed chronicle. In principle, became increasingly important tradition include the initial chronicle of the new code of stories about the history of Kievan Rus - "Tale of Bygone Years, or selections from it. Another tradition is the chronicle describe events in high-key and patriotic call to unite lands former Kievan Rus.

Nayvyznachnoyu literary memory yatkoyu era is Lavrentiyivskyy record, which proves to the description of events in 1305 First Moscow chronicles`appeared only at the beginning of XVArt. Concluded metropolitom Kyprianou it contains information about all the land of the former Kievan Rus. In mid XVArt. in Moscow`is and the first world history - Chronograph.

Patriotic enthusiasm, which covered North-Eastern Russia in connection with the fight against Mongol-Tatar yoke were print and on folk art. Epic heroes of Kievan Rus became the champions against the Tatars. In XIVArt. concerns the emergence of new folk genre - historical songs. An example of this - "Song of Schelkana Dudentiyovycha "which found a description of actual events in 1237 in Tver - anti Horde uprising.

Pearl literary creation of the period was the poem "Zadonschynpa, established shortly after ryazantsem Zephaniah Kulikov Battle. It is full of joy and pride in the victory. Complements details of the legendary Legend of the Battle Mamaeva.

In North-Eastern Russia continued and preparation of "Lives of" ascetic Orthodox Church (Metropolitan Peter, Sergei Radonez).

Popular in Russia and descriptions were travel in other lands. Literary landmarks in Memory`Yatkoyu є "Hodіnnya three seas "Tver merchant Athanasiusія Нікітіon Icue fate potrapv to distant India. In addition to descriptions of other countries and peoples of the work reflects moral character by his inviolable commitment to the country and the Orthodox faith.

 

Check how to remember

1.      When the process of political disintegration of Russia?

2.      Name the most powerful state that emerged on North-Eastern territories of Russia.

3.      During that the princes of Vladimir-Suzdal principality received their nicknames: Yuri Dolgoruky, Andrew Bogolyubskii, Vsevolod the Big Nest?

4.      When only one of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality was divided into Private land-principality?

5.      He played a crucial role in the management of Novgorod land?

6.      With battles that princes of Rus principalities stopped Crusaders advance to the East?

7.      What Olesandr Yaroslavych got his nickname Nevsky?

8.      Which battle was called "Battle Ldove?

9.      What Ruthenian principality first to face monologues Tatar invasion?

10. Define chronological framework of the Mongol invasion of Russia?

11. What year Moscow was founded?

12. Who was founder of the dynasty of Moscow rulers?

13. What principality was a rival in the battle for Moscow on`unity of land Northeast of Russia?

14. When held Kulykovska battle? Who won in it?

15. What year Moscow State got rid of the Mongol-Tatar dependence?

16. What is Sudebnyk? During the great prince which he`appeared?

17. Name Points cultural achievements of the Moscow State?

 

Think and answer

1.      Discover the causes of political disintegration of the Kiev Russ.

2.      Identify the features of Vladimir-Suzdal principality.

3.      Why not in Novgorod svormuvalasya own Sovereign dynasty?

4.      Why Moscow became the center of the union of lands North-Eastern Russia? What policies held the first princes of Moscow?

5.      How consisted relationship with the Muscovite princes Horde, as influenced пidnesennya Moscow?

6.      Describe the Board of Dmitry Donskoy. For what it received прizvysko Donskoy?

7.      What impact has Kulykovska battle for the future development Пivnichno East Russia?

8.      What has caused internecine struggle betweenDmitry Donskoy descendants? What were its consequences?

9.      What is the role of Ivan III in the fusion of land Пivnichno East Around Moscow Russia?

10. What are the main Cultural Resources of the Moscow State?

 

Perform the task

1.      Compare cause disintegration of the empire Charlemagne and Kievan Rusі.

2.      Make a plan to 'Mr Novgorod and пidhotuyte story behind it.

3.      Identify the main features of policy of Ivan III.

4.      Fill in the table: "Culture of the Moscow State"

 

Outstanding`tents

Short description

Architecture

 

 

Painting

 

 

Literature

 

 

5.      Identify the basic features of the culture of the Moscow State.

 

For the curious

What is the purpose of`appeared on the theory of Moscow as the Third Rome?